Building a WAN

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Building a WAN Powered By Docstoc
					Building a WAN
      TDJ3M7
  Northview Heights
  Mr. Zaheer Bhyat
Introduction
The following slides offer a presentation identifying
the steps necessary for designing a simple Wide
Area Network, including:
              •A schematic diagram of the network
              •An IP addressing structure
              •Media connections
              •Router configuration
              •Establishing connectivity, and
              •Troubleshooting
                                                    2
Premise
 A small company with three locations in
 different cities requires Wide Area Network
 connectivity
    The company requires:
           • 7 Subnetworks
           • a minimum of 20 Hosts per subnet

   The company has been given a Class B IP Address:
          • 169.50.0.0

                                                  3
    Procedure
   The following slides will identify the sequence of steps
   necessary to meet the requirements of the client.
• Network configuration/schematic      •Configure routing protocols
• IP Addressing structure              • Configure Interfaces
    • Subnet addressing                • Configure Routing Tables
    • Subnet masks                     • Configure Console Terminal
    • Interface addressing             • Save configuration
    • Usable host addressing        • Test Connectivity
• Physical device connections           •Telnet
• Router configuration                  •Ping
    • Configuration modes           • Troubleshooting
    •Configure Hostnames                • Physical
    Setting Passwords                   • Logical                     4
Network Schematic
                             New York




            Toronto                                       London




           ConsoleTerminal              ConsoleTerminal




                                                                   5
Calculating Subnets
• You are given a Class B IP address = 169.50.0.0
• The default Subnet Mask = 255.255.0.0
• You require 7 subnets, with at least 20 hosts on each subnet.
• In order to get 7 subnet addresses…
    • Borrow 4 bits for networks from the 3rd octet…
    •The four bits will produce a number of subnets and a
    corresponding subnet mask…
    • 169.     50.     S S S S H H H H . HHHHHHHH


# of subnets = 24 = 16

                                   128 + 64 + 32 + 16 = 240
                                          Subnet Mask
                                                                  6
Calculate subnet address range
Note:
• 8 bit octet:       value = 256 - 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 (0-255)
• 4 bits borrowed: value = 240 - 128 64 32 16
• Subnet range limit       = 16
• Network ID     169.50. 0 – 15 .0        0000 0000 - 0000 1111
                 169.50. 16 – 31 .0       0001 0000 - 0001 1111
                 169.50. 32 – 47 .0       0010 0000 - 0010 1111
                 169.50. 48 - 63 .0       0011 0000 - 0011 1111
                 169.50. 64 - 79 .0       0100 0000 - 0100 1111
                 169.50. 80 - 95 .0       0101 0000 - 0101 1111
                 169.50. 96 - 111 .0      0110 0000 - 0110 1111
                 169.50. 112 - 127 .0     0111 0000 - 0111 1111
                 169.50. 128 - 143 .0     1000 0000 - 1000 1111
                 169.50. 144 - 159 .0     1001 0000 - 1001 1111
                 169.50. 160 - 175 .0     1010 0000 - 1010 1111
                 169.50. 176 - 191 .0     1011 0000 - 1011 1111
                 169.50. 192 - 207 .0     1100 0000 - 1100 1111
                 169.50. 208 - 223 .0     1101 0000 - 1101 1111
                 169.50. 224 - 239 .0     1110 0000 - 1110 1111   7
How to Determine Hosts
• You are given a Class B IP address = 169.50.0.0
• The default Subnet Mask = 255.255.0.0
• You require 7 subnets, with at least 20 hosts on each subnet.
• In order to get a minimum of 20 addresses per subnet …
    • A total of 4 bits for hosts remain in the 3rd octet and 8 in
    the 4th octet …
    •The 12 bits will produce a number of hosts …

   ____NETWORK_____ _______HOSTS__________
   • 169. 50. SSSS H H H H . HHHHHHHH


      # of Hosts per subnet      = 212 =4096 (Minus 2) =4094

                  2x 2x 2x 2x 2x 2x 2x 2x 2x 2x 2x2               8
Calculate usable host address range
# of Hosts per subnet        = 212 =4096 (Minus 2) =4094
Subnet #       Subnet IP                 Host addresses per subnet
   #               ID                              Range
   1           169.50.16.0               169.50.16.1 - 169.50.31.254
   2           169.50.32.0               169.50.32.1 - 169.50.47.254
   3           169.50.48.0               169.50.48.1 - 169.50.63.254
   4           169.50.64.0               169.50.64.1 - 169.50.79.254
   5           169.50.80.0               169.50.80.1 - 169.50.95.254
   6           169.50.96.0               169.50.96.1 - 169.50.111.254
   7          169.50.112.0              169.50.112.1 - 169.50.127.254
   8          169.50.128.0              169.50.128.1 - 169.50.143.254
   9          169.50.144.0              169.50.144.1 - 169.50.159.254
  10          169.50.160.0              169.50.160.1 - 169.50.175.254
   11         169.50.176.0              169.50.176.1 - 169.50.191.254
  12          169.50.192.0              169.50.192.1 - 169.50.207.254
  13          169.50.208.0              169.50.208.1 - 169.50.223.254
  14          169.50.224.0              169.50.224.1 - 169.50.239.254   9
Identify Subnets and Interfaces
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        7x 8x 9x 1x 11 12 7x 8x 9x 10 11 12
                                                                                                                                       New York




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 A



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 0 x x
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         E0         Subnet#5




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   B



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    x x x
                                                                                                                                  S1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               SO
                                                                                                                    Subnet#2                      E1                                                                                                Subnet#3


                                                                                                                     SO
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              S1
                                                                                                          E0              S1                                                                                                                   Subnet#1                                                                                                              E0
                                                                                             Subnet#4                                                                                                                                                         SO
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   London
                                7x   8x   9x       10x   11x   12x   7x   8x   9x       10x   11x   12x
  Ethernet




             C
                 7 8 9 101112

             A   12 34 56       1x   2x   3x       4x    5x    6x    1x   2x   3x       4x    5x    6x
                                               A                                    B




                                                                                                               Toronto
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Subnet#7
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             7x   8x   9x       10x   11x   12x   7x   8x   9x       10x   11x   12x




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Ethernet
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                                                                                                                                                  Subnet#6

                                                                                                                                                                     7x   8x   9x       10x   11x   12x   7x   8x   9x       10x   11x   12x




                                                                                                                                       Ethernet
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                                                                                                                ConsoleTerminal                                                                                                                           ConsoleTerminal




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       10
IP Configuration Table
                                     Network IP Configuration and Addressing Map
                              Subnet IP                  Toronto                      New York                  London
IP Address                    169.50.0.0
Subnet Mask                   255.255.0.0
Subnet 1                      169.50.32.0
Subnet 2                      169.50.48.0
Subnet 3                      169.50.64.0
Subnet 4                      169.50.80.0
Subnet 5                      169.50.96.0
Subnet 6                      169.50.112.0
Subnet 7                      169.50.128.0
Interface S0                                             169.50.48.1                  169.50.64.1               169.50.32.1
Int S0 Clockrate                                         56000                        56000                     56000
Subnet Mask                                              255.255.240.0                255.255.240.0             255.255.240.0
Interface S1                                             169.50.32.2                  169.50.48.2               169.50.64.2
Subnet Mask                                              255.255.240.0                255.255.240.0             255.255.240.0
Interface E0                                             169.50.80.1                  169.50.96.1               169.50.128.1
Subnet Mask                                              255.255.240.0                255.255.240.0             255.255.240.0
Interface E1                                                                          169.50.112.1


Subnet Mask                                                                           255.255.240.0
Note: Reserved Addresses
Addresses with: Network Address - Binary numbering equal to all zero - E.g. 0 – 31      000 00000 – 000 11111                   11
                Network Broadcast – Binary numbering with all ones - E.g. 224 – 255    111 00000 – 111 11111
Assign Network IP Configuration
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                                                                                                                                               New York




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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  7x 8x 9x 1x 11 12 7x 8x 9x 10 11 12
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           A



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           0 x x
                                                                                                                                                                                                             E0 - 96.1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Subnet #5 -




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             B



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              x x x
                                                                                                                                   S1 - 48.2                                                                                                                  169.50.96.0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        SO 64.1
                                                                                                             Subnet #2 - 169.50.48.0
                                                                                                                                                     E1 - 112.1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Subnet #3 - 169.50.64.0
                                                                                                                          SO - 48.1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        S1 64.2
                      E0 - 80.1                                                                                                 S1 - 32.2                                                                                                                          SO - 32.1                                                                                                       E0 - 128.1
Subnet #4 - 169.50.80.0                                                                                                                     Subnet#1-169.50.32.0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  London
                                   7x   8x   9x       10x   11x   12x   7x   8x   9x       10x   11x   12x
     Ethernet




                C
                    7 8 9 101112

                A   12 34 56       1x   2x   3x       4x    5x    6x    1x   2x   3x       4x    5x    6x
                                                  A                                    B




                                                                                                                    Toronto
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Subnet #7 - 169.50.128.0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              7x   8x   9x       10x   11x   12x   7x   8x   9x       10x   11x   12x




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Ethernet
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             A                                    B




                                                                                                                                            Subnet #6 - 169.50.112.0
                                                                                                                                                                              7x   8x   9x       10x   11x   12x   7x   8x   9x       10x   11x   12x




                                                                                                                                                Ethernet
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                                                                                                                      ConsoleTerminal                                                                                                                              ConsoleTerminal




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        12
Physical Components

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Et her net




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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                7x
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         2x




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                8x
                                                                                                                                                      New York                                                                                                                                                                      Hosts




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         3x




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                9x
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         A
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                10x
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                11 x
                                                                                                            SERIAL CABLE




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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                12 x
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                                                                                                                                                             E0




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         2x




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                8x
                                                                                                                                                DTE




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         3x




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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1 0x
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                11x
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                12 x
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         6x
                                                                                                                                                 S1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              SO
                                                                                                                                                                 E1


                                                                                                                DCE + Clockrate   SO
 Ethernet Hub
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       S1
                                                                                                                      E0               S1                                                                                                                                                                                      E0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        SO
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             London
                                  7x   8x   9x       10x   11x   12x   7x   8x   9x       10x   11x   12x
    Ethernet




               C
                   7 8 9 101112

               A   12 34 56       1x   2x   3x       4x    5x    6x    1x   2x   3x       4x    5x    6x
                                                 A                                    B




                                                                                                                           Toronto


                                                                                                                                                                 Subnet #6

                                                                                                                                                                                    7x   8x   9x       10x   11x   12x   7x   8x   9x       10x   11x   12x




                                                                                                                                                      Ethernet
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                                                                                                                             Console Terminal                                                                                                                      Console Terminal



                                                                                                            ETHERNET CABLE
                                                                                                             Straight Through                                                                                                                                                                                          ROLL OVER CABLE




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            13
Router Configuration

Access
Hyperterminal
from the
Console
Terminal


Configure
Com Port
settings as
indicated




                       14
   Entering Router Modes
1. Enter User Exec Mode          3. Enter Global Config Mode




2. Enter Privileged Exec Mode   4. Enter Int Config Mode
                                                           15
Router Configuration Commands …
•Enable Global Config Mode         Enable
•Configure Terminal                Configure terminal
•Configure Hostname                Hostname Toronto
•Set Secret password               Enable secret class
•Routing Protocol – (Hop Count     Router rip
Metric limit 15 – good for small   Network 169.50.32.0
WANs)                              Network 169.50.48.0
                                   Network 169.50.64.0
•Configure Serial Interface        Int S0
                                   Ip address 169.50.48.1 255.255.240.0
•Set Clockrate @ DCE connection    Clockrate 56000
                                   No shut
•Configure Serial Interface        Int S1
                                   Ip address 169.50.32.2 255.255.240.0
                                   No shut
•Configure Ethernet Interface      Int E0
                                   Ip address 169.50.80.1 255.255.240.0
                                   No shut




                                                                          16
Router Configuration Commands

                               Line con 0
•Configure Line console for    Password cisco
remote/telnet access and set   Login
login passwords                Line vty 0 4
                               Password cisco
                               Login
                               Exit
•Configure Routing Table       Ip host Toronto 169.50.48.1
                               169.50.32.2 169.50.80.1
                               Ip host New York 169.50.64.1
                               169.50.48.2 169.50.96.1 169.50.112.1
                               Ip host London 169.50.32.1
                               169.50.64.2 169.50.128.1
•Exit                          Exit
                               Exit
•Save configuration            Copy run start




                                                                      17
Testing Connectivity

Basic Network Testing include the following commands:
   •telnet
   •Ping
   •Trace
   •Show ip route
   •Show interfaces, and
   •debug




                                                        18
Telnet – virtual terminal protocol

Part of the TCP/IP protocol suite:
    •Allows connections to hosts
    •Allows connection between router and connecting device
    •Allows verification of application layer between source and
    destination – thereby including all lower layers
    •It is the most complete test mechanism available.

Three different commands to initiate a telnet session from
London to Toronto
   London> connect toronto or
   London> toronto             or
   London> 169.50.32.2
   Toronto>

                                                              19
  Ping – Packet Internet groper

An ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) echo message and its
reply:
    •Echo protocols are used to test whether protocols are being routed
    •The ping command sends a packet to the destination host and then
    waits for a reply packet from that host
    •Tests end-to-end connectivity
    •Echo results help to:
       •Evaluate path-to-host reliability
       •Identify delays over the path
       •Determine whether the host can be reached or is functioning
   Router> ping 172.16.1.5
   Type escape sequence to abort
   Sending 5, 100 byte ICMP Echos to 172.16.1.5, timeout is 2 seconds:
   !!!!!
   Success rate is 100 percent, round-trip min/avg/max – 1/3/4 ms
   Router>                                                               20
     Show interfaces serial
        Show interfaces serial shows a serial connection between two router
        interfaces
             •Interface has hardware and software pieces
                  •Hardware includes cables, connectors, and interfaces
                  •Software is responsible for messages such as keepalive,
                  control and user information
             •Testing physical and data link layers include checking for:
                  •Carrier detect signal
                  •Physical connection status
                  •Keepalive messages being received
                  •Data packet transmission across physical link          Carrier detect
                                                                                  (line status)
                             Router# show int s1
                             Serial is up, line protocol is up                             Keepalives
                                          Hardware is cxBus Serial
                                          Description. 56Kb San Jose - MP

Serial 1 is up, line protocol is up                         Operational
Serial 1 is up, line protocol is down                       Connection problems
Serial 1 is down, line protocol is down                     Interface problem
Serial 1 is administratively down, line protocol is down    Disabled                              21
 Trace - traceroute
A program that traces the path a packet takes to a destination
   •Used to debug routing problems between hosts.
   •Trace tests each step along the way
   •Traces takes advantage of error messages generated by routers
   when a packet exceeds its Time To Live (TTL) or hop count
   value.
   •Trace sends incrementing ping echos and displays round-trip for
   each. Each successive gets closer to the destination
   •Trace identifies which router was the last reached – allowing for
   fault isolation

       York# trace Rome
       Type escape to abort
       Tracing the route to Rome (172.16.33.5)
           1 London (172.16.12.3) 8 msec 8 msec 8 msec
           2 Paris (172.16.16.2) 8 msec 8 msec 8 msec
           3 Rome (172.16.35.5) 8 msec 8 msec 4 msec
                                                                22
Show ip route
Show ip route displays the routing table
   • Table contains directions that the router uses to determine
   how it will direct traffic across the network
   • It is used to determine whether a routing table entry exists for
   the target network
Below Rome (131.108.33.0) is reachable by Paris (131.108.16.2) via the Ethernet1
interface
Paris# show ip route
Code:      I – IGRP derived, R – derived, O – OSPF derived
           C – Connected, S – static, E – EGP derived, B – BGP derived
           I – IS – IS derived, D – EIGRP derived
           * - candidate default route, IA – OSPF inter area route
           E1 – OSPF external type 1 route, E2 – OSPF external type 2 route
           L1 - IS – IS level 1 route, L2 - IS – IS level 2 route
           EI – EIGRP external route
Gateway of last resort is not set

I          144.253.0.0 [100/1300] via 133.3.2.0 0:00:22 Ethernet
           131.108.0.0 is subnetted (mask is 255.255.255.0), 3 subnets
I              131.108.33.0 [100/180771] via 131.108.16.2, 0:01:29, Ethernet
C              131.108.12.0 is directly connected , Ethernet1
C              131.108.16.0 is directly connected , Ethernet0
I          219.100.103.0 [100/1200] via 133.3.32.2 0:00:22 Ethernet            23
General model for troubleshooting
Step 1. Define the problem. What are the symptoms and the possible causes?
Step 2. Gather the facts. Isolate the possible causes.
Step 3. Consider the possibilities. Based on the gathered facts, narrow the
        focus relevant to the specific problem.
Step 4. Create an action plan. Devise a plan in which you manipulate only
        one variable at a time
Step 5. Implement the action plan. Perform each step carefully while testing
        to see if the symptom disappears
Step 6. Observe the results. Determine if the you resolved the problem, if
        yes stop the process, if no…
Step 7. Repeat the process. Return to Step 4.




                                                                              24
  Network Troubleshooting
Effective Troubleshooting is facilitated by keeping excellent documentation:
    • Hardware or physical problems may be addressed visually and by using
    appropriate tools
    •Software problems may addressed by using software detection (IOS) tools
    including ping, trace ip route, telnet, and show arp


  Throughout this 2nd semester you use the same basic configuration for
  your labs and simulations.
      •For these troubleshooting labs, you can refer to this configuration
      and imagine what could go wrong with it, in terms of the OSI
      layers. - Examples of problems in each layer might include
           •Layer 1 - incorrect cable used
           •Layer 2 - interface not configured for Ethernet
           •Layer 3 - subnet mask is incorrect


                                                                               25
Layer 1 Errors

Layer 1 errors include:
   • broken cables
   • disconnected cables
   • cables connected to the wrong ports
   • intermittent cable connection
   • wrong cables used for the task at hand (must use
   rollovers, cross-connects, and straight-through cables
   correctly)
   • transceiver problems
   • DCE cable problems
   • DTE cable problems
   • devices turned off


                                                            26
Layer 2 errors

Layer 2 errors include:
   • improperly configured serial interfaces
   • improperly configured Ethernet interfaces
   • improper encapsulation set (HDLC is default for serial
   interfaces)
   •improper clockrate settings on serial interfaces




                                                              27
Layer 3 errors


Layer 3 errors include:
   • routing protocol not enabled
   • wrong routing protocol enabled
   • incorrect IP addresses
   • incorrect Subnet Masks
   • incorrect DNS to IP bindings




                                      28
    Possible induced network problems…

#     Category   Symptom                       Possible Problems      Solution
                 Can't get from user to        Unknown enable          Perform password
1     Router
                 exec mode                     password               recovery procedure
                                               Wrong IP address       While in interface
                 Ping consistently fails on
2     Router                                   or mask entered on     mode properly
                 1 interface
                                               1 end of the ping      configure ip address
                  Ping test consistently       Interface is shut       Use no shutdown on
3     Router
                 fails on 1 interface          down                   that interface
                  Can't ping across a serial   Clock rate not set     Set clock rate on DCE
4     Router
                 line                          on DCE end             end
                                               Clock rate is set on
                  Can't ping across serial                            Clock rate should only
5     Router                                   both DCE and DTE
                 line                                                 be set on DCE end
                                               ends
                  Typing router's name
                 doesn't substitute for it's                           Use ip host command
6     Router                                   Bad DNS entry
                 IP address; connection                               to fix IP address
                 timed out
                 Router won't boot into        Config register has     Change config
7     Router
                 user mode                     been changed           register to 0x2102

                                                                                       29
    Possible induced network problem…
                   Router has blank                                       Either in setup mode
                                             No configuration in
8    Router        configuration file even                               or line by line create a
                                             NVRAM
                   when you show start                                   router config
                                                                         Change routing
                    Wrong or empty routing   Wrong routing protocol
9    Router                                                              protocol with router rip
                   table                     enabled
                                                                         command
                                             Wrong or missing             Issue a proper router
                    Wrong or empty routing
10   Router                                  networks when routing       rip and network
                   table
                                             protocol was enabled        command
                                             Router power unplugged
                   Router won't even begin
11   Router                                  or power supply has a       Plug in the router
                   boot process
                                             problem
                                                                          Find a source for the
                    Router is running a      No IOS image in flash or
12   Router                                                              IOS image and copy
                   limited IOS               on tftp server
                                                                         into flash
                                                                          Go to the router in
                   Can telnet to a router
                                             You have an incorrect vty   question and look up
13   Router        but can't get past its
                                             password                    the vty password in its
                   password
                                                                         configuration file
                                              Wrong settings on           Enter correct settings
                    Can't console into
14   Workstation                             terminal emulation          for terminal emulation
                   router
                                             program                     program


                                                                                           30
     Possible induced network problem
                     Workstation cannot
                    link to routers and         No power to hubs or
                                                                            Supply power to the
15   Workstations   routers and                cable may be plugged
                                                                            hubs or move cable
                    workstations seem          into hub's uplink port
                    properly configured
                                                                            Correct the TCP/IP
                                               Incorrect TCP/IP settings
                     Can't ping or telnet to                                settings on the
16   Workstation                               on one of the
                    the desired workstation                                 workstation with the
                                               workstations
                                                                            problem
                                                Transceiver is               Properly seat the
                    No link light on
                                               improperly seated in the     transceiver or replace
17   Transceiver    Ethernet AUI
                                               sliding latch connector or   cable with a straight-
                    connections
                                               wrong cable type             through
                    Can't ping even though                                  broken or discontinuous
18   Cabling        everything else seems      Cable unplugged              somewhere Isolate the
                    OK                                                      bad cable and replace it
                                                                             cross-connect and
                                                Wrong cable used            rollover cables and they
                    Can't ping even though
                                               somewhere. This lab          are sometimes confused
19   Cabling        everything seems OK
                                               setup requires straight-     for each other Make sure
                    with devices
                                               through                      the right cable is used for
                                                                            every connection


                                                                                               31
Conclusion

This presentation offered a step-by-step process necessary for creating a
   simple Wide Area Network, including:
     – A schematic diagram of the network
     – An IP addressing structure
     – Media connections
     – Router configuration
     – Establishing connectivity, and
     – Troubleshooting
• It is vital to note the importance of:
     – Careful planning
     – Good documentation
     – Systematic approach
     – Logical thinking.



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