# Vapor and Combined Power Cycles by 7603kpW

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```									Vapor and Combined Power
Cycles

Chapter 10
Introduction to Power and
Refrigeration Cycles
Two important areas of application for
thermodynamics are Power Generation and
Refrigeration.
Both power generation and refrigeration are
usually accomplished by a system that
operates on a thermodynamics cycle.
Thermodynamics cycles can be divided into
two generation categories:
Power Cycles
Refrigeration Cycles
Introduction to Power and
Refrigeration Cycles
The devices or systems used to produce a
net power output are often called engines
and the thermodynamics cycles they operate
on are called power cycle.
The devices or systems use to produce
refrigeration are called refrigerators , air
conditioners or heat pumps and the cycles
they operates on are called refrigeration
cycles.
The Carnot Vapor Cycle
cycle executed with
the saturation dome
of a pure substance is
shown in figure.
The Carnot cycle is
not a suitable model
for vapor power cycle
because it cannot be
approximated in
practice.
Rankine Cycle
The impracticalities associated with Carnot cycle
can be eliminated by:
1. superheating the steam in the boiler.
2. condensing it completely in the condenser.

    Such cycle is called the Rankine cycle, which is
the ideal cycle for vapor power plants.

The ideal Rankine cycle dose not involve any
internal irreversibilities
The Rankine Cycle
Consists of the following four processes:

1 – 2: Isentropic compression in pump (compressors)
2 – 3: Constant pressure heat addition in boiler
3 – 4: Isentropic expansion in turbine
4 – 1: Constant pressure heat rejection in a condenser
Energy Analysis of the Ideal
Rankine Cycle:
The steady flow equation per unit mass of
steam reduces to
qin  qout   win  wout   he  hi                kJ    kg

Pump       q  0           w pump,in  h2  h1   vP2  P1 

where         h1  h f @ P1          v  v1  v f @ P1

Boiler     w  0          qin  h3  h2

Turbine    q  0             wturbine ,out  h3  h4 
Condenser      w  0         qout  h4  h1

The thermal efficiency of the Rankine cycle
is determined as

wnet      q out
 th        1
q in      q in
where

wnet  qin  q out  wturbine ,out  w pump,in
Deviation of actual vapor power cycle
from idealized ones
The actual vapor power cycle differs from the
ideal Rankine cycle, as a result of irreversibilites
in various components.
Fluid friction and heat loss to the surroundings
are the two common sources of irreversibilites.
Fluid friction causes pressure drop in the
boiler, the condenser and the piping
between various components.
Also the pressure at the turbine inlet is
somewhat lower than that at the boiler exit
due to the pressure drop in the connecting
pipes.
To compensate for these pressure drops,
the water must be pumped to a sufficiently
higher pressure than the ideal cycle. This
requires a large pump and larger work
input to the pump.
The other major source of irreversibility is
the heat loss from the steam to the
surrounding as the steam flows through
various components.
Particular important are the irreversibilites
occurring within the pump and the turbine.
A pump require a greater work input, and
a turbine produces a smaller work output
as a result of irreversibilties.
Under the ideal condition the flow through
these devices is isentropic.
The deviation of actual pumps and turbine
from the isentropic ones can be accurately
accounted by isentropic efficiencies,
defined as
ws h2 s  h1
Pump            p    
wa h2 a  h1

wa h3  h4 a
Turbine
T    
ws h3  h4 s
Increasing the efficiency of
the Rankine cycle?
Three ways:

1. Lowering the condenser pressure (Lowers
Tlow, av).
2. Superheating the steam to high temperatures
(Increases Thigh, av).
3. Increasing the boiler pressure (Increases Thigh,
av)
Lowering the condenser pressure
(Lowers Tlow, av)
Lowering the operating pressure of the
condenser automatically lower the
temperature of the steam, and thus the
temperature at which heat is rejected.
The effect of lowering the condenser
pressure on the Rankine cycle efficiency is
illustrated in figure
Superheating the steam to high
temperatures (Increases Thigh, av)
The average temperature at which heat is
added to the steam can be increased
without increasing the boiler pressure by
superheating the steam to high
temperatures.
Superheating the steam to high
temperatures (Increases Thigh, av)

Superheating the steam to higher
temperatures has very desirable effect: It
decreases the moisture content of the
steam at the turbine exit as can be seen in
T-s diagram.
The temperature to which steam can be
superheated is limited by metallurgical
consideration.
Increasing the boiler pressure
(Increases Thigh, av)
The average temperature during the heat
addition process is to increase the
operating pressure of the boiler, which
automatically raises the temperature at
which boiling take place.
This, in turn, raises the average
temperature at which heat is added to the
steam and thus raises the thermal
efficiency of the cycle.
Increasing the boiler pressure
(Increases Thigh, av)

This, in turn, raises the average
temperature at which heat is added to the
steam and thus raises the thermal
efficiency of the cycle.
The Ideal Reheat Rankine Cycle
The efficiency of the Rankine cycle can
increase by expanding the steam in the
turbine in two stages, and reheat it in
between.
In other words, modify the simple ideal
Rankine cycle with reheat process.
Reheating is a practical solution to the
excessive moisture problem in turbines,
and it is commonly used in modern steam
power plants.
The T-s diagram and the schematic of the
ideal reheat Rankine cycle are shown
below.
The ideal reheat Rankine cycle differs
from the simple ideal Rankine cycle in that
the expansion process take place in two
stages.
In first stage (the high-pressure turbine),
steam is expanded isentropically to an
intermediate pressure and sent back to the
boiler where it is reheated at constant
pressure, usually to the inlet temperature
of the first turbine stage.
Steam then expands isentropically in the
second stage (low-pressure turbine) to the
condenser pressure.
Thus the total heat input and the total work
output for a reheat cycle become

qin  q primary  q reheat  h3  h2   h5  h4 

and

wturbine ,out  wturb , I  wturb , II  h3  h4   h5  h6 
The Ideal Regenerative Rankine
Cycle
The T-s diagram for the Rankine cycle
shows that heat transferred to the working
fluid during process 2-2’ at a relatively low
temperature.
temperature and thus the cycle efficiency.
Another way of increasing the thermal
efficiency of the Rankine cycle is by
regeneration. During a regeneration
process, liquid water (feedwater) leaves
the pump is heated by steam bled off the
turbine at some intermediate pressure in
devices called feedwater heaters.
There are two type of feedwater Heaters
Open Feedwater Heater
Closed Feedwater Heater
Open Feedwater Heater
An open (or direct-contact) feedwater
heater is basically a mixing chamber,
where the steam extracted from the
turbine mixes with the feedwater exiting
the pump.
Ideally, the mixture leaves the heater as a
saturated liquid at the heater pressure.
The heat and work interaction of a
regenerative Rankine cycle with one
feedwater heater can be expressed per
unit mass of steam flowing through the
boiler as follows:
qin  h5  h4
qout  1  y h7  h1 

wturb ,out  h5  h6   1  y h6  h7 

w pump,in  1  y w pumpI ,in  w pumpII ,in


m6
where      y               w pumpI ,in  v1 P2  P1    w pumpII ,in  v3 P4  P3 

m5
Closed Feedwater Heaters
the closed feedwater heater in which heat
is transferred from the extracted steam to
the feedwater without any mixing taking
place.
The two streams now can be at different
pressure, since they do not mix.
Second – Law Analysis of Vapor Power Cycle
The exergy destruction per unit mass for a
steady – flow system can be expressed, in the
rate form, as:
           q      q       
x dest  TO S gen    TO  se  si  out  in


     kJ kg
          Tb,out Tb ,in   

The exergy destruction associated with a cycle
depends on the magnitude of the heat transfer
with the high and low temperature reservoirs
involved and their temperatures.
It can be expressed on a unit – mass basis as
  q        q             
x dest          out   in
 TO                                    kJ kg

 Tb ,out  Tb ,in         
For a cycle that involves heat transfer only
wit a source at TH and sink at TL, the
exergy destruction becomes
 qout qin 
x dest        T T 
 TO               kJ kg
 L     L 

The exergy of a fluid stream  at any state
can be determine from
v2
  h  hO   TO s  sO    gz           kJ kg
2
Cogeneration
The production of more than one useful
form of energy (such as process heat and
electric power) from the same energy
source is called cogeneration.
Cogeneration plants produce electric
power while meeting the process heat
requirements of certain industrial
processes.
Ideal Cogeneration Cycle Plant

Utilization Factor        u

All the energy transferred to the steam in the
boiler is utilized as either process heat or
electric power.
     
Net workoutput  Processheat delivered Wnet  Q p
u                                        

Total heat input                Qin

Qin  m3 h4  h3 
     

Qout  m7 h7  h1 
      

Qp  m5 h5  m6 h6  m8 h8
              
Wturb  m4  m5 h4  h6   m7 h6  h7 
                           
Combined Gas – Vapor Powr Cycle

The overall thermal efficiency of a
power plant can be increased by using
a combined cycle.

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