West Nile Encephalitis by yurtgc548

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									Francesca Pepe
November 19, 2010
                 Introduction
 Encephalitis

 Infection of brain caused by West Nile virus
 Means inflammation of the brain
 Eminent from other arthropod-borne causes of
  viral encephalitis
 Endemic in the Middle East, Africa, and Asia
 Virus is of the Flavivirus genus
              Causes
 Seventeen species of wild birds transmit WNE to
  humans via mosquitoes: Culex, Aedes, and
  Anopheles
 Mosquitoes feed on birds contaminated with the
  West Nile virus
 Transmission to humans and animals during a
  blood meal or “bite”
 Wild birds infected with WNE contain high titers
  of the virus and remain viremic for 1-2 weeks, ns.
 Horses, dogs, and other small animals may get
  WNE after being bitten, but are inefficient
  transmitters because viral titers are low, and WNE
  viremia is short-lived.
                Symptoms
Asymptomatic or have a flulike illness

Neurologic disease

Prominent GI symptoms, especially vomiting
 and diarrhea

Nonspecific symptoms such as throat,
 backache, myalgias, and arthralgias
                 Symptoms
Most patients with WNE present with features of
 encephalitis, aseptic meningitis

Symptoms include a mild febrile illness
 accompanied by headache mental confusion,
 tremors, or flaccid paralysis

More common in women

More common in very young or very old
 people
                   Diagnosis
 Scanning technique used:
      Computerized tomography (CT) or magnetic
       resonance imaging (MRI) scans
      Show the inflammation in brain and help
       differentiate encephalitis from other
       conditions
 In diagnosing viral encephalitis, determine the
  cause:
       Arboviruses –managed by relieving symptoms
       Herpes simplex-potentially treatable
                  Diagnosis
 Electroencephalogram (EEG), which records brain
 waves reveals abnormalities

 Cerebrospinal Fluid Tests,


 Where a sample of cerebrospinal fluid is taken
 using a lumbar puncture,.
                   Treatment
 Consult an infectious disease specialist
 Consult a neurologist
 Therapy
 Anti-inflammatory medications, intravenous fluids,
  and intensive medical monitoring.
 Research trials under way to determine whether
  ribavirin, an antiviral drug used to treat hepatitis C,
  may be helpful.
                  Summary
 -West Nile Encephalitis - an infection and
 inflammation of the brain ,
  -Traverses the blood-brain barrier and it infects
 the brain parenchyma,
  - WNE infect humans via the Culex, Aedes, and
 Anopheles mosquitoes.
- Inflicted are asymptomatic or have a flulike illness.
 -Diagnosis - a scanning technique method or
 cerebrospinal fluid tests.
                     Works Cited
 http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/234009-overview
 http://www.medicinenet.com/west_nile_encephalitis/article
    .htm
   http://health.nytimes.com/health/guides/disease/west-nile-
    virus/diagnosis.html
   http://hrla.doh.dc.gov/hrla/cwp/view,a,1384,q,572841.asp#17
   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/West_Nile_virus
   http://www.wrongdiagnosis.com/w/west_nile_encephalitis/i
    ntro.htm

								
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