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GLACIERS (PowerPoint download)

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					GLACIATION
  Bob Carson
   June 2007




               Spitsbergen photo by Ben Schupack
                            GRAUPEL




SNOW
       American Scientist
                             SNOWFIELDS
                             ARE NOT GLACIERS




                                   MOUNT ST. HELENS
                                     17 MAY 2007
Photo by Jonathan Loeffler
                GLACIERS




MOUNT OLYMPUS
MOUNT HAYES, ALASKA RANGE, AUSTIN POST
        GLACIER VELOCITY
STAGNANT: TOO THIN OR SURFACE SLOPE TOO GENTLE

 POLAR (COLD-BASED): FLOW ONLY (FROZEN TO BED)




   TEMPERATE (WARM-BASED): FLOW AND SLIP

    SURGING: MELTWATER REDUCES FRICTION
                                      GLACIER BAY
STAGNANT GLACIER




             MOUNT EVEREST
POLAR GLACIER




   Antarctica photo by Clare Carson
       TEMPERATE GLACIER




MOUNT OLYMPUS
THE SOLE OF A GLACIER




             SOUTH SAWYER GLACIER, AUSTIN POST
SURGING GLACIER




      ST. ELIAS MOUNTAINS
PETERS GLACIER PHOTO BY PAUL SHEARER
    30-60% of Svalbard glaciers surge




Fridtjofbreen, Bellsund, Spitsbergen   Photo M. J. Hambrey
  GLACIER MASS BALANCE
• ACCUMULATION > ABLATION: MARGIN
  ADVANCES

• ACCUMULATION = ABLATION:
  EQUILIBRIUM (MORAINE BUILDING)

• ACCUMULATION < ABLATION: MARGIN
  RETREATS (GLACIER DOES NOT DEFY GRAVITY)
                                   SOUTH CASCADE
                                     GLACIER, 1957,
                                      AUSTIN POST
THE EARTH’S NEWEST GLACIER IS
           ADVANCING




      MOUNT ST. HELENS, 17 MAY 2007
GLACIER IN EQUIBRIUM
      in mid 1800s




                     Athabasca Glacier by Ward’s
MOST OF THE EARTH’S GLACIERS ARE
                   RETREATING




TIERRA DEL FUEGO
GLACIER SIZE AND SHAPE




                Spitsbergen photo by Ben Schupack
CIRQUE GLACIERS AND CIRQUES




            TETON RANGE
                   CIRQUES




HANGAY MOUNTAINS
TARNS




        Katahdin photo by Tim Wood
VALLEY GLACIERS AND
  GLACIAL TROUGHS




           ALTAI MOUNTAINS
                  GLACIAL TROUGHS




ALTAI MOUNTAINS          STEENS MOUNTAIN
                GLACIAL TROUGH LAKES




WATERTON LAKE              Sierra Nevada photo by Steve Brown
                                        FJORDS




Baffin Island photo by Taylor Johnson
FJORDS




         www.kingsleighinn.com/images/SomesSound
WHY ARE FJORDS SO DEEP?


                               • SEA LEVEL
                        FLUCTUATION = 120 m

                           • DENSITY ice = 90%
                                DENSITY water




       TRACY ARM, AUSTIN POST
                    SOGNE FJORD 1308m




www.caingram.info




                                 folk.uio.no
SKELTON INLET 1933m




 Skelton Glacier      www.rosssea.info
MOUNTAIN ICE CAPS




http://www3.eou.edu/geology/wallowalake
 MOUNTAIN
ICE SHEETS
          MOUNTAIN
             ICE
           SHEETS

                                          WATERVILLE PLATEAU




geoscape.nrcan.gc.ca/.../images   LAKE CHELAN
CONTINENTAL
    ICE
  SHEETS




 www.crystalinks.com/antarctica_satellite
                                Greenland photo by George Linkletter




Greenland photo by Art Rempel




                 CONTINENTAL ICE SHEETS
                                                 Greenland photo by George Linkletter
                 ICE SHELVES




ROSS ICE SHELF
                           www.mbari.org/benthic/tour1.htm
LARSON ICE SHELF
  COLLAPSED IN 1995




                1992                                            1997




                       svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/vis/a000000/a001400/a001400/
   SEA ICE
(NOT A GLACIER)




                  Antarctica photo by Seth White
SEA ICE




          Scott Polar Research Institute
 ICEBERGS
(NOT GLACIERS)




                 GREENLAND
ICEBERGS




           Antarctica photo by Clare Carson
   PROCESSES
• ICE: ABRASION, PLUCKING,
               DEPOSITION

• MELTWATER: CORRASION,
    ABRASION, DEPOSITION

          • MASS WASTING




                  MOUNT EVEREST
   OTHER EROSIONAL LANDFORMS




BEARTOOTH MOUNTAINS
 POLISH




VANCOUVER ISLAND
STRIATIONS




     LAKE CHELAN
GROOVES




          VANCOUVER ISLAND
ROCHES MOUTONEES




           BEARTOOTH MOUNTAINS
ARETES




         WALLOWA MOUNTAINS
                 HORNS




ABSAROKA MOUNTAINS
COLS




       TETON RANGE
HANGING VALLEYS & TRUNCATED SPURS




                      BEARTOOTH MOUNTAINS
GLACIER DEPOSITION




                FRANZ JOSEF GLACIER
                TILL




PUGET LOWLAND
MORAINES




           MOUNT EVEREST
TERMINAL MORAINES
LATERAL MORAINES
                                  MEDIAL MORAINES




Denali photo by George Stephens




                                    ALTAI MOUNTAINS
ICE STAGNATION LANDFORMS




                  RONGBUK GLACIER
                KETTLES




MOUNT RAINIER
                      ESKERS




FRANZ JOSEF GLACIER




                               WATERVILLE PLATEAU
KAMES   MENDENHALL GLACIER
MELTWATER




            EMMONS
            GLACIER
OUTWASH




          PUGET LOWLAND
                 OUTWASH
                  PLAIN
EMMONS GLACIER




                    PAYETTE LAKE
GLACIER EXTENT 18-20,000 YEARS AGO




                          images.encarta.msn.com
NORTHWEST EUROPE GLACIATION
     18-20,000 YEARS AGO




 SVENDSEN ET AL. 2004
GLACIER EXTENT TODAY
              BEN SHUPACK

THANK YOU!      WHITMAN ’07
             ON SPITSBERGEN

				
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