Sustainable biofuels Challenges and Prospects from a Global

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					Sustainable Biomass

Sustainable Biofuels:
Challenges and Prospects from a Global Perspective
Uwe R. Fritsche Coordinator, Energy & Climate Division
Öko-Institut (Institute for Applied Ecology), Darmstadt Office

presented at the IDB Conference “Sustainable Energy and Climate Change in Latin America and the Caribbean”, Washington DC, USA, November 28-29, 2006

Biofuels for Transport
Fuel Feedstock Regions where currently produced GHG reduction v. petroleum Production cost Biofuels yield per hectare

Sustainable Biomass

Land types

1st generation biofuels, commercially available
Ethanol Biodiesel FAME) (SVO, grains (wheat, maize) oil seeds (rape, soy, sunflower) US, Europe, China low-moderate moderate moderate cropland

US, Europe





1st generation biofuels (commercially available mainly in developing countries)
Ethanol Biodiesel/SVO Biogas (CNG) sugar cane palm oil wastes, crops Brazil, India, Thailand Southeast Asia Europe, India high moderate high low-moderate low-moderate low-moderate high moderate-high high croplands coastal lands all land

2nd generation biofuels (not yet commercially available)
Ethanol Biodiesel (BTL) cellulose, residues cellulose residues none none high high other Biodiesel/SVO Biogas (SNG, GtL) jatropha South Asia, Africa all high high moderate-high** moderate low-moderate high degraded lands all land moderate-high* moderate-high* high high croplands, marginal lands croplands, marginal lands

biomass, residues

based on Fulton (2005); *= could be reduced > 2015; **= could be low/moderate in rural settings

Challenges: GHG
fossil diesel 1st generation biodiesel 2nd generation biodiesel 1st + 2nd generation EtOH

Sustainable Biomass


500 450

g CO2-eq per kWh fuel

400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0

Ct L ra pe se ed pa lm oi Hl pa lm oi sh l ja or tro t-r ph ot at a io pe n re w nn oo ia d lg ra ss es bi og as -G tL ga so lin e m ai ze ca ss av su a ga rc an e ai ze na tu ra lg as bi og as wo od ga s

di es el

GHG emissions from transport fuels; data in g/kWh incl. upstream life-cycles and by-product credits (from: GEMIS 4.4)


Challenges: Land-Use

Sustainable Biomass

Deforestation ?

Food crops
competition for water ?

Protected & other reserved areas

Energy crops & plantations

Loss of biodiversity?

Source: presentation of Philippe Girard at the GEF-STAP Workshop, New Delhi 2005

Sustainability Standards

Sustainable Biomass

“Sustainability Standards for Biomass” prepared for WWF, Nov. 2006

• •

Synopsis of sustainability concerns for biomass
Global review of existing sustainability criteria and certification systems Recommendation of „core“ standards, and for follow-up process

Standards: Summary

Sustainable Biomass

Only land use + GHG reduction have global scope Both could be implemented within a few years if resources are made available

• Some biofuels competitive for heat/ electricity/transport (rural, Brazil)

Sustainable Biomass

• Biogas from residues + perennial crops
• 2nd generation biofuels for transport > 2010

• CDM could boost biofuels
• Employment, access to energy, income generation (food security)

Establish standards and best practise projects for sustainable biofuels!

More Information

Sustainable Biomass

Report for WWF and studies for BMU, EEA etc.:

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