Current Trends in Teen Sexual Behavior by 82f2Le8y

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									Current Trends in Teen Sexual
          Behavior


           Joe Fay, M.A.
         Executive Director
Mission Statement

   To provide statewide
    leadership on the issue
    of adolescent
    pregnancy prevention
    through advocacy,
    education, and support
    for community efforts.
Local Teen Pregnancy Coalitions
       Percentage of High School Students Who Ever Had
     Sexual Intercourse, by Gender and Race/Ethnicity, 2003

               100



               80
                                                           67.3

               60
     Percent




                     46.7                                             51.4
                                            48.0
                                 45.3
                                                   41.8
               40



               20



                0
                     Total      Female      Male   White   Black*   Hispanic*


* B, H > W; B > H
National Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2003
                Percentage of High School Students Who Ever Had
                         Sexual Intercourse, 1991 - 2003
                100



                 80



                 60       54.1              53.0   53.1
      Percent




                                                          48.4   49.9             1
                                                                        45.6   46.7

                 40



                 20



                  0
                          1991              1993   1995   1997   1999   2001   2003


1 Significant    linear decrease, p < .05
National Youth Risk Behavior Surveys, 1991 - 2003
       U.S. Teen Rates of Intercourse
        Grades 9 and 12, 1991-2001
                    1991          2001



9th grade           39%           34%



12th grade          67%           61%
       Percentage of High School Students Who Had First
     Sexual Intercourse Before Age 13 Years, by Gender and
                      Race/Ethnicity, 2003
               100



               80



               60
     Percent




               40


                                                            19.0
               20
                      7.4                   10.4                       8.3
                                  4.2               4.2
                0
                     Total      Female      Male*   White   Black*   Hispanic*



* M > F; B, H > W; B > H
National Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2003
% of US HS Students Who Have Ever
Had Intercourse, by Race, 1991-2003
85
80
75
70
                                                      Black
65
                                                      Hispanic
60
                                                      White
55
50
45
40
     1991   1993   1995   1997   1999   2001   2003
    Percentage of High School Students Who Were Currently
                  Sexually Active,* 1991 - 2003
               100



                80



                60
     Percent




                     37.5          37.5           37.9                 36.3             1
                40                                              34.8          33.4   34.3



                20



                 0
                     1991          1993           1995          1997   1999   2001   2003

* Sexual intercourse during the 3 months preceding the survey
1 No change over time

National Youth Risk Behavior Surveys, 1991 - 2003
         Percentage of High School Students Who Had  4 Sex
              Partners During Their Lifetime, 1991 - 2003
              100



               80



               60
    Percent




               40


                        18.7           18.7   17.8   16.0   16.2   14.2
                                                                             1
                                                                          14.4
               20



                0
                       1991            1993   1995   1997   1999   2001   2003


1 Significant   linear decrease, p < .05
National Youth Risk Behavior Surveys, 1991 - 2003
 Percentage of High School Students Who Used Alcohol or
    Drugs Before Last Sexual Intercourse,* 1991 - 2003
              100



               80



               60
    Percent




               40
                                             24.8   24.7   24.8   25.6   25.41
                    21.6           21.3
               20



                0
                    1991           1993      1995   1997   1999   2001   2003

* Among currently sexually active students
1 Significant linear increase, p < .05


National Youth Risk Behavior Surveys, 1991 - 2003
Alcohol or Other Drug Use during Last
Intercourse
  30

  25

  20
                                   White
  15                               Hispanic
                                   Black
  10                               Total

  5

  0
       1991   2001   2003
               Percentage of High School Students Who Experienced
                           Dating Violence,* 1999 - 2003
               100



                80



                60
     Percent




                40



                20
                                 8.8                                 9.5                                 8.91


                 0
                                1999                                2001                                2003
* Hit, slapped, or physically hurt on purpose by a boyfriend or girlfriend during the 12 months preceding the survey
1 No change over time



National Youth Risk Behavior Surveys, 1991 - 2003
    Percentage of High School Students Who Were Physically
       Forced to Have Sexual Intercourse, by Gender and
                      Race/Ethnicity, 2003
               100



               80



               60
     Percent




               40



               20
                      9.0        11.9                      12.3       10.4
                                            6.1    7.3

                0
                     Total      Female*     Male   White   Black*   Hispanic*


* F > M; B, H > W
National Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2003
   Percentage of High School Students Who Used a Condom
       During Last Sexual Intercourse,* by Gender and
                     Race/Ethnicity, 2003
                100



                80
                                                                        72.8
                                                      68.8
                      63.0
                                                               62.5
                60                           57.4                                 57.4
      Percent




                40



                20



                 0
                      Total                  Female   Male**   White   Black**   Hispanic

* Among currently sexually active students
** M > F; B > H, W
National Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2003
 Condom Use among Teens by Ethnicity,
             1991-2003
75
70
65
60                                                    Total teens
                                                      Black
55
                                                      Hispanic
50                                                    White
45
40
35
     1991   1993   1995   1997   1999   2001   2003
        Sexually Transmitted Diseases

   In 2000, it is estimated that there were 9
    million cases among US youth aged 15-24.
   By age 25, at least half of sexually active
    youth will have acquired an STD.
   Half of new STD cases in the US occur
    among people aged 15-24.

--University of North Carolina, Our Voices, Our Lives Our Futures:
Youth and Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 2004.
Teen birth rates, girls aged 15-19
(number of births per 1,000 girls)

The teen birth rate declined steadily from 1960 through the mid-1970s, stayed fairly
constant for the next decade, then increased 24 percent between 1986 and 1991.
Between 1991 and 1999, the teen birth rate decreased 20 percent to a record low.
100
 90                                89.1
 80 81.6
 70                                                            68.3
                                                                                                                         62.1
 60
                                                                              52.8
 50
                                                                                                          50.2                  49.6
 40
 30
 20
 10
  0
  1950 1954 1958 1962 1966 1970 1974 1978 1982 1986 1990 1994 1998

Note: data for 1999 are preliminary. Curtin, S.C., & Martin, J.A. (2000). Births: Preliminary data for 1999. National Vital
Statistics Reports 48(14). Ventura, S.J., Mathews, T.J., & Curtin, S.C. (1998). Declines in teenage birth rates, 1991-97:
National and state patterns. National Vital Statistics Reports 47(12).
 Teen pregnancy rates, girls aged 15-19
 (pregnancies per 1,000 girls)

 After increasing 23 percent between 1972 and 1990 (including 10 percent between
 1987 and 1990), the teen pregnancy rate for girls aged 15-19 decreased 17 percent
 between 1990 and 1996.

 120
                                                                                                        117.1
 115
                                                   111.0
 110

 105
                                                                                         106.6

 100
                                                                                                                            97.3
   95
          95.1
   90

   85
   80
    1972 1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996

The Alan Guttmacher Institute. (1999). Special report: U.S. teenage pregnancy statistics with comparative statistics for women
aged 20-24. New York: Author.
            Pregnancy Outcomes, Teens 15-19, 2000 (AGI)

In 2000, 57 percent of teen pregnancies ended in birth, 29 percent ended in abortion, and 14
percent ended in miscarriage.


                                                                                                                 miscarriage
                                                                                                                    14%
                                    birth
                                    57%                                                     117,350
                                                     468,990

                                                                                       235,470
                                                                                                                 abortion
                                                                                                                   29%
          Henshaw, S.K. (2004). U.S. teenage pregnancy statistics with comparative statistics for women aged 20-24. New York: The Alan
          Guttmacher Institute.



                                           Just the Facts (April 2004) – Page P-19
                            Pregnancy Outcomes, 2000 (AGI)

Pregnancies to girls aged 15 or younger are less likely to end in birth than pregnancies to other
age groups.


        under 15                           8,519                            2,560                            8,560


           15-17                                157,209                                   39,920                    84,770


           18-19                                  311,781                                    77,430                 150,700


           15-19                                 468,990                                   117,350                  235,470

                    0%                     20%                    40%                    60%                    80%                      100%
                                                    birth          miscarriage                abortion
          Henshaw, S.K. (2004). U.S. teenage pregnancy statistics with comparative statistics for women aged 20-24. New York: The Alan
          Guttmacher Institute.



                                           Just the Facts (April 2004) – Page P-20
            Pregnancy Outcomes, Teens Aged 15-19, 2000 (AGI)
                                                      (number of pregnancies per 1,000 girls aged 15-19)



Hispanic teens are most likely, and non-Hispanic Black teens least likely, to have a pregnancy
that ends in a birth.


        Non-Hispanic White                                        204,056                                50,090               92,830



        Non-Hispanic Black                                    118,954                           32,240                    84,460



                          Hispanic                                  129,469                                   30,400             45,110


                                        0%                  20%                  40%                 60%                  80%                100%
                                                           birth          miscarriage                  abortion

          The Alan Guttmacher Institute. (2004). U.S. teenage pregnancy statistics: Overall trends, trends by race and ethnicity and state-by-state
          information. New York: Author



                                             Just the Facts (April 2004) – Page P-25
One in three U.S. girls gets pregnant
at least once before age 20.




Source: National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy.
           Teen birth rates by race/ethnicity, girls aged
                               15-19
                                       (number of births per 1,000 girls)
         Teen birth rates vary substantially among the largest racial/ethnic subgroups. Between
         1991 and 1999, the rate for African-American teens declined 30 percent, the rate for all
         White teens declined 16 percent and the rate for non-Hispanic White teens declined 21
         percent, the rate for Hispanics decreased 13 percent, the rate for Native Americans declined
         20 percent, and the rate for Asian/Pacific Islanders declined 17 percent.
120
                                                                    115.5
100                                                                 106.7
        97.8                                                                                                    93.1 Hispanic (any race)
                                                                    85.0
 80                                                                                                             81.1 African American
        82.2
                                                                    62.1                                        67.7 Native American
 60     53.0
                                                                                                                49.6       TOTAL
                                                                   52.8
 40 45.4                                                                                                        44.5       White (total)
                                                                   43.4
                                                                                                                34.1       Non-Hispanic White
 20     26.2                                                        27.4                                        22.8       Asian/Pacific Islander

  0
  1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998
      Note: data for 1999 are preliminary. Curtin, S.C., & Martin, J.A. (2000). Births: Preliminary data for 1999. National Vital Statistics
      Reports 48(14). Ventura, S.J., Martin, J.A., Curtin, S.C., Mathews, T.J., & Park, M.M. (2000). Birth: Final data for 1998. National Vital
      Statistics Reports 48(3).
FACT



   3 out of 5 Latinas get pregnant at
   least once before age 20, compared
   to 1 out of 3 teen girls in the general
                 population.
                                    International Pregnancy and Birth Rates,
                                                   Teens 15-19
The United States has much higher teen pregnancy and birth rates than other fully industrialized
countries. U.S. teen pregnancy rates are twice as high as rates in Canada and eight times as high
as rates in Japan.
120.0

100.0

  80.0

  60.0

  40.0

  20.0

    0.0
                   USA                UK             Canada            Sweden            France          Germany             Spain         Netherlands          Japan


                                          Est. Pregnancy Rate, 1996                                      Birth Rate, 1998
UNICEF. (2001). A league table of teenage births in rich nations. Innocenti Report Card, 3. Pregnancy rates were calculated by the National Campaign using birth
and abortion data from this report and miscarriage data which were estimated using the formula the Alan Guttmacher Institute uses in generating U.S. teen pregnancy
data, with miscarriages=20% of births + 10% of abortions.
                                               Just the Facts (September 2004) – Page PB-3
Why are European rates lower?

   Greater openness toward sexuality in
    general.
   Cultural consensus for “safe sex or no sex.”
   More comprehensive sexuality education.
   Reproductive health care and birth control
    are more accessible to teens.
   Media provide positive reinforcement for
    using birth control.
    Cultural Themes of Adolescent Sexuality
      United States            Holland
        Dramatization               Normalization
   Raging hormones out         Self-regulated sexuality
    of control

   The battle between the      Relationships between
    sexes                        the sexes

   “Not under my roof”         “Normal and not
                                 secretive”
           Sexual Health: US vs. Holland
                                                    US                                Holland


Avg. Age at First                                  15.8                                   17.7
Intercourse
Birth Rate                                         54.4                                    6.9
Age 15-19
AIDS Rate in                                       2.33                                    .28
General Pop.
(Berne & Huberman, European Approaches to Adolescent Sexual Behavior & Responsibility, Advocates for Youth, 1999).
US teens wait an average of one year
after intercourse begins before visiting
a birth control clinic.
Reasons for delaying visit to clinic:

   “I just didn’t get around to it.”
   “I was afraid my parents would find out.”
   “I was waiting for a closer relationship with
    my partner.”
   “I was afraid of the exam.”
Half of all premarital teen pregnancies
occur in the first six months after
intercourse begins.

          20% occur in the first month.
     The Changing Sexual Strategies of
           Adolescent Females

Traditional: Sex as currency—sex as
  something to be exchanged for a
  commitment. If you’re going to “give it up,”
  you’d better get something in return.

--Sharon Thompson, Going All the Way (1995)
           Current Sexual Strategies
            of Adolescent Females
   Popularity
   Education/exploration
   Sexual satisfaction/pleasure
   Enhance reputation
   Part of the relationship

--Thompson, (1995)
     Relationship Patterns in Black Urban
                    Youth
   Wifey/Shorty
   Sugar Daddy
   Transactional Sex
   Female/female Sex

(MEE Productions, This Is My Reality: The
  Price of Sex, 2004)
Erik Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial
           Development

   Trust (0-18 mo.)           Identity (12-18 yrs.)
   Independence 18 mo.-3      Intimacy (19-40 yrs.)
    yrs.)                      Generativity (40-65
   Initiative (3-6 yrs.)       yrs.)
   Industry (6-12 yrs.)       Integrity (65 yrs.)
     Adolescent Identity Development

   Girls: Acts of Attachment
   Boys: Acts of Separation

    --Carol Gilligan, In a Different Voice, (1982);
    The Birth of Pleasure: A New Map of Love
    (2003).
        Sexual Arousal and Bonding

   Oxytocin increases with arousal, floods after
    orgasm.


--Deborah Blum, Sex on the Brain: The
  Biological Differences between Men and
  Women (1997)
--Helen Fisher, Why We Love: The Nature and
  Chemistry of Romantic Love (2004)
Helen Fisher, Why We Love, 2004.
Lust—testosterone
Romantic love—dopamine
Attachment—oxytocin and vasopressin
     Top Concerns of Teenage Boys

   Am I normal?
   Am I attractive?
   Homophobia
   Sexual prowess
   Penis size

--Wayne Pawlowski, Where are the Boys?
  (2002)
    Our Top Concerns about Teen Boys

   Why are they so aggressive?
   Why are they so irresponsible?
   Why are they so hard to reach?
   How can we get them to abstain?
   How do we prevent older boys from exploiting
    younger girls?

(Pawlowski, 2002)
Current Trends in PA Teen Sexual
            Behavior



     ???????????
PA Youth Conference--1999
   Intercourse occurs quickly in a
    relationship.
   Much of teen sex does not occur in the
    context of a relationship, but at parties
    under the influence of alcohol or other
    drugs, or among “friends.”
   Partners seldom communicate about
    sex, setting limits, or using
    contraception.
PA Youth Conference--1999
   Few teens talk openly about sex with
    their parents.
   School sex education is inadequate,
    irrelevant, and “too little, too late.”
     PA Teens Talk about Sexual
           Health--2003

   Sex is occurring at younger ages than ever
    before—middle school is pressure point.
   Oral sex is increasing.
   Sexuality education is inadequate.
2004 PCPTP Youth Conference

       Survey Results
Respondents by Grade

         6%
   21%         8%
                          7th
                          8th
                          9th
                    23%
                          10th
 20%                      11th
                          12th

         23%
Respondents by Gender


             33%

                    Male
                    Female

  67%
Respondents by Race/Ethnicity

           14%

                       Caucasian

                       African
                 54%   American
     28%
                       Hispanic
Sources of Sexual Information
         Friends

          Mother

          School

        Teachers
                                                      %
Books/Magazines

 Doctor/Clinician

          Father

           Media


                    0   10   20   30   40   50   60
     Who has the most influence
      on your sexual decisions?
50
45
40
35
30
25
                                    % Yes
20
15
10
 5
 0
     Friends   Parents   Teachers
Prevalence of Sexual Behavior
       French Kiss                                  91

  Genitals Touched                             77

Vaginal Intercourse                        72

  Touched Genitals                        69              %
          Oral Sex                        66

      Masturbation              35

          Anal Sex         21

                      0   20    40   60        80   100
                 Oral Sex
70
60
50
40
30                                            %
20
10
0
     Male on   Male from Female on Female
     Female     Female     Male   from Male
       Same Sex Oral Sex
10                         10
 9
 8
 7
                                      6
 6
                  5
 5
        4                                    %
 4
 3
 2
 1
 0
     M on M   M from M   F on F   F from F
                    Timeline of Sexual
                       Experiences
 15


14.5


 14


13.5

                                                                                                Age
 13


12.5


 12


11.5
       French    Masturbation   Touching   Intercourse   Oral Sex on   Anal Sex   Oral Sex on
       Kissing                  Genitals                   Female                    Male
    Main reasons for abstaining?

Waiting for the Right Person
                  Too Young
           Fear of Pregnancy
                Fear of STI's
        Waiting for Marriage
                Fear of AIDS
Afraid Parents Might Find Out

                                0   20   40   60   80
How much did you want to have
  intercourse the first time?

         7


 34
                       Not at all
                       Somewhat
                       Very much

             59
  Positive Feelings During First
Intercourse—Gender Differences
 80
 70
 60
 50
 40                             Male
 30                             Female

 20
 10
 0
      Enjoy   Excited   Great
   Positive Feelings After First
Intercourse—Gender Differences
 80
 70
 60
 50
 40                                     Male
 30                                     Female

 20
 10
 0
      Enjoy   Excited   Great   Happy
 Negative Feelings During First
Intercourse—Gender Differences
45
                          41
40
35       33
30                 29
25
                               Male
20
                               Female
15
10
 5
 0     0         0      0
     Confused   Sorry   Pain
  Negative Feelings After First
Intercourse—Gender Differences
 35             33
 30
 25     24                       24
                       21
 20                                    19
                                            Male
 15                                         Female
 10
 5                           5

 0     0       0      0               0
      Sorry   Pain   Used   Dirty     Sad
     Happy During First
       Intercourse?
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
     White   Black   Hispanic
Current Level of Enjoyment
    During Intercourse
        2%
       5%
 12%               Always Pleasurable

                   Sometimes
                   Pleasurable
                   Neither
             51%
                   Sometimes Painful
 30%
                   Always Painful
How would your parents feel if
  they knew you had sexual
         intercourse?

  21


              41
                        Disapprove
                        Neither
                        Approve


   39
 How willing are you to do what
  your parents want you to do?


  Willing                      34
                                               %
 Neither                  27


Unwilling                            40


            0   10   20   30        40    50
Would your friends disapprove
     of you having sex?
 18%              17%
 16%
 14%
 12%
 10%
  8%                      % Yes
 6%
 4%
 2%      0%
 0%
       Males    Females
 Perception of Others’ Sexual
      Behavior vs. Own
90
80
70
60
                          Most Teens My Age
50
                          My Best Friend
40
                          Me
30
20
10
 0
     Vaginal   Oral Sex
      Sex
Condom Use During Vaginal
      Intercourse
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
     First Time   Last Time   Next Time
     Changes in teen birth rates, 1991-98
                                            (births per 1,000 girls aged 15-19)

  Teen birth rates declined in all 50 state between 1991 and 1998; declines ranged
  from 9.7 percent in Rhode Island to 37.8 percent in Vermont.




20.6-37.8% decline
17.9-20.5% decline
14.9-17.4% decline
12.7-14.7% decline
9.7-12.6% decline
    Ventura, S.J., Curtin, S.C., & Mathews, T.J. (2000). Variations in teenage birth rates, 1991-98: National and state trends.
    National Vital Statistics Reports 48(6).
                  State Teen Pregnancy Rates, 2000 (AGI)
                                                  (pregnancies per 1,000 girls aged 15-19)



Teen pregnancy rates vary widely by state, ranging from 42 per 1,000 in North Dakota to 113 per
1,000 in Nevada.




        42-59 per 1,000
        60-73 per 1,000
        74-87 per 1,000
        89-93 per 1,000
        95-113 per 1,000
          The Alan Guttmacher Institute. (2004). U.S. teenage pregnancy statistics: Overall trends, trends by race and ethnicity and state-by-state
          information. New York: Author.



                                             Just the Facts (April 2004) – Page P-26
              Teen Births in PA

   In last decade, rates have declined more than
    the national average.
   Rates are still high in many urban areas,
    especially Chester, York, Harrisburg,
    Lancaster, and Reading.
   Rates are still high among minority youth.
   Rates are higher than the state average in
    many rural counties.
   Rates for girls <15 are higher than US avg.
       TEEN BIRTH RATIOS—2003
    PENNSYLVANIA MUNICIPALITIES
   Chester        22.8%
   York           20.3%
   Reading        20.0%
   Lancaster      19.5%
   Lebanon        18.0%
         TEEN BIRTH RATIOS—2003
         PENNSYLVANIA COUNTIES
   1.   Philadelphia   16.2%
   2.   Sullivan       15.0%
   3.   Fayette        15.0%
   4.   Clinton        13.5%
   5.   Venango        12.7%
TEEN BIRTH RATIOS—2000-2003
PENNSYLVANIA MUNICIPALITIES
       er
     st
      a
   nc
La


         g




                                        Teen Birth Ratio
        n
     di
  ea
 R

         k
      or
     Y
        t er
     es




               18   20   22   24   26
  h
 C
 TEEN BIRTH RATIOS—2000-2003
   PENNSYLVANIA COUNTIES
                                           e
                                        en
                                      re
                                    G

                                   a
                                 og




                                                                      Teen Birth Ratio
                              Ti
                            e
                          tt
                       ye
                    Fa

                  ia
                h
              lp
           de

           n
 ila

         o
       er




                                               0   5   10   15   20
 h
P
     am
 C
                       Teen Birth Ratio 2002
          ERIE

                           WARREN            McKEAN                                        BRADFORD        SUSQUEHANNA
                                                            POTTER           TIOGA
    CRAWFORD                                                                                                             WAYNE
                            FOREST                                                                        WYOMING
                                             ELK      CAMERON                               SULLIVAN           LACKAWANNA
             VENANGO
  MERCER                                                                       LYCOMING                                         PIKE
                                                                   CLINTON
                      CLARION                                                                             LUZERNE
                                JEFFERSON
                                                                                     MONTOURCOLUMBIA               MONROE
LAWRENCE                                     CLEARFIELD         CENTRE            UNION
           BUTLER                                                                                          CARBON
                                                                                     NORTHUMBERLAND
                    ARMSTRONG                                                    SNYDER                       NORTHAMPTON
 BEAVER                                                                                         SCHUYLKILL
                                INDIANA                            MIFFLIN                                   LEHIGH
                                          CAMBRIA BLAIR                JUNIATA
      ALLEGHENY
                                                     HUNTINGDON              PERRY    DAUPHIN               BERKS
                                                                                                LEBANON                     BUCKS
                    WESTMORELAND
WASHINGTON                                                                                                          MONTGOMERY
                                                                         CUMBERLAND
                                                                                                   LANCASTER             PHILADELPHIA
                              SOMERSET        BEDFORD                                                          CHESTER
                 FAYETTE                                FULTON FRANKLIN                   YORK                       DELAWARE
   GREENE                                                                    ADAMS


                                                                                                                    Teen Birth Ratios
                                                                                                                            0.03 - 0.08
                                                                                                                            0.09 - 0.12
                                                                                                                            0.13 - 0.30
                    Teen Birth Ratio Change:
                            1995-2002
          ERIE

                           WARREN            McKEAN                                        BRADFORD        SUSQUEHANNA
                                                            POTTER           TIOGA
    CRAWFORD                                                                                                             WAYNE
                            FOREST                                                                        WYOMING
                                             ELK      CAMERON                               SULLIVAN           LACKAWANNA
             VENANGO
  MERCER                                                                       LYCOMING                                        PIKE
                                                                   CLINTON
                      CLARION                                                                             LUZERNE
                                JEFFERSON
                                                                                     MONTOURCOLUMBIA               MONROE
LAWRENCE                                     CLEARFIELD         CENTRE            UNION
           BUTLER                                                                                          CARBON
                                                                                     NORTHUMBERLAND
                    ARMSTRONG                                                    SNYDER                       NORTHAMPTON
 BEAVER                                                                                         SCHUYLKILL
                                INDIANA                            MIFFLIN                                   LEHIGH
                                          CAMBRIA BLAIR                JUNIATA
      ALLEGHENY
                                                     HUNTINGDON              PERRY    DAUPHIN               BERKS
                                                                                                LEBANON                     BUCKS
                    WESTMORELAND
WASHINGTON                                                                                                          MONTGOMERY
                                                                         CUMBERLAND
                                                                                                   LANCASTER             PHILADELPHIA
                              SOMERSET        BEDFORD                                                          CHESTER
                 FAYETTE                                FULTON FRANKLIN                   YORK                       DELAWARE
   GREENE                                                                    ADAMS


                                                                                                                          Teen Birth Ratios
                                                                                                                                 -0.07 - -0.03
                                                                                                                                 -0.02 - 0.00
                                                                                                                                 0.01 - 0.15
Research: A national consensus
• Abstinence should be strongly
  encouraged as the first and best option
  for young people.
• This strong admonition should be
  coupled with information about the
  benefits and limitations of
  contraception.
• It’s not either-or, but both.
 (National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy, 2003)
Research: A mixed message?
• Discussing abstinence and
  contraception at the same time does
  not send young people a mixed
  message.
• Seven out of ten teens describe
  messages encouraging abstinence
  -- coupled with information about
  contraception – as “clear and specific.”
 “How important do you think it is for
teens to be given a strong message from
  society that they should abstain from
  sex until they are at least out of high
                 school?”
                        Adults    Teens

Important                94.5%    93.3%

Not important            4.7%     6.6%
“Which of the following comes closest to your view?”


 Teens should not be sexually active, but Adults     Teens
teens who are should have access to birth 73.0%      56.3%
        control (or “protection.”)


Teens should not be sexually active and 15.0%        18.4%
should not have access to birth control
           (or “protection”)

                                             11.6%   25.0%
It’s okay for teens to be sexually active,
   as long as they have access to birth
        control (or “protection.”)
Suppose a parent or other adult tells a
      teenager the following:

“I feel very strongly that not having sex at all
during your middle and high school years is
your best option and the right thing to do. I
also think it is important for you to receive
information about birth control or protection.
But, again, I think not having sex is your best
option.”
“Do you think this is a clear and specific message
or do you think this is a confusing or mixed
message?”
                         Confusing or
                        mixed message


 28.3%                                  24.3%
           70.6%                                   74.7%
                                          Clear and specific
   Clear and specific
                                              message
       message



    Adults                                  Teens
Four major factors that place a teen at risk
            for parenthood:
   Early school failure
   Early behavior problems
   Family dysfunction
   Poverty



(Source: Child Trends)

								
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