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A Template for Eligibility In Language

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A Template for Eligibility In Language Powered By Docstoc
					 Language Eligibility
     Guidelines
Tiffany L. Barker, MS, CCC-SLP
         Host: ESC 10
Introduction
   Host Site: ESC 10, www.esc10.net
   Moderator: Karyn Kilroy
   Handouts Available for Download
      •   Language Eligibility Manual
      •   Power Point Presentation
      •   FAQs
      •   SI Eligibility in Texas (generic manual)
FAQs

  Listen for answers to your questions during
   the training
  Refer to the FAQ – Language Eligibility
   handout for additional information
  Email unanswered questions to
   staff@txsha.org
CEUs
 http://www.txsha.org/Online_Course_Completion.aspx
    2.0 hours TSHA continuing education credit available for this training
     module
    Following the session, complete the Online Course Completion
     Submission Form
     ◦ Your name, license #, email address, phone #
     ◦ TSHA membership #
     ◦ The name and number of this course
         Shown on last slide of this presentation
     ◦ Course completion date
     ◦ 3-questions Learning Assessment
     ◦ CE evaluation of online course
    You will receive a certificate of course completion via email
CEUs
 http://www.txsha.org/Online_Course_Completion.aspx
     Access to the information is provided at no cost.
     TSHA Members can receive CEU credit at no cost
     Not a TSHA Member?
      ◦ $20 fee for CEU credit for this training module
      ◦ Complete the Online Course Completion form
      ◦ Mail $20 check payable to
      ◦ TSHA 918 Congress Ave, Suite 200, Austin, TX 78701
      ◦ OR make a credit card payment on the TSHA Web site
        www.txsha.org
Generic Manual
     This manual is to be used as an extension of or
      to augment the TSHA Eligibility Guidelines for
      Speech Impairment, 2009

     This information is not intended to be used as a
      standalone guide

     We will refer to the Generic Manual
      throughout this Language Eligibility Training
GENERAL
INFORMATION
IDEA 2004 DEFINITION
SPEECH-LANGUAGE
IMPAIRMENT



   300.8 (c)(11) Speech or language impairment
    means a communication disorder, such as
    stuttering, impaired articulation, a language
    impairment, or a voice impairment, that
    adversely affects a child’s educational
    performance
ASHA DEFINITION OF A
LANGUAGE DISORDER



   Impairment in “comprehension and/or use of
    a spoken, written, and/or other symbol
    system. The disorder may involve (1) the
    form of language, (2) the content of language,
    and/or (3) the function of language in
    communication, in any combination (1994,
    p.40).
Purpose & Use

      Provide structure where the SLP can use
       consistent, evidence-based evaluation
       practices in accordance with the law

      Use in combination with Generic Manual,
       2009
The Language Model
      Metalinguistics                  Semantics
       ◦ Use of language knowledge       ◦ The meaning of words and
         to make decisions about           how words relate to each
         and to discuss language           other


      Phonology                        Syntax
       ◦ Sound system of language        ◦ The way in which the
         & rules                           elements of language are
                                           sequenced together
      Pragmatics
       ◦ Social use of language
Comprehensive Language Evaluation

   •   Address all areas of Language
   •   Assess areas of concern
       •   Standardized Tests
       •   Informal Assessments
       •   Interviews & Questionnaires
       •   Developmental Scales
       •   Criterion-Referenced Procedures
       •   Behavioral Observations
Comprehensive Language Evaluation

     Develop Language Evaluation Plan
      ◦ Information from the referral source
      ◦ Information from parent or teachers
      ◦ Language skills that are considered important at
        that age

  •What is not Language?
    •Response Demand (Modality)
    •Task Demand
Comprehensive Language Evaluation


   Types of Assessment
    General Language
    Syntax
    Semantics
    Pragmatics
    Metalinguistics
Documenting a Language Disorder

    Global or Core Standard Score = <77
       (>1.5 standard deviations below the mean)




        Concurs with Teacher, Parent and SLP info




      Document Adverse Effect on Educational Performance
Documenting a Language Disorder
    Global or Core Standard Score = <80
       (>1.25 standard deviations below the mean)



          Additional Testing in Deficit Area = <80



        Concurs with Teacher, Parent, and SLP info



    Document Adverse Effect on Educational Performance
Documenting a Language Disorder

     Core Language score from 1global test or
      2 similar language tests

     Always report confidence intervals

     Standard Scores       cut-off score
Documenting Adverse Effect on
Educational Performance
   Teacher Language Survey
   Parent Language Survey
   Other

                        Academic
                        Achievement
  Adverse Effect
                        Functional
                        Performance
Documenting Adverse Effect on
Educational Performance
      Need is NOT based on standardized test
       results.

      How do we determine what “education”
       is in Texas?
        TEKS
         Language Arts
          Speaking/Listening
          Reading
          Writing
INFORMATIONAL
MATERIALS, DATA
COLLECTION, &
STUDENT SUPPORT TEAM
Materials For Teachers & Parents

      What is a language disorder?
      Presentation ideas
      Classroom considerations
Data Collection Forms

       Teacher Language Survey & Summary
        Forms
        ◦ PK – Kindergarten
        ◦ 1st – 12th
        ◦ Concern = Semantics, Syntax, Pragmatics
     Parent Language Survey
     Other district specific forms
STANDARDIZED
ASSESSMENT OF
LANGUAGE
Reminders

  Administered by trained personnel
  Administered in accordance with any
   instructions provided by the producer of the
   assessments
  Is only one criteria, regardless of number of
   standardized tests used
  Should cover all areas needing evaluation
General Principles

   Standardized Tests must be

     ◦ Selected and administered so as to not be
       discriminatory on a racial or cultural basis

     ◦ Are provided and administered in child's native language
       or other mode of communication

     ◦ Are used for the purposes for which the assessments
       or measures are valid and reliable
Misuse of Standardized Tests
     McCauley & Swisher (1984) listed some specific misuses
      of standardized tests.
      ◦ Using scores as exact measures of performance
        ◦ One of the reasons a cut-off score should not be used as the only
          criteria for eligibility.

      ◦ Using age and grade equivalents as test summaries
        ◦   Do not report age and grade scores

      ◦ Profiles cannot be used as descriptions of patterns of
        impairment
        ◦ Do not look at the patterns as shown on graphs on the front page of
          a test protocol and use it as the means of setting goals.

      ◦ Performance on an individual test item is not an indication of
        a deficit in the area assessed by that item. For that reason,
        never select goals from items missed on a
        standardized assessment.
        ◦ Administer Present Levels of Performance measures to obtain goals.
Psychometric Properties

                   ◦ Norming Sample
                   ◦ Validity
                   ◦ Reliability
                   ◦ Usability
Individualized Assessment Battery
      Ages tests are appropriate
       ◦ Best to use test where child’s age is in the middle
       ◦ Language Tests By Age – page 47
      Comprehensiveness
       ◦ All areas of language?
       ◦ Areas identified as concern?
       ◦ Select areas which you want to assess rather than
         selecting test to give
       ◦ Semantic/Syntactical Areas Assessed by Test – page 55 &
         56
Individualized Assessment Battery
     Test response demand (modality)
      ◦ Listening or Speaking
      ◦ Response Required on Various Subtests – page 48 & 49

     Test task demands
      ◦ Multiple choice, Generative, Imitation, Etc.
      ◦ Sample Task Demands of Various Tests – page 54

   General Testing Procedures
   Finding & Interpreting Derived Scores
      ◦ 1.5 SD below the mean - most likely indicates a
        language disorder
      ◦ 1.25 SD below the mean – at risk for language
        disorder
Interpreting Standardized Tests
   Total Quotient Analysis
   Comparison of Composite Scores
   Comparing Subtest scores
      ◦ With Total Quotients or Composite Scores
      ◦ With other Subtest scores
     Determining Significant Differences
      ◦ Use manual
      ◦ Need second criteria to validate concern

  * Refer to pages 63 & 64 in Manual
INFORMAL
ASSESSMENT
Remember

    Must be valid
    Must be reliable
    Must be replicable
    Must explain procedures used to obtain
    Must explain how you interpreted the
     data
Language Sampling
  Goal: To obtain a sample of language that
   promotes the use of the most advanced language
   skills the child has acquired (several samples)
     Types of Samples:
      ◦ Conversation
      ◦ Narrative

     Use same procedure used in the norms you
      reference
Conversation Sampling

   Balance (children comm. more when there is equal contribution)
   Match (children learn best when actions are similar to theirs)
   Responsiveness (follow the child’s lead; children respond to
      those who respond to their subtle behaviors)

     Non-Directiveness (children’s comm. increases when the
      partner is less directive)
Narrative Sampling
     Types of Narratives
      ◦ Personal
      ◦ Fictional
      ◦ Expository/Oral Narratives/Scripts


     Issues to Consider
      ◦ Amount of structure
      ◦ Content
      ◦ Nature of presentation
Narrative Sampling: Age Guidelines
    ◦ Preschoolers: Story Retelling most
      appropriate (Cowley and Glasgow, 1994).
      Should use visual pictures with story retelling.
    ◦ K-3rd grade: Both Story Retelling & Story
      Generation are recommended (Schmidek).
      Visual stimuli suggested. By 3rd Grade, should
      use both oral and written forms.
    ◦ 4th grade & up: Both Story Retelling & Story
      Generation is recommended but visual stimuli
      not necessary.

    Recommendation: obtain at least 3 samples
Informal Assessment: Syntax

    ◦   MLU-M
    ◦   Words/T-Unit
    ◦   Clauses/T-Unit
    ◦   Mazes
    ◦   Percentage of Utterances Grammatically
        Correct
Analyzing MLU
     T-Units
      ◦ Simple Sentences
      ◦ Compound Sentences
      ◦ Complex Sentences

      ◦ Instructions for counting T-Units on page 71 &
        72 of Manual
Activity
  Segment the following story into T-Units:

    “I was going to my grandma’s house and I
    was driving with my mom and dad and we
    saw a big truck it had 18 wheels and was
    going real fast it started to slide it turned
    over and cows went all over the road and
    we almost hit them.”
Activity Answers

   “I was going to my grandma’s house / and
   I was driving with my mom and dad / and
   we saw a big truck / it had 18 wheels and
   was going real fast / it started to slide / it
   turned over / and cows went all over the
   road / and we almost hit them.”
T-Unit Analysis
     Each T-Unit is placed on
      the T-UNIT ANALYSIS
      form (page 82) and the
      morphemes and words
      are counted.


      • The number of total morphemes
        is then divided by the number of
        utterances or T-Units to obtain
        the MLU-M or the Words/T-Unit.
      • Rules for counting morphemes -
        page 73
      • Norms on pages 73 & 74
Syntax: Interpreting Results
  1.   Determine whether MLU is below age
       expectations
  2.   Determine whether low language
       production is resulting in adverse
       effect on educational performance
  3.   MLU above the cutoff should not be
       interpreted as no impairment so a
       qualitative analysis would be done
Analysis of Grammatical Errors
   Consider the number of errors made
   Norms are located on page 75
Analysis of Morphemes
    Analysis of
     Inflectional and
     Certain Free
     Morphemes


  • All T-Units are included
  • A plus (+) or a minus (-) is
    placed where the morpheme
    is used correctly or
    incorrectly
  • Norms located on page 77
Subordination Analysis

  Used to determine the language
     development of children 8 and older
    ◦  Development of complex sentences =
       language development
    1. Noun Phrase Complements
    2. Relative Clause Transformations
    3. Adverbial Subordination

    Norms are located on page 79 of Manual
Analysis of Mazes

      Most common types:
       ◦ Filled Pauses
       ◦ Repetitions
       ◦ Revisions
   Narrative Context = increase in mazes
   Children 3 to 13:
           Mazes in 20 - 41% of narrative samples
           Mazes in 15-25% of conversational sample
   Norms on page 80 & 81 of Manual
Informal Assessment: Semantics
   1)   Measures of expressive & receptive
        vocabulary
   2)   Holding phonological forms in short-term
        memory
   3)   Extracting word meaning
   4)   Storage, organization, and access of lexical
        items (can use Test of Word Finding – 2)
   5)   Perceiving and isolating phonological forms
Expressive & Receptive Vocabulary

     DELV
     Type-Token Ratio (TTR)
        ◦ Counts number of words and number of
          different words
        ◦ Indicator of vocabulary growth
Expressive & Receptive Vocabulary




                        TTR Norms found on
                       page 87 of Manual
Semantics: Interpreting Results

              if student is performing
   1. Determine
    below expected level for age

   2. Determine whether there is an
    adverse effect on educational
    performance linked to vocabulary
Phonological Forms in Short-Term
Memory
   • Strong indicator of
   semantic learning
   problems

    - Dollaghan &
   Campbell (1998)
   procedure for
   children ages 6.0 –
   9.9 on page 89

     Norms on page 91
Informal Assessment: Pragmatics

    Communicative Intent
    Conversation
    Oral Narrative Abilities
    Presuppositions
Communicative Intent
     General Principles
     Present Level of Performance
     Definitions
     Summarizing Findings
        ◦ Checklists (pages 100, 102, 103)
        ◦ Supporting Data (pages 101 & 102)
Conversation




  • Scope & Sequence on page
  105-106
  • Checklist on page 107-108
Conversation:
Pedantic Speaking Style
        Definition
         ◦ Conveys more info than needed
         ◦ Formal sentence structures & intonation
         ◦ Similar to written style rather than
           conversational
         ◦ Resemble rehearsed monologue
        Procedure for analyzing
         ◦ Checklist (page 110)
         ◦ Summary & Rating (page111)
Oral Narratives

      Types of Narratives
       ◦ Fictional Oral Stories
         Relate fictional events
       ◦ Personal Narrative
         Account: listener wasn’t there for the experience
         Recounts: shared events prompted by another
         Event casts: ongoing activities, reporting factual events,
          directing others
       ◦ Expository Oral Narratives/Scripts
         Instruct or present information
Oral Narratives
       Narrative Sampling Procedures
        ◦ Discussed on slides 38 & 39
       Eliciting Fictional Oral Stories
        ◦ Story Generation: student is asked to
          produce a narrative of events
        ◦ Story Retelling: student is asked to re-
          produce previous events
        ◦ Generation = more difficult
   • See pages 116-117 for procedures
   • Report how narrative was elicited in FIE
Oral Narratives: Analyzing Results
  1)   Decide on method & gather materials
  2)   Record
  3)   Transcribe (suggested rules by Strong –
       page 118)
  4)   Divide sample into T-Units (see Informal
       Assessment – Syntax)
  5)   Analyze macrostructure
  6)   Analyze microstructure
Oral Narratives: Analyzing Results
      Macrostructure
       ◦ Applebee’s Six Levels
         Fictional & Personal
          stories


   • Procedure on page 119
   • Decision Making Matrix on
   page 120

   • Norms on page 120
Oral Narratives: Analyzing Results
        Macrostructure
         ◦ Episodic Analysis
           Fictional stories


  • Descriptions of Story Grammar
  on page 121
  • Developmental Norms on pages
  122-124
  • Story Structure Levels on pages
  124-125
  • Decision Making Matrix on page
  125
Oral Narratives: Analyzing Results




                           • Pages 126-127
Pragmatics: Presupposition

      Definitions:
       ◦ Information which is not explicit in a message
         but must be shared by both partners for
         understanding to occur
       ◦ Background information that speakers share
         during conversations – distinctions are made
         between new and old information
       ◦ Information that the speaker assumes to be
         given or shared
Pragmatics: Presupposition
      Curriculum-Based Interventions
         Students have difficulty with questions from the
          higher levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy (pages 129-131
          of Manual)
         Analyzing: Use Stories, Story Questions and
         Scoring Sheets on pages 132 - 137
MAKING A
RECOMMENDATION
FOR ELIGIBILITY
Guidelines for Determining a Language
Disorder
Guidelines for Determining a Language
Disorder
Earning CEUs
     **Get Ready to Record the Course
     Name & Course # from the Next Slide
     2.0 hours TSHA continuing education credit available for this training
      module
     Following the session, complete the Online Course Completion
      Submission Form
      ◦ Your name, license #, email address, phone #
      ◦ TSHA membership #
      ◦ The name and number of this course
      ◦ Shown on last slide of this presentation
      ◦ Course completion date
      ◦ 3-questions Learning Assessment
      ◦ CE evaluation of online course
     You will receive a certificate of course completion via email
Earning CEUs
     http://www.txsha.org/Online_Course_Completion.aspx
     Course Name:
       SI Eligibility Guidelines for Language
     Course Number:
       Available at the end of the Webinar
       Listen for the course number at
        completion of the event
    www.txsha.org


   staff@txsha.org

				
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