VIEWS: 0 PAGES: 1 POSTED ON: 2/17/2012
Coral Health in protected and unprotected areas in Wai’opae, Hawaii Toni Makani Gregg*, Nicole Hoku Cody, Shauna Kehaunani Tom, Misaki Takabayashi Marine Science Department, University of Hawaii at Hilo *ASLO MAS Program Background Common Coral Aliments found in Hawaii •Coral bleaching, loss of symbiotic zooanthallae, makes corals appear white in color and is the best documented diagnostic condition of corals’ In the Hawaiian creation chant, the Kumulipo, corals are unhealthy state. The result may lead to reductions in growth, production, and death (Wilkinson 1998). Bleaching is often associated with global depicted as the first organism to arise on earth. warming, solar radiation, and over fishing (Photos 1 and 2). So corals were thought of as a god and the coral reef •Growth anomalies (“tumors”) on Montipora spp. Are an accelerated growth of the gastrovascular canals (Gulko 1998: Photos 3 and 4). is the body and from her all other life is born. •“Coral zit” or trematodiasis on Porites coral is thought to come from a parasite passed on from platyhelminthes to the coral. Some reports In the first chapter of the Kumulipo: indicate that once the trematode parasite is eaten from the coral colony, the colony can now recover on its own (Photos 5 and 6). ‘Hanau Kumulipo I ka po, he kane, ‘Kumulipo born in the night, a male Hanau Po’ele I ka po, he wahine, Po’ele born in the night, a female Hanau ka ‘ukuko’ako’a, A coral insect was born, from which Project Aim: To monitor the coral health in protected and unprotected areas in Hanau kana, he ‘ako’ako’a, puka’ was born a perforated coral’ Wai’opae, Kapoho in east Hawaii. (Liliuokalani, 1897) Materials and Methods Of the 60 species of reef-building corals found in Hawaii, approximately 25% are endemic to this island chain. These corals shelter approximately two thousand invertebrates and are key to sustaining the very important coral reefs The Wai’opae tide pools in Kapoho are located in a Marine Life Conservation District (MLCD) with a high abundance of corals a nd fish ecosystem in Hawaii. (Figure 1). In a MLCD, there is no taking or gathering of any kind allowed. In the last two decades, coral reefs all over world have been reported as either bleached or diseased especially Figure1: Map of Hawaiian Islands and Wai’opae Tide pools, Kapoho We characterized the coral health conditions in pools in the MLCD (protected) and outside the MLCD (unprotected). All coral c olonies along in the Caribbean. However, many aspects of coral diseases remain poorly understood because most of the diseases a 25m transect line in each pool were repeatedly surveyed every month. We used the same observer as much as possible for con sistency. (e.g. white band disease, tremadtodiasis), the causative agents have not yet been identified. Most corals diseases do Photo documentation was done periodically in all pools for further analysis. The colony size, conditions and proportion of ea ch condition not seem to be species-specific and two diseases could represent different symptoms of the same causative agent were recorded for each coral. Data were analyzed via ANOVA, using MINITAB. (Green and Bruckner 2000). Photo 3 Photo 4 Photo 5 Photo 7 Photo 1 Photo 6 Photo 2 Results/Conclusions 30 healthy healthy •Montipora capitata, Porites compressa, and Pocillopora damicornis 25 bleached bleached % unhealthy were the least healthy (Figure 2). 20 Partically bleached Partically bleached •Overall, the proportion of unhealthy corals is increasing over time 15 Tissue loss Tissue loss (Figure 3). 10 Tissue loss with bleaching around Tissue loss with bleaching around •The proportion of unhealthy corals was slightly higher for the pools 5 Growth Anomally Growth Anomally close to shore and inside MLCD (Figure 4). 0 Trematodiasis Trematodiasis •M.capitata mostly affected by partial bleaching and growth AUG. SEPT. NOV. Figure 5a: Breakdown of Montipora capitata ailment conditions. Figure 6a: Breakdown of Porites lobata ailment conditions. anomalies with the larger colonies (Figures 5a, b). Month •P.lobata mostly affected by trematodiasis on the colonies ranging Figure 3: Seasonal Trend from 20 to 80cm (Figures 6a, b). 2.5 1.4 2.0 1.2 1.0 1.5 Size Class % unhealthy 40 A = 0-5cm % unhealthy 0.8 B = 6-10cm Size Class 1.0 Trematodiasis Outside of MLCD Inside of MLCD 0.6 A = 0-5cm C = 11-20cm D = 21-40cm 100% B = 6-10cm C = 11-20cm 0.5 E = 41-80cm F = 81-160cm D = 21-40cm 0.4 G = 161-180cm 30 E = 41-80cm F = 81-160cm V = >180cm 0.0 80% Growth Anomally 0.2 G = >160cm % UNHEALTHY % unhealthy 0.0 -0.5 a b c d e f g v b c d e f g 60% 20 colony size colony size Tissue loss with bleaching around Figure 5b: Incidents of unhealthy conditions in different size Figure 6b: Incidents of unhealthy conditions in different size 40% 10 classes of Montipora capitata. classes of Porites lobata Tissue loss 20% 0 Acknowledgements: Partically bleached 0% Pool 10 Pool 11 Pool 12 Pool 17 Pool 2 Pool 4 Pool 5 Pool 7 Keaholoa STEM Program provided an internship opportunity for T.M.G., N.H.C., and S.K.T. POOL The American Society of Limnology and Oceanography (ASLO) and the Minorities in the Aquatic Sciences Program vv f c p Pd Pe o Pm ob M bleached M M C Pa Pl Figure 4: The proportions of unhealthy corals in pools inside and outside of MLCD. (MAS) provided travel and conference funding for T.M.G. species healthy Figure 2: Species and percent unhealthy with condition.
Pages to are hidden for
"Slide 1 - University of Hawaii"Please download to view full document