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Slide 1 - University of Hawaii


									                                                              Coral Health in protected and unprotected areas in Wai’opae, Hawaii

                                                        Toni Makani Gregg*, Nicole Hoku Cody, Shauna Kehaunani Tom, Misaki Takabayashi
                                                         Marine Science Department, University of Hawaii at Hilo *ASLO MAS Program
Background                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Common Coral Aliments found in Hawaii

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             •Coral bleaching, loss of symbiotic zooanthallae, makes corals appear white in color and is the best documented diagnostic condition of corals’
In the Hawaiian creation chant, the Kumulipo, corals are                                                                                                                                                                                                     unhealthy state. The result may lead to reductions in growth, production, and death (Wilkinson 1998). Bleaching is often associated with global
depicted as the first organism to arise on earth.                                                                                                                                                                                                            warming, solar radiation, and over fishing (Photos 1 and 2).
So corals were thought of as a god and the coral reef                                                                                                                                                                                                        •Growth anomalies (“tumors”) on Montipora spp. Are an accelerated growth of the gastrovascular canals (Gulko 1998: Photos 3 and 4).
is the body and from her all other life is born.                                                                                                                                                                                                             •“Coral zit” or trematodiasis on Porites coral is thought to come from a parasite passed on from platyhelminthes to the coral. Some reports
In the first chapter of the Kumulipo:                                                                                                                                                                                                                        indicate that once the trematode parasite is eaten from the coral colony, the colony can now recover on its own (Photos 5 and 6).

‘Hanau Kumulipo I ka po, he kane,            ‘Kumulipo born in the night, a male
Hanau Po’ele I ka po, he wahine,             Po’ele born in the night, a female
Hanau ka ‘ukuko’ako’a,                       A coral insect was born, from which                                                                                                                                                                           Project Aim: To monitor the coral health in protected and unprotected areas in
Hanau kana, he ‘ako’ako’a, puka’             was born a perforated coral’                                                                                                                                                                                  Wai’opae, Kapoho in east Hawaii.
(Liliuokalani, 1897)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Materials and Methods
       Of the 60 species of reef-building corals found in Hawaii, approximately 25% are endemic to this island chain.
These corals shelter approximately two thousand invertebrates and are key to sustaining the very important coral reefs                                                                                                                                     The Wai’opae tide pools in Kapoho are located in a Marine Life Conservation District (MLCD) with a high abundance of corals a nd fish
ecosystem in Hawaii.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       (Figure 1). In a MLCD, there is no taking or gathering of any kind allowed.
        In the last two decades, coral reefs all over world have been reported as either bleached or diseased especially          Figure1: Map of Hawaiian Islands and Wai’opae Tide pools, Kapoho                                                         We characterized the coral health conditions in pools in the MLCD (protected) and outside the MLCD (unprotected). All coral c olonies along
in the Caribbean. However, many aspects of coral diseases remain poorly understood because most of the diseases                                                                                                                                            a 25m transect line in each pool were repeatedly surveyed every month. We used the same observer as much as possible for con sistency.
(e.g. white band disease, tremadtodiasis), the causative agents have not yet been identified. Most corals diseases do                                                                                                                                      Photo documentation was done periodically in all pools for further analysis. The colony size, conditions and proportion of ea ch condition
not seem to be species-specific and two diseases could represent different symptoms of the same causative agent                                                                                                                                            were recorded for each coral. Data were analyzed via ANOVA, using MINITAB.
(Green and Bruckner 2000).

                                                                                                                                     Photo 3                                                                           Photo 4                                                  Photo 5                                                                                                                             Photo 7
                                       Photo 1                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Photo 6
                                                                                             Photo 2

                                                                                                                                                             30                                                                                                                                                                                        healthy                                                                                   healthy

 •Montipora capitata, Porites compressa, and Pocillopora damicornis                                                                                          25                                                                                                                                                                                        bleached                                                                                  bleached
                                                                                                                                               % unhealthy

 were the least healthy (Figure 2).                                                                                                                          20                                                                                                                                                                                        Partically bleached                                                                       Partically bleached

 •Overall, the proportion of unhealthy corals is increasing over time                                                                                        15                                                                                                                                                                                        Tissue loss                                                                               Tissue loss

 (Figure 3).                                                                                                                                                 10                                                                                                                                                                                        Tissue loss with
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       bleaching around
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Tissue loss with
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 bleaching around
 •The proportion of unhealthy corals was slightly higher for the pools                                                                                        5                                                                                                                                                                                        Growth Anomally                                                                           Growth Anomally

 close to shore and inside MLCD (Figure 4).                                                                                                                   0                                                                                                                                                                                        Trematodiasis                                                                             Trematodiasis

 •M.capitata mostly affected by partial bleaching and growth                                                                                                                                   AUG.                            SEPT.                                  NOV.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Figure 5a: Breakdown of Montipora capitata ailment conditions.                                Figure 6a: Breakdown of Porites lobata ailment conditions.
 anomalies with the larger colonies (Figures 5a, b).                                                                                                                                                                          Month

 •P.lobata mostly affected by trematodiasis on the colonies ranging                                                                                                                                                 Figure 3: Seasonal Trend
 from 20 to 80cm (Figures 6a, b).                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2.5

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           1.0                                                                                 1.5
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Size Class

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 % unhealthy
                                                                                                                                                                                40                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         A = 0-5cm

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             % unhealthy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           0.8                                                                                                                                             B = 6-10cm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Size Class                   1.0
                                                                                                            Trematodiasis                                                            Outside of MLCD                                            Inside of MLCD
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  A = 0-5cm                                                                                C = 11-20cm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           D = 21-40cm
                                      100%                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        B = 6-10cm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  C = 11-20cm                  0.5
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           E = 41-80cm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           F = 81-160cm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  D = 21-40cm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           0.4                                                                                                                                             G = 161-180cm
                                                                                                                                                                                30                                                                                                                                                                                E = 41-80cm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  F = 81-160cm                                                                             V = >180cm
                                      80%                                                                   Growth Anomally                                                                                                                                                                                0.2                                                    G = >160cm
                                                                                                                                                                  % UNHEALTHY
                        % unhealthy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           0.0                                                                                 -0.5
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      a    b    c     d         e   f   g    v
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 b    c     d                 e   f     g
                                      60%                                                                                                                                       20                                                                                                                                              colony size
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      colony size
                                                                                                            Tissue loss with
                                                                                                            bleaching around                                                                                                                                                                          Figure 5b: Incidents of unhealthy conditions in different size                              Figure 6b: Incidents of unhealthy conditions in different size
                                      40%                                                                                                                                       10                                                                                                                    classes of Montipora capitata.                                                              classes of Porites lobata
                                                                                                            Tissue loss
                                                                                                            Partically bleached
                                       0%                                                                                                                                            Pool 10    Pool 11   Pool 12    Pool 17  Pool 2   Pool 4     Pool 5     Pool 7                                          Keaholoa STEM Program provided an internship opportunity for T.M.G., N.H.C., and S.K.T.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             The American Society of Limnology and Oceanography (ASLO) and the Minorities in the Aquatic Sciences Program








                                                                                                                                                                                Figure 4: The proportions of unhealthy corals in pools inside and outside of MLCD.                                           (MAS) provided travel and conference funding for T.M.G.
                                                  Figure 2: Species and percent unhealthy with condition.

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