Susan M. Pojer
Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua,
A View of Egypt by Satellite
Compare Egypt’s population density map to Egypt’s
physical geography map.
Population Density Compare and Contrast
What conclusion can you
come to about the relationship
between Egypt’s population
and the Nile River (Please
answer using complete
The Fertile Nile Valley
The Annual Flooding of the
Pros and Cons of the Nile River
Blessing of the Nile River Tree Map: Pros & Cons
Nile Irrigation-the Shaduf
1. Was the Nile River predictable?
2. Why is it’s predictability
3. What did the ancient Egyptians
do to harness the power of the
4. How long is the Nile River?
5. What did the Nile River deposit
that made the land more fertile?
6. What is a Shaduf?
7. How is it made?
8. How does it work?
9. How did it make life easier for the
10. Make up one question about
Ancient Egyptian History
Periods Time Frame
Nile Culture Begins 3900 B. C. E.
Archaic 3100 – 2650 B. C. E.
Old Kingdom 2650 – 2134 B. C. E.
Middle Kingdom 2040 – 1640 B. C. E.
New Kingdom 1550 – 1070 B. C. E.
Late Period 750 – 332 B. C. E.
Greek Ptolemaic Era 332 – 30 B. C. E.
Roman Period 30 B. C. E. – 395 C. E.
Ancient Egyptian History
Periods Time Frame
1. 3900 B. C. E.
3. 2650 – 2134 B. C. E.
4. 2040 – 1640 B. C. E.
5. 1550 – 1070 B. C. E.
Late Period 6.
7. 332 – 30 B. C. E.
8. 30 B. C. E. – 395 C. E.
Menes: Unifier of Upper & Lower
c. 3050 B. C. E.
Please list 20
facts from the
• The Old Kingdom is the first of the three
kingdoms and spanned about 500 years
from approximately 2650-2150 BC.
• The Old Kingdom was Egypt’s peak in
wealth and creativity. All of the pyramids
were built during the Old Kingdom.
Some scholars believe that the first
pyramid was made around 2815 BC.
How were the pyramids built?
Some theories . . .
• Some people believe Hebrew slaves were
• Some people believe they were built with
ramps, hang-gliders or a variety of other
• A select few even believe Aliens made them.
Others believe Egyptians made their own
• We now know that Egyptians made the
• Egyptian kings were called
Pharaohs. They were so powerful
that they were considered to be even
more than kings. Pharaohs were
worshipped as gods.
• There was no end to the power that
an Egyptian Pharaoh had. Anything
he said went, and it didn’t matter
what anyone else thought or did.
• The Old Kingdom was ruled by six
different dynasties. A dynasty means a
ruling family, if there are at least three
generations of kings from one family they
become a dynasty.
• The dynasties depended on the Nile river
and its annual floods for prosperity, near
the end of the old kingdom the Nile’s
floods stopped, and so did Egypt’s
First Intermediate Period (2134-
• The Nile’s un-cooperation led to what is
known as an “intermediate period”
which means that it was neither a part
of the Old nor the Middle Kingdom, but
a transitional time that led to the Middle
• Egypt had very little prosperity during
this time and poverty began to spread.
Middle Kingdom (2040-1640 BC)
• The Middle Kingdom begins when
Mentuhotep II became pharaoh. He was
much more powerful and capable than
the Heracleopolitan pharaohs he
• Egypt was finally able to be prosperous
• The capital of Egypt moved from
Memphis to a city known as Thebes.
Pharaohs become less
• While Pharaohs were still very
powerful, more power was placed
in the hands of smaller
administrators such as governors.
• The view of Pharaohs as gods
was diminishing (fading away).
Even statues of pharaohs looked
more like young men or boys and
less like gods.
Hyksos Take Over
• Pharaohs near the end of the Middle
Kingdom got a bit lazy and were too
concerned with themselves to notice an
influx of immigrants from other
• Before they knew it, they were
challenged and overtaken. They were
overthrown by an Asian group known as
the Hyksos. They controlled Egypt for
about 100 years.
New Kingdom (1540-1070)
• After 100 years of trying to expel
the Hyksos, the Egyptians were
finally victorious under King
Ahmose. But this fighting within
Egyptian boundaries left them
wanting more land. The New
Kingdom was Egypt’s greatest days
• Egyptian pharaohs began to go beyond
their borders, conquering other smaller
and weaker civilizations. They then took
over their land.
• By the end of the reign of King Thutmosis
III, the boundaries of the New Kingdom
was more than twice the size of the
Middle Kingdom land.
Ancient Egyptian Housing
Scenes of Ancient Egyptian
Making Ancient Egyptian Wine
Egyptian Social Hierarchy
Some Famous Egyptian
1336-1327 B. C.
1504-1450 B. C.
1279-1212 B. C.
Egyptian Priestly Class
Papyrus & Paper
How does one make papyrus
1. gather papyrus reeds
2. cut off the outside bark
3. cut the reed into strips
4. soak the strips in water
5. criss cross two layers of strips
6. pound the wet strips into paper
Egyptian Math & Draftsmenship
1 10 100 1000 10,000 100,000 1,000,000
What number is this?
Champollion & the Rosetta
24 “letters” + 700 phonetic symbols
Create your own alphabet
• For each letter of our alphabet create
your own letter.
• Write a one sentence message using
only your new language.
Egyptian Gods & Goddesses:
“The Sacred ‘Trinity’”
Osiris Isis Horus
Preparations for the Underworld
ANUBIS weighs the
dead person’s heart
against a feather.
your KA, or soul-
Materials Used in Mummification
1. Linen 6. Natron
2. Sawdust 7. Onion
3. Lichen 8. Nile Mud
4. Beeswax 9. Linen Pads
5. Resin 10.
Seti I Ramses II
1291-1278 B. C. E. Queen Tiye, wife 1279-1212 B. C. E.
of Amenhotep II
1210-1200 B. C. E.
Journey to the Underworld
The dead travel
on the “Solar
A boat for the
provided for a
dead pharaoh in
Egyptian Book of the Dead
The Final Judgement
Shabtis: The Pharaoh’s
in the Afterlife
Stepped Pyramid at Saqqara
The influence of Sumer
Ziggurat of Ur Pyramid of Egypt
“Bent” Pyramid of King
Giza Pyramid Complex
Plan of the Great Pyramid
The Valley of the Kings
Archaeologist, Howard Carter
Entrance to King “Tut’s” Tomb
King Tutankhamon’s Death
1336-1327 B. C.
King Tutankhamun’s Tomb
Treasures From Tut’s Tomb
The Valley of the Queens
1473-1458 B. C. Temple of Queen Hatshepsut
Ankhenaton: First Monotheist?
1352-1336 B. C.
The Ankh – The “Cross” of
Monument to Ramses II
1279-1213 B. C.
Who Are These Strange
Routes of the “Sea
The end of the Bronze Age!
Essay: What Egyptian invention has had
the greatest impact on the modern world?
• Tree Map
• Check with a partner
• Rough Draft (4 paragraphs)
• Final Draft (4 paragraphs)