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   A spreadsheet is the computer equivalent of a paper
   ledger sheet. It consists of a grid made from columns
   and rows. It is an environment that can make number
   manipulation easy and somewhat painless.
Why use a spreadsheet?

   Spreadsheets can be very valuable tools in
    business. They are often used to play out a
    series of what-if scenarios!
   Allows you to create
       Presentation-quality documents
       Data lists
       Professional looking charts
Spread Sheet Terms

   Workbook
       A spreadsheet file
   Worksheet
       A page of a workbook
   Row
       The horizontal reference on the spreadsheet
   Column
       The vertical reference on the spreadsheet
   Grid Lines
       The horizontal and vertical lines on the spreadsheet
Spread Sheet Terms

   Cell
       The intersection of a column and row
   Cell Indicator
       The gray area to the left of a row and above a column that
        identifies the cell address
   Cell Address
       The column letter and row number of an Active cell
           The cell that is currently selected
   Range
       A selection of cells
Selecting Cells

   Mouse
       Move pointer to desired cell and click.
           A boarder is displayed around an active cell and cell address
            is in the Name box.
           Click and hold to select a range of cells.
   Keyboard
       Use arrow keys
       Enter (down)
       Tab (right)
       Shift/Tab (left)
Types of Data
   Labels (text)
     Text entries. Do not have a value associated with them.

     Typically use labels to identify what we are talking about.

   Constants (number data)
     Entries that have a specific fixed value.

         If someone asks you how old you are, you would answer with a
          specific answer. Sure, other people will have different answers, but it
          is a fixed value for each person.
   Formulas
     Entries that have an equation that calculates the value to display.

         We DO NOT type in the numbers we are looking for; we type in the
          equation. This equation will be updated upon the change or entry of
          any data that is referenced in the equation.
Spread Sheet Terms

   Values
       A number that can be entered into a cell
   Cell Reference
       Use of another cell address in a formula
   Function
       Pre-established formula where you supply the
        information (called arguments) needed to make
        the calculation.
       Excel has about 200 built-in functions.
Acceptable Number Formats

 Format               Example
 Integers             255
 Negative Numbers     -255 (255)
 Integers w/ commas   1,255
 Decimals             2.55
 Currency             $255 or $2.55
 Percentages          25.5%
 Dates                5/31/08 or May – 08
 Time                 8:39:00 AM or 22:00
Changing Data

   Select the cell you wish to edit
   Place the I-beam in either
       the formula bar
       or the cell
    where you wish to edit.
Basic Formula Guidelines

   Always begin a formula with “=”
   Mathematical operators (in order of operation)
         % allows for use of percentage
         ^ allows for exponentiation
         * allows you to multiply
         / allows you to divide
        + allows you to add
         - allow you to subtract
   Use cell references when possible.
    •    Formulas can use fixed numbers but use cell references
         when possibility for more flexibility.
Insert Functions

   Select the cell you want.
   Click the Insert Function button.
   Select the function you need from the list.
   Follow prompts.

   Filling a Range
       To fill in multiple cells with the same information
           select the cell  out you mouse over the black square
            handle, in the bottom right corner, of the selected cell 
            click and drag to fill other cells
   Incrementing a Range
       Works with formulas too!
       Use Relative vs. Absolute References.
Spread Sheet Terms
   Absolute Referencing
     Absolute ranges have a $ character before either the column
      portion of the reference and/or the row portion of the reference.
      This indicates to Excel that it should not increment the column
      and/or row reference as you fill a range with a formula or as you
      copy a range.
         $A$1 = Both the column and row reference is fixed. Neither will be
                incremented or changed during a copy or fill.
          $A1 = Only the column reference is fixed. It will not change during a
               fill or copy, but the row will change.
          A$1 = Only the row reference is fixed. It will not change during a fill
               or copy, but the column will change.
   Relative Referencing
     Relative ranges do not use the $ character.
Formatting Worksheet
   Format Cells
     Select and right click or use the format buttons.

     Can change data alignment, bold, underline, etc.

   Merging Cells
     To merge 2 or more cell select cells to be merged and

      then use the Merge & Center button under the Home
   Wrap Text
     To wrap text within a cell select cells to be wrapped

      and then use the Wrap Text button under the Home
    Navigating Within a Worksheet
   Scroll bars
   Keyboard

   The Name box
   Use the Go To command
     Push F5 on the keyboard
Viewing Options

   Normal View
       Default view, displays the screen with the
        standard menus, toolbars, and screen elements.
   Page Break Preview
       Shows where page breaks occur in a worksheet,
        both horizontally and vertically.
           You can change page breaks in this view by moving the
            blue lines.
Additional Options

   Zooming
       Select the magnification %
   Freezing Panes
       Move the cell pointer to the cell below the row to
       Select the window menu
       Select Freeze Panes
       You may Unfreeze later if you choose.

   Can move between sheets by selecting appropriate
    tab or by using Ctrl/Page Up or Down.
    Rename a Sheet
       Right click on the current sheet name and select Rename.
   Inserting a new Sheet
       Insert Menu
   Moving/Copying Sheets
       Select and drag or right click for options.
   Deleting a Sheet
       Right click.
Moving and Copying Data

   Move
       Select Drag and Drop
       Select Cut and Paste
   Copy
       Select Drag and Drop (holding the Ctrl key)
       Select Copy and Paste

   Paste Special
    •   Lets you choose what you want to paste; values, formulas,
Creating Charts

   To create a chart select the data range you
    want to include in your chart.
   Go to the Insert menu and select the chart
    style that you desire.
   Your chart will appear on your worksheet.
   You can edit your chart by using the Chart
    Tools Menu.
Page Setup and Printing

   Go to Page Setup to…
       add Headers and Footers

   ALWAYS Print Preview!
       Make sure that your page breaks are the way you
        want them before you print.
A Few Spreadsheet Options….

   Microsoft Excel
   Open Office Spreadsheet
   Google Spreadsheet/Form
       Use to collect, store, analyze data
       Online version of a spreadsheet
           Can be shared and collaborated on

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