SEMESTER 1 FINAL EXAM REVIEW NAME: _________________ ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS: I Studied For _________________ For This Biology Final. I Expect To Receive a _______ to _______ Percent On This Test. TRUE/FALSE – I understand that there is a direct correlation between time studying and a grade I make on an Exam; that my teacher has given me the info and the help, and now it is up to me how I do; that studying for 30 minutes to two hours has the potential to increase my grade several percentage points. ___________________ KNOW the PARTS OF THE MICROSCOPE!! Revolving nosepiece Ocular lens 3 objective lenses – Scanner, Low and High Base and arm Stage Coarse Adjustment Knob Diaphragm Fine Adjustment Knob What are the THREE main steps to making a wet mount? What is the Field of View on LOW POWER? ______________ on HIGH POWER? __________________ oooooooooohh….more points SCANNER? _________________ think!!! What is the difference between primary and secondary and total magnification? REMEMBER!!!!!!! To figure out how wide a specimen is in MICRONS, you COUNT how many of them will fit side-by-side in the Field of View and then divide this number INTO the number for the correct DIAMETER of the field of view for the lens you are using. Example, I think that 25 units of the specimen will fit side-by-side in my viewing circle on LOW power. So I divide 1500 (the low power field of view) by 25 AND I get……… 60? I am doing this at 5:30 in the morning…..I think that this is right!!! Which knob do I use if I am using SCANNER or HIGH Power? WHY?? Which knob do I use if I am using HIGH POWER? WHY? COMPLETE THE CHART: (F.O.V. = Field of VIEW) OBJECTIVE LENS POWER F.O.V in millimeters (mm) F.O.V in MICRONS 4X LOW 375 microns CH. 1 Define Biology What are the characteristics of life? Remember the MNEUMONIC DEVICE that was given to you? OLIVER (Organization) ………… What is the difference between GROWTH and DEVELOPMENT? DEFINE HOMEOSTASIS: Any inherited structure, behavior, or internal process that enables an organism to respond to environmental factors and live to produce offspring is referred to as an __________________________. What are the steps to the Scientific Method? A variable that is being MANIPULATED by the scientist is referred to as an ____________________ variable. A variable that changes as a result of the manipulated variable is the ___________________ variable. What is the difference between a hypothesis and a theory? Define EXPERIMENTAL GROUP ___________________________________________________ Define CONTROL GROUP ________________________________________________________ Indicate whether the following are QUALITATIVE or QUANTITATIVE or both, in nature: 55 mm. _____________________________ malodorous _________________________ oozing a green liquid ___________________ 375 microns ________________________ ten thousand green peas ________________ contracting _________________________ Define TECHNOLOGY: Indicate whether the following are INDEPENDENT, DEPENDENT, or CONTROLLED (constant) variables: Having not ever done this before, I eat broccoli for every meal for one whole week. I experience, well, a lot of intestinal discomfort. In this scenario, the addition of broccoli to my diet is the _______________ variable. 2. I throw a rock because I am irritated and break Mr. Hildebrand’s hamster tank. His hamster (who was at the time running on his ham-O-wheel), now makes a break for it (Go Hammy Go!!!!) In this scenario, the hamster on the lamb is the ______________ variable. 3. In the broccoli incident, I forgot to mention that I continued to drink PEPSI with every meal as I have done since I was 12 months old. The drinking of the Pepsi represents a(n) ______________ variable. 4. I increase the temperature of my saltwater tank 12 degrees from the normal setting to see what will happen to my baby sharks. (I am just baiting you – you know, “shark bait”?? It was only 2 degrees……..) Anyhoo, they proceed to act much more lethargic and stay in only one area of the tank. What would be three possible controlled variables in this scenario? o o o CH. 2 The role that a species plays in its environment is known as its ___________________ What is an invasive species? Ecology is the study of _______________________________________________________________ The portion of the Earth that supports living things is known as the BIOSPHERE. For the following list, state whether it is a POPULATION or a COMMUNITY: foxes and hounds ______________ seagulls ____________________ roly polies and cockroaches___________ rabbits and birds _____________ brown cows ______________________ athlete’s foot and Staph bacteria ____________ A POPULATION is made up of members of ONLY _________ species. A COMMUNITY is made up of members of ___________________ species. Complete the list for INCREASING LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION. atom __________ CELL ______________ ORGAN ___________ ___________ an Individual ________________ POPULATION ________________ ECOSYSTEM _____________ BIOSPHERE An ECOSYSTEM is made up of all of the BIOTIC ANDDDDDDDDDD ___________________ factors. o Sooooo, an example would be DEER + GRASSLAND + TREES + FOXES + COYOTES (all biotic factors) PLUS temperature + water + humidity + soil + oxygen content in the atmosphere A habitat is WHERE the organism lives. A NICHE is ___________________________________________________. Nice job!!!! Define SYMBIOSIS : (Together we can ALL do this!!!) State the 3 Main types of Symbiotic Relationships: (A) __________________, (B) __________________ & (C)__________________________ Give two examples for each: A ___________________________ ______________________________ B ___________________________ ______________________________ C ___________________________ ______________________________ HETEROTROPHS VS. AUTOTROPHS – What are they? (hmmmmm….this is food for thought!!) Plants are _________________ / Animals are _____________________ Give an example of a 5-tiered food chain: (I wanted to “point this out!! - REMEMBER THE DIRECTION OF YOUR ARROWS!!) Define all of the “VORES” – Omni-, Carni-, Herbi-……… (this is making me hungry!) What happens to the amount of energy available as you move UP the BIOMASS pyramid or food chain? It DECREASES, that’s what!!!!!! BUT……………By how much at each level??_____________________ What is the difference between a first order, second order and third order consumer? Use all of the following words to label the PYRAMID – in other words, place each word at the correct level o Producer, primary consumer, 1st order heterotroph, plant, tertiary consumer, 2nd order heterotroph, 3rd order heterotroph, secondary consumer, greatest amount of energy, least amount of energy, greatest biomass, least amount of biomass Review the Carbon, Nitrogen, and Water cycles!! Write down THREE THINGS YOU KNOW ABUOT EACH CYCLE CARBON NITROGEN WATER 1. 2. 3. Ch. 3 What is the difference between PRIMARY SUCCESSION and SECONDARY SUCCESSION? (Get this one right and you will “Succeed!” A stable, mature community that undergoes little or no change in species is known as a ___________ community. (oooooohh. I can’t wait to find out what happens here!!) A BIOME is a large group of ecosystems that share the same type of climax community. COOL!!! In water, what is the PHOTIC ZONE? _______________ the APHOTIC ZONE? _________________ Define ESTUARY: _________________________________________________________________ Small organisms that drift and float in the waters of the photic zone are called ____________________ (Think SPONGEBOB!) I do not know about you, but right now I am green with envy!!! In Which Biome would I find the following? same temperature all day and night? ____________________ perma-frost on the ground? ____________________________ hot days and very cold nights _________________________ plants with adaptive waxy leaves _______________________ the most species of insects and plants ___________________ a coral reef ______________________________________ caribou and a snowshoe hare ___________________________ prairie dogs and grasses ______________________________ black bears and lots of deciduous trees ___________________ an under-story ______________________________________ CH. 4 Abiotic = ______________ while Biotic = _______________ (I absolutely live for these questions!!) Fill in the blanks that follow each term with “abiotic” or “biotic”. Rock ________ wind ___________ fern _________ vole ___________ temperature ________ humidity __________ salinity ____________ oxygen content ______________ maple tree __________ soil _____________ carrying capacity ______________ tornado ___________ sunlight ___________ deer _____________ bacteria ________________ amoebas ____________ seeds _______________ air pressure ____________ shelter ______________ volcanic eruption ____________ space ________ What is the difference between a J-SHAPED curve and an S-SHAPED curve? Which one would most likely represent a bacterial population?_____________ an elephant population? What happens to a population when the carrying capacity is exceeded? List 6 different factors that could be considered LIMITING FACTORS? Most DENSITY-INDEPENDENT limiting factors are ABIOTIC FACTORS (living or non-living…CIRCLE which). Examples of these are ____________, ______________, ______________, and _________________. That is……they will limit a population regardless of its density!!!! Density-Dependent limiting factors are factors in the environment whose affects on the population actually depend on the _____________ of the population!!! Really, this is a BIG deal! These are things such as ________, ______________, _________________, ________________, and __________________ You may need to look this up in CHAPTER 5…..what is the difference between the two words IMMIGRATION and EMIGRATION when talking about population growth rate? TRUE / FALSE – Populations grow slowly at first, and then more rapidly as more and more individuals begin to reproduce. In lab mice, what are some affects of overcrowding the population? ___________________, _________________, ______________________, _______________________ Ch. 6 (I really get a charge out of this Chapter, how ‘bout you?) smallest particle of an element that retains the characteristics of that element _______________ protons are __________________________ electrons are _________________________ neutrons are _________________________ symbol for carbon _______ for oxygen _______ for hydrogen _________ for nitrogen ___________ # of electrons in the first energy level _________ the second energy level ___________ carbon likes to make how many bonds? _____________ WHY? ________________________________ atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons are called ___________________ examples are CARBON ______ and CARBON _______ True / False – A compound is a substance composed of atoms of two or more different elements that are chemically combined. the SHARING of electrons results in what type of chemical bonds? _____________________ an ION is a ________________ particle…. the attractive force between two ions with different charges results in a bond known as a(n) __________ ________________ (and NO, the word JAMES is not included in this answer!!) ALL THE CHEMICAL REACTIONS THAT OCCUR WITHIN AN ORGANISM ARE REFERRED TO AS IT’S _____________________ ……….rhymes with duh- strab- oh – chism!!!!!! I hope this helps!!! sand in water – what kind of “geneous”? _________________________ salt in water – what kind of “geneous”? __________________________ sand in water ……solution OR mixture? ___________________________ sugar in water …..solution OR mixture? ___________________________ concentration is calculated as a ___________________ what is the pH scale? ____________________________ pH of 5.6 ……ACID or BASE? a neutral solution will have a pH of ___________ what does it mean to be a “POLAR MOLECULE” (and no it is not one at the NORTH POLE!!) give an example of a polar molecule we discussed in class _____________ True / False : Hydrogen bonds are STRONG bonds. ______________ True / False : Covalent bonds are STRONG bonds. _______________ What does it mean when we say that something is DIFFUSING? _________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ CO2 – Figure out the electron configuration for this molecule and draw it below with the correct number of chemical bonds in the correct places! We did this in class…Look at your paper! Starches and Sugars are examples of what type of biomolecule? _________________________ Waxes, oils and fats are examples of ? ________________________________ Which 3 elements are found in carbs? _______________, __________________ and ______________ Which 4 elements must be in proteins? _____________, ____________, ____________ & __________ What are two other elements that can be found in proteins as well? ___________ & __________ Chemical formula for GLUCOSE? ___________ for FRUCTOSE? ____________ GALACTOSE? ________ Their molecular formulas are all the ____________!! ALL three of these are what kind of saccharides? MONO-, Di- or POLY? What technically is a “POLY-MER”? Two glucoses connected result in which disaccharide? lactose, maltose or sucrose? Which disaccharide is found in dairy products? Which disaccharide so we put on our cereal and in our coffee? What 2 monosaccharides are used to form it? ****I have 1737 glucose molecules and I want to connect them to make a polysaccharide. What will be the final MOLECULAR FORMULA for this polysaccharide? Remember the WATER!!! You always have one less water than sugar subunits, right??? sweeEEET! Show your calculations below: Proteins are made up of smaller subunits called ____________ acids. When amino acids are connected to form large proteins, they connect with bonds called __________ bonds. What is an enzyme? Enzymes enable molecules called ______________ to undergo chemical changes to form new substances called ________________. The enzymes themselves ARE NOT chemically altered and can be re- used again and again. COOL HUH?????? (I am trying to digest all of this information! I need to remember to just break it all down!) Nucleic Acids are biomolecules that store cellular information in the form of a CODE!!! They are POLYMERS made up of called subunits called NUCLEOTIDES!!! These are the building blocks for DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID – A.K.A-> ________. Draw a nucleotide with A, or Adenine. Draw one with T, or Thymine. Label the parts of the nucleotides with these words sugar, phosphate and base Benedict’s Reagent (Indicator) detects __________________. What else had to be done with this indicator in order to get the right results? Biuret detects which substrate? ________________ BTB stands for _____________________________________ and detects ___________ Which indicator tests for Starch? __________Which indicator has a yellow-ish brown, or AMBER control color? ____________ Which reagent has a blue control color and turns orange when it reacts? Which reagent indicator is blue and then turns light purple when it reacts? Which substrate in our lab was a gas? ________________ YOU NEED TO DO THE FOLLOWING IN ORDER TO ACHIEVE THE GRADE YOU WANT TO ACHIEVE. o Complete this Review Sheet for a grade /KNOW THAT THIS REVIEW DOES NOT ASK EVERY QUESTION /TOPIC IN DEPTH…it is meant as a guide and needs to be supplemented with the actions on the following bullets o Look over all of your old graded papers and remind yourself what we did on each assignment o Look over Chapters 1-6 in the WHALE BIOLOGY book o Make note cards or have someone quiz you over the material o Ask your teacher for help on questions you do not know BEFORE THE DAY OF THE FINAL!! *STUDY….STUDY….SCHOOL IS YOUR BUDDY!!!!
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