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Nonrenewable Energy

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					                   Energy
Nonrenewable Energy Resources
Energy
   Energy Resources
         U.S. has 4.6% of world population; uses 24% of the world’s energy

         84% from nonrenewable fossil fuels (oil, coal, & natural gas)

         7% from nuclear power

         9% from renewable sources (hydropower, geothermal, solar, biomass)
Energy
   Energy Resources
Energy
   Energy Resources




         United States   Global
Energy Concepts
   Energy Resources
         Oil: Petroleum (crude oil) is a thick and gooey liquid consisting of
          hundreds of combustible hydrocarbons along with small amounts of
          sulfur, oxygen, and nitrogen impurities

         Coal: A solid fossil fuel formed in several stages as buried remains of
          land plants that lived 300-400 mya. Mostly carbon with small amounts
          of sulfur impurities

         Natural Gas: A mixture of 50%-90% by volume of methane, which is
          the simplest hydrocarbon. Also contains ethane, propane, and butane

         Uranium: Uranium hexafluoride (UF6), referred to as "hex" in the
          nuclear industry, is a compound used in the uranium enrichment
          process that produces fuel for nuclear reactors
Energy
   Oil
         Location (world): Middle East (OPEC 67%)

         Location (US): Gulf of Mexico, Gulf Coast (3% of world reserves)

         Availability projections (US reserves): 10-48 years

         Availability projections (world): 42-93 years

         Advantages: Abundant, convenient, relatively low cost, High net
          energy yield , and Efficient distribution system

         Disadvantages: Dependant on foreign oil, running out, emissions,
          pollution, low prices encourage waste. At current rate, we will run out
          in 53 years
Energy
   Oil
         Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) -- 13
          countries have 67% world reserves

         Algeria, Ecuador, Gabon, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya,
          Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, & Venezuela
Energy
   Oil
Energy
   Oil (Economy)
Energy
   Oil (Usage World Wide)
Energy
   Oil (Refining)
Energy
   Coal
         Location (world): China, Russia (60%)

         Location (US): (25% of world supply) Eastern areas of US: Montana,
          Utah, Arizona and southern areas of mid-west

         Availability projections (US reserves): 300 at current rates (64 years
          with 4% increase)

         Availability projections (world):400+ years if new reserves are found
          and current rate of usage

         Advantages: most abundant fossil fuel, high energy, US has large
          supply
         Disadvantages: health concerns, high pollution when burned, high in
          sulfur, releases mercury
Energy
   Coal
         Coal exists in many forms therefore a chemical formula cannot be
          written for it

         Coalification: After plants died they underwent chemical decay to
          form a product known as peat

             Over many years, thick peat layers formed

             Peat is converted to coal by geological events such as land
              subsidence which subject the peat to great pressures and
              temperatures
Energy
   Coalifcation
Energy
   Coal
Energy
   Coal Deposits World
Energy
   Coal Deposits U.S.
Energy
   Coal
         Pros
             Most abundant fossil fuel
             Major U.S. reserves
             300 yrs. at current consumption rates
             High net energy yield

         Cons
             Dirtiest fuel, highest carbon dioxide
             Major environmental degradation (High environmental impact)
             Major threat to health
             Primarily strip-mined
Energy
   Coal Refining
         Coal gasification → Synthetic natural gas (SNG)

         Coal liquefaction → Liquid fuels (Gasoline)

         Disadvantage
             Costly
             High environmental impact
             Processes release more CO2 than burning coal does
Energy
   Natural Gas
         Location (world): Russia (31%), Middle East (24%)

         Location (US): (3%) Gulf coast, above crude oil

         Availability projections (US reserves): 55-80 years

         Availability projections (world): 62-125 (and up to 200 years with
          unconventional)

         Advantages: Can be transported easily, lower pollution than other
          fossil fuels, high energy yield

         Disadvantages: running out, greenhouse gas released, explosive
          (especially in liquid form)
Energy
   Natural Gas
         Russia & Kazakhstan - almost 40% of world's supply

         Iran (15%), Qatar (5%), Saudi Arabia (4%), Algeria (4%), United
          States (3%), Nigeria (3%), Venezuela (3%)

         90–95% of natural gas in U.S. domestic (~411,000 km = 255,000
          miles of pipeline)

         Experts predict increased use of natural gas during this century
Energy
   Natural Gas
         Mixture
             50–90% Methane (CH4)
             Ethane (C2H6)
             Propane (C3H8)
             Butane (C4H10)
             Hydrogen sulfide (H2S)
Energy
   Natural Gas Lines U.S.
Energy
   Natural Gas Demand
Energy
   Recap

				
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posted:2/17/2012
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