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					Hasan A. Yahya, Ph.Ds Hegel and Marx represent the second group of conflict theorists. They claim that materialism and economic class conflict cause the major troubles of societies. In terms of human nature, they claim that economic institutions determine who get what, when, and how not human nature. Their argument is that unequal distribution of material wealth have created class stratification which leads to constant conflict among groups. What resolve this dilemma of capitalism which represent conflict promoter was in one word: Communism, through socialism. The third group of conflict theories depends on the assumption that different cultural variables create disintegration and disruption. For example, the internal strife within the national structure in South Africa, the Palestinian-Israeli conflict in the Middle East, Northern Irland, Communist aggression in Afghanistan, the United States as world police, the Balkans and many other examples represent this group of theories. The last group of conflict theories depends on the assumption that the impact of technological and scientific progress has had, and is having, and will continue to have on social interaction. Such impact complicates the matter for human beings and push them to live with confusion. In other words, conflict is a result of applying scientific knowledge and inventions implies nuclear family, high divorce rate, weak family ties, and social vertical mobility contrasted with better quality of life satisfaction and life standards. Unfortunately, such theories were faced by the misguided effort to bring the comparatives of "more" or "better" to life through science and technology has, in fact, introduced more conflict and less good life in many areas of the globe under the so called slogans of change as "modernization" or "post-modernization". What was surveyed so far is the existed conflict theories and their assumptions about human nature and environment. As a conclusion, two directions of such theories can be made: one is that man is conflict maker by nature, the other is that man is not a conflict maker unless his environment presses him to. Environment of course can be described as nature, or human ecology where human beings interact according to their groups, societies, and cultures. Crescentology believes in the second direction where human beings are born pure good, and their social environment (parents, peer groups, neighbors, and other factors) have different instable impact upon what human beings (as groups or individuals) want, and what they realize in their everyday life, or psychologically speaking, between people's aspirations and their gratification. Where aspiration means: collective wants of society, and gratification is the fulfillment of these wants. (Brown Jr, 1981:248)---433 words--www.hasanyahya.com
(ArticlesBase ID #1177930)

Theories of Conflict – Part One Hasan A. Yahya, Ph.Ds It is apparent for social scientists that the statements "there is no understanding of events is possible, without theory." stands true. Brown Jr. (1981:xi) To be sure, there are good theories as well as bad

theories, but the very act of explaining something demands a theoretical context. For this purpose, in order to construct a body of ideas that may connect the disintegrated incoherent parts not in terms of A. or B. ideology, but rather in terms of Crescentology or Theory C. of cultural and social understanding which include both A and B ideologies for the purpose of human survival against hunger, war, famine, and disease. Supporting this argument, it is a common neglected knowledge of reality that each individual, group, nation, or culture possess negative as well as positive qualities and values. Political powers of these bodies direct almost all its energy to educate and socialize the new generations only those positive aspects of "WE" and only those negative aspects of "THEY" instead of educating and socializing their new generations of positive qualities in both A and B versus negative qualities of A and B identities as Crescentology postulates. Crescentology or Theory C. is a method of acquiring knowledge for the construction of new reality expected to promote global peace. Such an attempt by itself is worthwhile to be supported, with the fact that such an idea is too difficult and perilous to conduct with certain success. Crescentology or Theory C. is an intellectual call for policy makers on both macro and micro levels for introducing a new order of relationships among human beings to live in peace. Crescentology with its broad understanding of cultures is different from other limited theories. Compared with other theories, it would be grand theory of culture. This implies description of the conflict theories exist in the literature. (313 words) Theories of Conflict – Part Two Hasan A. Yahya, Ph.Ds In this part we detail on conflict theories. According to Boulding, almost all social sciences study conflict. For instance, economics studies conflict among economic organizations-firms, unions and so on. Political science studies conflict among states and among subdivisions and departments within larger organizations. Sociology studies conflict within and between families, racial and religious conflict, and conflict within and between groups. Anthropology studies conflict between cultures. Psychology studies conflict within the person. History is largely the record of conflict. Even geography studies the endless war of components of nature, for example, the sea against the land, and of one land form or use against another. Boulding emphasized that "conflict is an important part of the specialized study of industrial relations, international relations, or any other relations." Boulding (1973:113) From the above statement, we may deduce the following types of conflict theories: a. Theories claim that the impetus for human conflict springs from human nature itself or biologically. Psychological theorists argue that aggressive behavior (conflict) results from a psychological condition of stress and frustration. b. Other theorists point out that conflict comes usually from the distribution of wealth, goods, and class struggle.

c. A third group of theorists assert that conflict emerges from cultural differences with no common commitment to national symbols and beliefs. Such differences are, for example, race, language, ethnicity, religion, or generational differences. d. A fourth category of conflict theories states that world growth, technological progress, scientific knowledge supremacy, and consumption of resources are some of causes of conflict. As we see all these theories are interested in political or psychological, or economic, or social conflict. Therefore, their assumptions about human nature differ accordingly. For instance, according to the first type of theories, conflict began with Adam after he and Eve left the gates of Aden. As a result, these theories adapted the explanation which says that have the excuse for their actions without interfering political or social causes. This situation can be described by the English saying: "Let him make use of instinct, who cannot make use of reason." Brown, (1981:229) This view represents an array of disciplines such as literature of human beings, religion, philosophy, psychology, and anthropology. The most proponents of this type are: Sigmund Freud, who embraced the idea that human mind is a veritable battlefield for three subconscious forces: the ID, the EGO, and the SUPEREGO which interplay to make up the human personality as organized by the LIBIDO. In anthropology, Darwin and Spencer depend on the assumption which draw the doubts about humankind origin, and as we may all know that there is no controlled peace among baboon cannibalistic ancestors which still survive after 15 million years is impossible, and the survival is for the fittest. Thomas Hobbes gave a little respect to human beings by pointing out three principal causes of conflict: competition, difference, and glory. To keep people away from conflict among them, he suggested a cruel king have to rule in order to keep peace. Other psychological group of theories suggest that antisocial behavior springs from the innate responses triggered by frustration. This group of theories depends on the assumption that "aggression is always a consequence of frustration." (Dollard, 1939:1) While aggression is defined as "a condition of causing harm either to oneself or to others." Frustration is "the state of mind that result from the inability to obtain some specific goals." Brown Jr, (1981:248) (574 words) www.hasanyahya.com
(ArticlesBase ID #1177924)


				
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