Social support and Social cohesion

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					Social support and
 Social cohesion
    SDH, MPH-85
                         Outlines
   1. Definition
       Structural Capital
       Human Capital
       Social Capital
   2. Why is SC so important?
   4. Types and determinants of SC
   5. How can we measure SC?
   6. Dimension of SC
   7. Cohesion

                                      2
   McElroy’s modified IC map

                 Market Value




   Financial Capital      Intellectual Capital


Human Capital               Social Capital       Structural Capital




                                                                  3
           Structural capital
 Structuralcapital consists of embodiment,
 empowerment, and supportive
 infrastructure of an organization that
 enhances performance of human capital.




                                              4
          Human Capital
 uman
  H      capital refers to the value of
 knowledge, skills and experiences held by
 individual employees in an institution;




                                             5
    Human Innovation Capital
 Human     innovation capital, is the sum total
  capacity of individuals to innovate
 It is a division of Human Capital




                                                   6
Human capital is embodied in the individual

 Asusually defined, human capital is
 embodied in the individual, and the
 national stock of human capital can
 therefore be thought of as the sum total of
 the human capital of all those normally
 resident in its territory.




                                               7
 The  development of individual human
  capital is therefore intertwined with the
  social and collective development of
  knowledge.
 Human capital and knowledge can be
  thought of as joint-products, but
  conceptually, they are distinct and in the
  ideal would be separately measured.

                                               8
    Defining Social Support
“Responsive acts of assistance between
human beings” Tracy and Whittaker (1994)

Many definitions all good - but none the
same
Automatically assumed by most people
Proven Buffer to Stress role
Proven area of Social Science (From
medical research)
           Social Support
 Resources  provided by other persons
 Information leading the subject to
  believe that he is cared for and loved,
  is esteemed and valued and belongs to
  a social network of communication
  and mutual obligation




                                        10
           Social capital definition
Social capital
   Social capital represents the degree of social
    cohesion which exists in communities. It refers
    to the processes between people which
    establish networks, norms and social trust, and
    facilitate co-ordination and co-operation for
    mutual benefit.

       World Health Organization, Health Promotion Glossary, Geneva,
        1998


                                                                   11
           Social capital
         WHO definition cont.
   Social capital is created from the myriad of
    everyday interactions between people, and is
    embodied in such structures as civic and
    religious groups, family membership, informal
    community networks, and in norms of
    voluntarism, humanity and trust. The stronger
    these networks and bonds, the more likely it
    is that members of a community will co-
    operate for mutual benefit.



                                                    12
            Social capital
 Socialcapital consists of the networks,
 norms, relationships, values and informal
 sanctions that shape the quantity and co-
 operative quality of a society’s social
 interactions;




                                             13
      Social innovation capital
 Social innovation capital is the collective
  capacity of a group to innovate.
 It originate from human innovation
  capital and social capital




                                                14
 Difference between HC and SC

           Human Capital                  Social Capital
Focus      Individual Agent               Relationships
Measures   Duration of Schooling,         Attitudes
           Qualifications                 Membership, Participation,
                                          Trust Level
Outcomes   Direct: Income, Productivity   Social Cohesion
           Indirect: Health, Civic        Economic Achievement
           Activity                       More Social Capital
Model      Linear                         Interactive, Circular



                                                                   15
       Trends of social capital
 There is evidence that overall levels of social
  capital have been declining in countries such as
  the United States and Australia.
 Overall levels of social capital have generally
  been stable or rising in countries such as the
  Netherlands, Sweden, Japan and Germany;
 The evidence for the UK is ambiguous, with
  some key indicators showing declines, such as
  social trust, while others appear to have
  remained stable, such as volunteering;

                                                16
                         Outlines
   1. Definition
       Structural Capital
       Human Capital
       Social Capital
   2. Why is SC so important?
   4. Types and trends of SC
   5. How can we measure SC?
   6. Dimension of SC
   7. Cohesion

                                    17
    Social Support and Health
 Socialsupport can be a very powerful
 variable in times of crisis or stressful life
 events.

 Many studies have shown increases in
 mental and physical health to be strongly
 related to the amount of social support
 available in a given situation.

                                                 18
     Evidence for Social Support
   Social support: Durkheim showed lower suicide
    rates according to the degree of integration into
    a social group

   Gore showed that married people are happier,
    less isolated, with more social ties




                                                        19
               Findings

 Women    have more support than men
 Married people have more support than
  single people
 Support decreases with age
 Support increases with socio-economic
  status
 Social support often mediated by health
  related behaviour

                                            20
   The larger a person’s social network, the
    greater the benefits to health
   Social support buffers against stress
   Single people more likely to die from heart
    disease than married people
   Men more likely than women to die within 6
    months of death of their partner
   Social networks decrease with age and men
    tend to be older than their partners
   It may be more effective against stress when
    provided by people who have shared similar
    life experiences

                                                   21
       Social capital and health
   Thus far an observed relationship has been
    identified between various measurable
    attributes of “social capital” and improved
    health status (reduced infant mortality,
    increased life expectancy, lower deaths from
    specific causes) in individuals and
    communities (eg Kawachi 1997, Berkman 2000, and Lynch
    2001)
   Not new as a concept in health research -
    closely related to existing theories that link
    social support and resilience to improved
    health status. Lynch refers to it as “a new and
    more fashionable label for investigations into
    what used to be called social support”          22
        Mechanisms for the action of
          social support on health
   Direct effects
       Encourage healthier behaviors, such as reducing fat
        in diet, taking exercise, or giving up smoking.
       Support increasing perceptions of control over the
        environment, and giving an insurance of self-worth,
        which in turn may improve well-being and immunity to
        disease
   Buffering effects
       Making the treats more manageable or even avoiding
        it.
       Practical aids or emotional consultation may help to
        moderate the impact of the stressor and the ability to
        deal with the consequences of the stressors.

                                                             23
        Effects of Social Support
   Strengthens internal resources (self esteem, meaning,
    value)

   Strengthens external resources (money, childcare,
    employment)

   Buffers difficult life events by producing adapting coping
    behaviors, which strengthen the individual

   Modify the meaning of loss/change


                                                             24
          opposite direction
 There  is also evidence that the association
  between social support and health work in
  opposite direction
 Poor health might be a barrier to
  maintaining or participating in social
  relationships, especially in elderly.




                                             25
           Social Capital
 Cause:
  leading to positive outcomes, economic
  development and less crime
 Effect:
  inferred from the same outcomes

Social Capital remains under-theorized

                                           26
               Other benefits
   Increasing evidence shows that social capital
    is critical for societies to prosper
    economically and for development to be
    sustainable. Social capital, when enhanced
    in a positive manner, can improve project
    effectiveness and sustainability by building
    the community’s capacity to work together to
    address their common needs, fostering
    greater inclusion and cohesion, and
    increasing transparency and accountability.

                                               27
       Social capital benefits
 Socialcapital may contribute to a range of
 beneficial economic and social outcomes
 including : high levels of and growth in
 GDP; more efficiently functioning labor
 markets; higher educational attainment;
 lower levels of crime; better health; and
 more effective institutions of government;



                                           28
                         Outlines
   1. Definition
       Structural Capital
       Human Capital
       Social Capital
   2. Why is SC so important?
   4. Types and determinants of SC
   5. How can we measure SC?
   6. Dimension of SC
   7. Cohesion

                                      29
         Types of social capital
 Three main types of social capital can be
 distinguished :
     Bonding social capital (e.g. among family
      members or ethnic groups);
     Bridging social capital (e.g. across ethnic
      groups); and
     Linking social capital (e.g. between different
      social classes);


                                                       30
             Social Networks
 Bonding:within demographic groups –
 horizontal- exclusionary
 Bridging:between different demographic
 groups - horizontal
        between upper and lower socio-
 Linking:
 economic groups - vertical


                                           31
 Different types of social capital are
  relevant to different economic and social
  outcomes e.g. bonding social capital is
  most important to health in early
  childhood and frail old age whereas
  bridging social capital is most
  important in adult life when looking for
  employment;

                                              32
          What determine the level of
               social capital ?
   History and culture;
   Whether social structures are flat or hierarchical;
   The family;
   Education;
   The built environment;
   Residential mobility;
   Economic inequalities and social class;
   The strength and characteristics of civil society; and
   Patterns of individual consumption and
   personal values.


                                                             33
         promoting the accumulation of
                 social capital
   At the individual level, the available levers include (for example) :
        greater support for families and parenting;
        mentoring;
        new approaches to dealing with offenders; and
        volunteering.
   At the community level, the available levers include (for example) :
        promoting institutions that foster community;
        community IT networks;
        new approaches to the planning and design of the built environment;
        dispersing social housing; and
        using personal networks to pull individuals and communities out of
         poverty.
   At the national level, the available levers include (for example) :
        service learning in schools;
        community service credit schemes; and
        measures to facilitate mutual trust.

                                                                               34
                         Outlines
   1. Definition
       Structural Capital
       Human Capital
       Social Capital
   2. Why is SC so important?
   4. Types and determinants of SC
   5. How can we measure SC?
   6. Dimension of SC
   7. Cohesion

                                      35
    Approaches to Measuring Social Support

   Structural approach views social networks and
    their effects on a broad quantitative level.

   The functional approach takes a more qualitative
    view by looking at particular aspects of social
    support. It can be divided into three factors:
    instrumental support, informational support, and
    emotional support.



                                                    36
       Measurement of Support
 Social   Networks
     Refer to the social contacts of a group of
      persons.


 Social   support




                                                   37
                   Social Networks

   Advantages: Easy to measure, reliability, easily
    verifiable
       Number of contacts
       Frequency of contacts
       Density of network
         • How much each network member is in contact with each
           other
         • How integrated network members are?
   Disadvantages: They do not provide any
    indication of the quality of the interaction taking
    place in social contacts. Although sources of
    support may be identified, the type of support is
    not.
                                                                  38
                    Social support
   Emotional
       Informational
       Self-appraisal
         • Provide support that boosts self-esteem and encourages
           positive self appraisal
   Instrumental or practical support
       Practical help or financial support
   Negative interaction
       Close relationship can have negative as well as
        positive aspects.

                                                                    39
        Functional Aspect of SS
   Instrumental support provides material goods
    and needs.

   Informational support allows for more concrete
    facts and advice.

   Emotional support focuses on the expression of
    caring and concern.



                                                     40
   Informational support is usually perceived as
    helpful only when coming from a professional
    source.

   Emotional support is usually readily accepted
    from anyone (Lehman et al., 1986). Some
    support may seem unhelpful at first and yet
    overtime the respondent will begin to see the
    beneficial intention (Lehman et al., 1986).


                                                    41
         Perceived support
 Ask the respondent whether there is
  someone available to provide support
  should the respondent need it
 How much supports the respondent feels
  and reports they have been given.




                                           42
Issues of Perceived Social Support
 Perceived support is as important if not more
  important than received Social Support
 “Social Support is in the eye of the beholder”
  Carolyn Cutrona (1995)
 Note myth of network size as a factor
 Range of sources important - not pure amount –
  (Professionals make this mistake regularly!)




                                               43
           Measurement tools
 Bybuilding an understanding of
 community-level dynamics, social capital
 measurement can inform strategies for
 designing, implementing and evaluating
 programs.
     The Social Capital Assessment Tool (SOCAT)
     The Social Capital Integrated Questionnaire
      (SC-IQ)


                                                44
   The Social Capital Integrated
      Questionnaire (SC-IQ)
 SC-IQ has a focus on applications in
 developing countries. The tool aims to
 generate quantitative data on various
 dimensions of social capital as part of a
 larger household survey (such as the
 Living Standards Measurement Survey or
 a household income/expenditure survey.



                                             45
1. Are there friends you can depend on to help you, if you really need
   it?
   NO                 SOMETIMES                         YES




2. Do your relationships with your friends provide you with a sense of
   acceptance and happiness?
   NO                 SOMETIMES                         YES




3. Do you feel your talents and abilities are recognised by your friends?
   NO                 SOMETIMES                         YES




4. Is there a friend you could trust to turn to for advice, if you were
   having problems?
   NO                 SOMETIMES                         YES                 46
              Social trust
 Socialtrust is a core component of social
 capital, and is normally used as a key
 indicator of it, sometimes as the best or
 only single indicator.




                                              47
Level of trust in different
       countries
Most people can be trusted (%)
South Korea                60

Switzerland                43

East Germany               35

West Germany               32

Spain                      28

Hungary                    18

Slovenia                   14
                                 48
Percentage of People Saying that
  Most People can be Trusted.




                                   49
                         Outlines
   1. Definition
       Structural Capital
       Human Capital
       Social Capital
   2. Why is SC so important?
   4. Types and determinants of SC
   5. How can we measure SC?
   6. Dimension of SC
   7. Cohesion

                                      50
          Dimensions of SC-IQ
 Specifically,   six dimensions are
  considered:
     groups and networks;
     trust and solidarity;
     collective action and cooperation;
      information and communication;
      social cohesion and inclusion;
      empowerment and political action.

                                           51
 Thesurvey instrument thus reflects the
 group membership (“structural”) and
 subjective perceptions of trust and norms
 (“cognitive”) dimensions of social capital,
 the main ways in which social capital
 operates, and major areas of application
 or outcomes.



                                               52
          Groups and Networks
    This is the category most commonly associated
    with social capital. The questions here consider
    the nature and extent of a household member’s
    participation in various types of social
    organizations and informal networks, and the
    range of contributions that one gives and
    receives from them. It also considers the
    diversity of a given group’s membership, how its
    leadership is selected, and how one’s
    involvement has changed over time.

                                                   53
           Trust and Solidarity
    In addition to the canonical trust question
    asked in a remarkable number of cross-
    national surveys, this category seeks to
    obtain data on trust towards neighbors,
    key service providers, and strangers, and
    how these perceptions have changed over
    time.



                                               54
 Collective Action and Cooperation
 Thiscategory explores whether and how
 household members have worked with
 others in their community on joint projects
 and/or in response to a crisis.




                                               55
Information and Communication
 Thiscategory of questions explores the
 ways and means by which poor
 households receive information regarding
 market conditions and public services, and
 the extent of their access to
 communications infrastructure.




                                          56
 Social Cohesion and Inclusion
 Questions in this category seek to identify
 the nature and extent of differences, the
 mechanisms by which they are managed,
 and which groups are excluded from key
 public services.




                                                57
Empowerment and Political Action
 Thequestions in this section explore
 household members’ sense of happiness,
 personal efficacy, and capacity to
 influence both local events and
 broader political outcomes.




                                      58
                         Outlines
   1. Definition
       Structural Capital
       Human Capital
       Social Capital
   2. Why is SC so important?
   4. Types and determinants of SC
   5. How can we measure SC?
   6. Dimension of SC
   7. Cohesion

                                      59
                Cohesion
 Cohesion  is defined as a "field of forces
 that act on members to remain in the
 group" or "the resistance of a group to
 disruptive forces"




                                               60
    Dimensions of social cohesion
   Belonging vs. Isolation
       Which means shared values, identity, feeling of
        commitment
   Inclusion vs. Exclusion
       Which concerns equal opportunities of access
   Participation vs. Non-involvement
   Recognition vs. Rejection
       Which addresses the issue of respecting and
        tolerating differences in a pluralistic society
   Legitimacy vs. Illegitimacy
       With respect to the institutions acting as mediator in
        conflicts of a pluralistic society

                                                                 61
              Conclusion
 Itdoes not seem likely that social networks
  can be artificially induced and remain long
  lasting.
 An "artificial" intervention may not be as
  effective as naturally formed support
  networks (Helgeson & Cohen, 1996,
  p.145).


                                           62
               Conclusion
 However,    conversely, it seems very
  possible that interventions at a population
  level could reduce social support and
  impair health.
 Policy makers need to be aware of the
  costs and benefits of their policies in social
  terms across a wide range of different
  policies, from economic and town-
  planning, to health service distribution.

                                               63
              Goals For Today:
   1. Definition
       Structural Capital
       Human Capital
       Social Capital
   2. Why is SC so important?
   4. Types and determinants of SC
   5. How can we measure SC?
   6. Dimension of SC
   7. Cohesion

                                      64
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