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					The Theory of Evolution



 The Origin of Life
 Natural Selection and the Evidence
  for Evolution
 Mechanisms of Evolution
   Chapter 15 Concept Map
Describe each person’s experiment and what they proved or disproved:

      Francesco Redi                       Louis Pasteur
            (9)                                (12)


                                                    Lynn Margulis
Alexander Oparin                                        (427)

                   Stanley Miller and Harold Urey
                                (424)




                                                                       2
     Chapter 15 Concept Map
               fossils           evolution             theory

                                  Lamarck                   The Origin of
                                                            Species by Natural
Artificial Selection          Charles Darwin                Selection

                              Natural Selection                 Pg. 369-381

                           descent with modification
       Pg. 381-382                                                      Pg. 384-385
                               common descent

 Adaptations              Homologous Structure                  Examples:

 Mimicry                 Analogous Structure                       Examples:

Camouflage                Vestigial Structures                       Examples:

                         Embryological Development                   Examples:        3
  Definitions
 Spontaneous Generation: Non-
  Living material can produce life.
 Biogenesis: Living organisms
  come only from other living
  organisms.
 Protocell: A large ordered
  structure enclosed by a
  membrane that carried out some
  life activities such as growth and
  division.
 Prokaryotes: unicellular
  organisms that lack internal       Spontaneous Generation
  membrane bound structures.         Experiment (Abiotic)
                                      http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/M/Miller.gif   4
  Definitions
Chemosynthesis: Autotrophic process in which
organisms obtain energy from breaking down
available chemicals usually containing nitrogen and
sulfur.

 Archaebacteria:
  Chemosynthetic
  prokaryotes that live in
  harsh environments such
  as deep sea vents and
  hot springs.
                          Hot Spring: Yellowstone Nat. Park
                                    http://waynesword.palomar.edu/ploct97.htm#hotsprings   5
   Scientists
 Francesco Redi: Disproved that meat
  produced maggots by putting meat in a
  jar and covering it with cheese cloth.
 Louis Pasteur: Proved that
  microorganisms such as bacteria did not
  just arise from air- the final experiment
  in disproving spontaneous generation.
 Alexander Oparin: Hypothesized that
  life began in the oceans. He said that
  the sun, lightning, rain, and various
  chemicals came together to form the
  first life forms.

                                              6
  Scientists
 Miller and Urey: Devised an
  apparatus and process by which life
  molecules such as amino acids and
  sugars could be produced from
  ammonia, methane, hydrogen, and
  water vapor when electricity
  simulating lightning was introduced.
     see page 424
 Lynn Margulis: Responsible for the
  endosymbiotic theory.
     see page 427
                       http://members.dialmaine.com/drwdavis/wsdavis/friends/lynn.jpg   7
  Evolution
 In the world of science, a theory is a
  hypothesis that has been tested over time,
  again and again by many scientists, and their
  results only support the hypothesis- they never
  refute it.
     Scientific Theories:
        DNA structure (Watson and Crick)

        Round Earth

        Evolution of Species




             http://www.astronomy.com/images/astrokids/content/earth.jpg                                                                      8
                                                                           http://imiloa.wcc.hawaii.edu/krupp/BIOL101/present/lcture14/img018.jpg
  Evolution

 Evolution is the change in existing species or the
                                              http://www.fimus.dk/images/evolutio.gif




  appearance of new species over time.
 Species are groups of organisms that can
  successfully interbreed.
 Scientists study fossils in order to determine the
  history of species.
    Fossils are preserved remnants

      of a dead organism.

                                       http://www.stemnet.nf.ca/gif/backgrounds/fossils.jpg   9
  Lamarck’s Evolution Hypothesis
 One of the first scientist to
  recognize organisms have
  changed over time.
 Stated that by selective use or
  disuse of organs, organisms
  acquired or lost certain traits
  during their lifetime.
 These traits could be passed
  on to their offspring and led
  to change in the species over
  time.
      Example: birds flying, giraffes
       neck
      **Found to be incorrect**
                                         10
  Darwin
 Darwin studied plants and animals-
    he was a naturalist.
 He noticed that very similar species on different
  close-by islands had varying traits.
           Geographic Isolation
             Specifically he ended up studying
              finches with varying beak
              size and color.




                                                      11
  Darwin
His theory of Natural Selection
  stemmed from two ideas:
     Organisms usually produce more
      than enough (sometimes even way
      too many) offspring
                                          http://www.karthikram.org/files/images/natural%20selection.jpg

     All individuals are different in
      certain ways (genetic variation).




                                                                                                   12
  Natural Selection
 Darwin arrived with the theory of Natural
 Selection
     It said that the “fittest” shall more often than
      not survive to reproductive age and pass on
      their genes.
     It said that the least fit will often die before
      they can pass on their genes.
     Therefore, the more fit organisms thrive and
      the species will “evolve.”
     “Survival of the Fittest.”
                                                         13
  Natural Selection
 Evidence of Natural Selection
     Predator-Prey relationships
        Camouflage

        Mimicry


                   The Mimic Octopus (All Three Pictures!!)
                   Mimics: flatfish, sea snakes, jawfish,
                   mantis shrimp, lionfish and others!




                                                              14
Natural Selection
   Structural Adaptations
     •Long necks in a giraffe
     •Webbed feet in a duck




                                15
  Evidence for Evolution
 Fossils and the places that they were found.
      Recent fossils never found in old rock layers.
      Ancient fossils never found in new rock layers.
 Anatomy

   •Homologous
   Structures:
   similar structures
   (often with completely
   different functions)
   with the same
   evolutionary origin.
       -see page 384
                                                         16
Evidence for Evolution
Analogous Structures: structures with similar
functions, but with different evolutionary origins.




                                                      17
Evidence for Evolution
 Vestigial Structures: have no function in
 present organism but may have had use in
 ancestral organism.




                                             18
Evidence for Evolution
 Embryology:
     Fish, reptile, bird and mammal all have gill slits as
      embryos.
     Embryos very similar in many stages of development.




•Biochemistry:
  •DNA Codons alike throughout all life forms.
  •DNA sequences differ depending on evolutionary
  relationships.                                              19
 Summary of Darwin’s Theory
 Individual organisms differ, and some of
  this variation is heritable.
 Organisms produce more offspring than can
  survive.
 Organisms compete for limited resources
 Individuals best suited will survive,
  reproduce and pass on traits
 Species alive today are descended from
  ancestor species
                                              20
       Origins of Life Scientists Tree Map
                        Origins of Life Scientists




Redi          Pasteur              Oparin             Miller and         Margolis
                                                         Urey
Flies      S-shaped flask       Organic soup                        Endosymbiant
Maggots      Biogenesis     Life originated in the       First              theory
Disproved                           oceans           atmosphere        Eukaryotic
spontaneous                                            made of
                                                                        cells have
generation                                            methane,
                                                      ammonia,               arisen
                                                      hydrogen,
                                                     water vapor
                                                      Electricity
                                                     Amino acids


                                                                                21
  Evidence for Evolution Circle Map

  Forelimbs of                                           Fish, reptile,
crocodiles, bats,                                       bird, mammal
  and humans
                    Homologous structures
                     (Different function)

                                 Evidence for    Embryology
                                  Evolution

                    Analogous
                    structures
                     (Similar               Vestigial       Appendix
 Wings of                                                   Tailbone
                    function)
 birds and                                                  Sightless
 butterflies                                                  eyes
                                                                          22
  Population Genetics Circle Map
Definition:
   Chance or                                                   Selection of
 frequency any                                              traits determined
  one allele is
      seen                                                        by man
                     Allele Frequency          Artificial
                                               selection             Selection
Frequency         Genetic                                            by one
does not          equilibrium     Population         Sexual          gender for
change                             Genetics                          another
                                                     selection
                 Gene flow                                         Chance
Movement                                                          event can
into or out of                            Genetic drift           alter gene
                      Gene pool
a population                                                     frequencies
                                                                     Ex. –
             All alleles in a population                            Amish
             added together                                         people      23
     Types of Selection Tree Map
                       Types of Selection




Disruptive                  Directional      Stabilizing
Favors both extremes    Favors one extreme   Favors the
                                               average




                                                      24
     Types of Speciation Tree Map
                             Types of Speciation




Geographic Reproductive            Polyploidy        Punctuated    Gradualism
Causes of    Can no longer      Most common in        Occurs in       Gradual
speciation    breed with             plants          rapid burst      change
over long        parent            Changes in
periods of    population          chromosome
time         Fall breeding          number
Organisms        Spring           Caused from
separated      breeding        mistakes in meiosis




                                                                           25
            Divergent vs. Convergent Evolution Double Bubble Map


                                  Patterns of       Unrelated
               Starts with        evolution         species in
               similar species                       similar
                                                  environments   Evolve same
Become                                                           adaptations
different



                     Divergent                  Convergent
                     evolution                   evolution
Adaptive
radiation




                                   Involves                         Cactus
        Darwin’s finches            species
                                   changing
                                                                             26
   Charles Darwin Circle Map
    His book                                               His theory


His research     The Origin of Species         Natural
was                                            selection
conducted        Galapagos
here             Islands          Charles Darwin
                                                   Father of
                                                   Evolution
      Ship HMS Beagle

                                              Finches
                     Naturalist
               Job
                                                             Studied
                                                            beak sizes
                                                                         27
  Words Circle Map
Unicellular; lack membrane                          First cell enclosed by
    bound organelles                                      membrane
                                      Protocell
Autotrophs make                                                 Change in
energy from
                        Prokaryote
                                                  Evolution     species over
chemicals
                  Chemosynthesis                                time
Preserved                        Words we left
                   Fossils           out           Theory        Hypothesis that
remains                                                          has undergone
Blends in         Camouflage                                     repeated testing
                                                  Structural
                      Archaebacteria             adaptations      Body
   Prokaryotes
   that carry out                    Mimicry                    changes to
                                                               adapt to the
   chemosynthesis                                              environment
                                 Acts alike
                                                                               28

				
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