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Early Childhood Motor Development


  • pg 1
									Early Childhood Motor

       Gross Motor
        Fine Motor
   Art in Development
• Gross Motor - whole body movement,
  movement from large muscle groups

• Fine Motor – coordination of small muscle
  movements (i.e. fingers/eye coordination)
When can I…

 Pedal and steer a tricycle?
When can I…

Pedal and steer a tricycle? 3-4 years

         Gross Motor Skill
When can I…

Zip and Unzip large zippers?
   When can I…

Zip and Unzip large zippers? 2-3 years

           Fine Motor Skill
When can I…

Draw a person with six parts?
  When can I…

Draw a person with six parts? 5-6 years

           Fine Motor Skill
 When can I…

Walk downstairs – alternating feet?
      When can I…

Walk downstairs – alternating feet? 4-5 years

              Gross Motor Skill
When can I…

   Tie shoes?
When can I…

 Tie shoes? 5-6 years

    Fine Motor Skill
When can I…

   Use scissors?
When can I…

  Use scissors? 3-4 years

      Fine Motor Skill
            Early Childhood
       Gross Motor Development
• Gravity shifts downward greatly improving
• Children are steadier on their feet, freeing
  arms and torsos to experiment with new skills:
  – Throwing and Catching Balls
  – Pedaling Tricycles
  – Swinging on horizontal bars
            Early Childhood
       Gross Motor Development

• Then, upper and lower body skills combine
  into more refined actions
  – Pedal and steer a tricycle
             Early Childhood
        Gross Motor Development
                Changes in Catching
• Age 2 – Children extend arms
  rigidly, ball bounces off body.
• Age 3 – Children flex elbows
  in preparation for catching,
  trap ball against chest.
• Age 5-6 – Children involve
  whole body, catch ball with
  just hands and fingers
             Early Childhood
        Fine Motor Development
• Fine motor skills
  grow rapidly during
  preschool years.
• Growth most
  apparent in 2 areas:
  – Children’s care of
    their own bodies
  – Drawing/Painting
        Fine Motor Development
             Self-Help Skills
• Young children gradually become self-
  sufficient at dressing and feeding:
  – Age 2-3 – put on and take off simple items of
    clothing, use spoon effectively
  – Age 4-5 – dress and undress without
    supervision, adept with fork
  – Age 5-6 – use knife to cut soft foods
        Fine Motor Development
             Self-Help Skills
• Age 6 – Tying Shoes
  – Shows the connection between cognitive and
    motor development
  – Requires long attention span
  – Memory for intricate series of hand movements
    and dexterity to perform them
           Fine Motor Development
• Other factors combine
  with fine motor control
  in the development of
  children’s artistic
   – Realization that pictures
     can serve as symbols
   – Improved planning and
     spatial understanding
   – Emphasis that the child’s
     culture places on artistic
        Fine Motor Development
Drawing typically progresses in the following
1. Scribbles
2. First Representational Forms
3. More Realistic Drawings

                               La Casa Fantastica, Marker, Alice F.,
                               Age 5, Fano, Italy
         Fine Motor Development
• Western children begin to draw during 2nd
• First, intended representation is contained in
  gestures rather than resulting marks.
• Children experimenting with holding pencil
  (left or right-handed)

                          Choo Choo, Microsoft Paint, Alex H., Age 2,
                          Oklahoma, USA
          Fine Motor Development
        First Representational Forms
• Age 3 – scribbles start to
  become pictures
• Often, children notice they
  made a recognizable shape
  after making a mark through
  gesture and label it.
• Children begin to use lines to
  represent boundaries of
  objects enabling 3-4 year olds
  to draw the first pictures of a
                                    Yorin Dancing with Mama, Marker,
                                    Yorin B, Age 4, The Netherlands
        Fine Motor Development
         More Realistic Drawings
• As cognitive & fine motor skills begin to
  improve, children start to desire greater
• More complex drawings
• Start to represent depth, art contains
  perceptual distortions

                                 Dancing Mice, Marker & Crayon,
                                 Megan B., Age 7, Canada
   Cultural Variations
• In cultures with rich artistic
  traditions, children create
  elaborate drawings
  reflecting cultural
• In cultures with little
  interest in art, even older
  produce simple forms.
Jimi Valley of Papua New Guinea
          Fine Motor Development
• First, preschoolers don’t
  distinguish between drawing
  and writing
• Age 4 – writing shows
  features of print
   – Separate forms aligned on a
   – Often includes picture-like
• Age 4-6 – children realize
  writing stands for language
            Motor Development
           Individual Differences
• Wide individual differences exist in the ages
  when children reach motor milestones
• Sex differences in motor skills evident in early
• Social pressures for boys to be physically
  active and for girls to play quietly exaggerate
  small genetically based sex differences
             Enhancing Children’s
             Motor Development
• Formal lessons during preschool
  years have little impact on motor
• Children master motor skills
  naturally as part of everyday play
• Physical environment of informal
  play affects mastery of motor
• Supported by daily routines
• Social climate – focus on “fun”
  rather than winning or correct
  Art in Development

Lion Dance, Oil Pastel, Lisa C., Age 10, Sabah, Malaysia
                    Why Art?
• Human Right?
  – UN International Convention
  – Jewish Ghetto of Treason,
    Czechoslovakia – I Have Not
    Seen a Butterfly Around Here
• Means of enhancing
  everyday life
• Means of expression
• Means of understanding
                Why Not Art?
• Realm of the “gifted”
• Emotional rather than serious thought
  – Less obvious utility
• Expensive

              La Maison de Reve, Watercolor, Leonie V.,
              Age 5, Boulogne, France
       Art & Children’s Programs
• Employed parents have less
  time for traditional craft and
  cooking activities
• Early childhood educators
  have greater responsibility to
  provide range of sensory
• Exploration of different
• Developmentally appropriate
          Contemporary Models
              Reggio Emilia
• 1940s – Loris Malaguzzi –
  journalist/psychologist decided to rebuild war-
  ravaged school system in town close to
  Bologna, Italy

             Municipal Infant-Toddler Centers and
             Preschools - Reggio Emilia, Italy
             Contemporary Models
                 Reggio Emilia
• Philosophy based on belief
  that art is a natural form of
  symbolic expression, central
  to the education process, and
  integral to the rest of the
• Problem-solving approach to
• Develop projects over a long
  period of time
   – Allows for expansion of ideas,
     achievement of ambitious
            Contemporary Models
                Reggio Emilia
• Teachers:
  – Act as facilitators of
  – Challenge
    preconceived ideas,
    provoke new
  – Act as collaborators
    with students by         Reggio Emilia precepts at work at Madison Avenue
    alternating              Presbyterian Church Day School
         Contemporary Models
           Mia Mia Program
• Macquarie University, Australia
• Demonstrates how successful art program can
  be mounted at campus child-care center
• Day care for children 6 months – 5 years
• Unique collaboration between center’s staff
  and Ursula Kolbe, artist-in-residence
• Parallel philosophy of Reggio Emilia though
  developed independently
      Communicating About Art
• Development of verbal language
  to talk about art
  – Color, texture, line, patterns, mass,
    space, shape
• Increase observation skills –
  children become more perceptive
• Increasing awareness of visual
  – “stretch” visual understanding of
    cultural symbols through authentic
    visual forms                            Navajo Weaving
                Sustaining Creativity
• Studies* show creativity rapidly diminishes
  over time
   – Age 3-5 – 98% think divergently
   – Age 8-10 – 32%
   – Age 13-15 – 10%
   – Age 25 – 2%
• Where elementary age children continue to
  experience artistic guidance/stimulation, art
  production continues to flourish

 *Scottish Book Trust Conference, Glasgow, March 2005
Horace Pippin’s Interior
           Art in Development
          Summary of Key Skills
• Increase problem-solving and critical thinking
• Increase visual perception
• Increase verbal skills through discussing art
• Appreciation of cultural diversity
• Collaboration
• Sustain creativity throughout life
• Global Children’s Art Gallery -

• NGA Classroom for Teachers & Students -

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