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Early Childhood Motor Development Gross Motor Fine Motor Art in Development Definitions • Gross Motor - whole body movement, movement from large muscle groups • Fine Motor – coordination of small muscle movements (i.e. fingers/eye coordination) When can I… Pedal and steer a tricycle? When can I… Pedal and steer a tricycle? 3-4 years Gross Motor Skill When can I… Zip and Unzip large zippers? When can I… Zip and Unzip large zippers? 2-3 years Fine Motor Skill When can I… Draw a person with six parts? When can I… Draw a person with six parts? 5-6 years Fine Motor Skill When can I… Walk downstairs – alternating feet? When can I… Walk downstairs – alternating feet? 4-5 years Gross Motor Skill When can I… Tie shoes? When can I… Tie shoes? 5-6 years Fine Motor Skill When can I… Use scissors? When can I… Use scissors? 3-4 years Fine Motor Skill Early Childhood Gross Motor Development • Gravity shifts downward greatly improving balance. • Children are steadier on their feet, freeing arms and torsos to experiment with new skills: – Throwing and Catching Balls – Pedaling Tricycles – Swinging on horizontal bars Early Childhood Gross Motor Development • Then, upper and lower body skills combine into more refined actions – Pedal and steer a tricycle Early Childhood Gross Motor Development Changes in Catching • Age 2 – Children extend arms rigidly, ball bounces off body. • Age 3 – Children flex elbows in preparation for catching, trap ball against chest. • Age 5-6 – Children involve whole body, catch ball with just hands and fingers Early Childhood Fine Motor Development • Fine motor skills grow rapidly during preschool years. • Growth most apparent in 2 areas: – Children’s care of their own bodies – Drawing/Painting Fine Motor Development Self-Help Skills • Young children gradually become self- sufficient at dressing and feeding: – Age 2-3 – put on and take off simple items of clothing, use spoon effectively – Age 4-5 – dress and undress without supervision, adept with fork – Age 5-6 – use knife to cut soft foods Fine Motor Development Self-Help Skills • Age 6 – Tying Shoes – Shows the connection between cognitive and motor development – Requires long attention span – Memory for intricate series of hand movements and dexterity to perform them Fine Motor Development Drawing • Other factors combine with fine motor control in the development of children’s artistic abilities: – Realization that pictures can serve as symbols – Improved planning and spatial understanding – Emphasis that the child’s culture places on artistic expression Fine Motor Development Drawing Drawing typically progresses in the following sequence: 1. Scribbles 2. First Representational Forms 3. More Realistic Drawings La Casa Fantastica, Marker, Alice F., Age 5, Fano, Italy Fine Motor Development Scribbling • Western children begin to draw during 2nd year. • First, intended representation is contained in gestures rather than resulting marks. • Children experimenting with holding pencil (left or right-handed) Choo Choo, Microsoft Paint, Alex H., Age 2, Oklahoma, USA Fine Motor Development First Representational Forms • Age 3 – scribbles start to become pictures • Often, children notice they made a recognizable shape after making a mark through gesture and label it. • Children begin to use lines to represent boundaries of objects enabling 3-4 year olds to draw the first pictures of a person. Yorin Dancing with Mama, Marker, Yorin B, Age 4, The Netherlands Fine Motor Development More Realistic Drawings • As cognitive & fine motor skills begin to improve, children start to desire greater realism. • More complex drawings • Start to represent depth, art contains perceptual distortions Dancing Mice, Marker & Crayon, Megan B., Age 7, Canada Drawing Cultural Variations • In cultures with rich artistic traditions, children create elaborate drawings reflecting cultural conventions. • In cultures with little interest in art, even older children/adolescents produce simple forms. Drawing Jimi Valley of Papua New Guinea Fine Motor Development Printing • First, preschoolers don’t distinguish between drawing and writing • Age 4 – writing shows features of print – Separate forms aligned on a page – Often includes picture-like devices • Age 4-6 – children realize writing stands for language Motor Development Individual Differences • Wide individual differences exist in the ages when children reach motor milestones • Sex differences in motor skills evident in early childhood • Social pressures for boys to be physically active and for girls to play quietly exaggerate small genetically based sex differences Enhancing Children’s Motor Development • Formal lessons during preschool years have little impact on motor development • Children master motor skills naturally as part of everyday play • Physical environment of informal play affects mastery of motor skills • Supported by daily routines • Social climate – focus on “fun” rather than winning or correct technique Art in Development Lion Dance, Oil Pastel, Lisa C., Age 10, Sabah, Malaysia Why Art? • Human Right? – UN International Convention – Jewish Ghetto of Treason, Czechoslovakia – I Have Not Seen a Butterfly Around Here • Means of enhancing everyday life • Means of expression • Means of understanding culture Why Not Art? • Realm of the “gifted” • Emotional rather than serious thought – Less obvious utility • Expensive La Maison de Reve, Watercolor, Leonie V., Age 5, Boulogne, France Art & Children’s Programs • Employed parents have less time for traditional craft and cooking activities • Early childhood educators have greater responsibility to provide range of sensory experiences • Exploration of different media • Developmentally appropriate practice Contemporary Models Reggio Emilia • 1940s – Loris Malaguzzi – journalist/psychologist decided to rebuild war- ravaged school system in town close to Bologna, Italy Municipal Infant-Toddler Centers and Preschools - Reggio Emilia, Italy Contemporary Models Reggio Emilia • Philosophy based on belief that art is a natural form of symbolic expression, central to the education process, and integral to the rest of the curriculum • Problem-solving approach to learning • Develop projects over a long period of time – Allows for expansion of ideas, achievement of ambitious goals Contemporary Models Reggio Emilia • Teachers: – Act as facilitators of children’s development – Challenge preconceived ideas, provoke new competencies – Act as collaborators with students by Reggio Emilia precepts at work at Madison Avenue alternating Presbyterian Church Day School leadership Contemporary Models Mia Mia Program • Macquarie University, Australia • Demonstrates how successful art program can be mounted at campus child-care center • Day care for children 6 months – 5 years • Unique collaboration between center’s staff and Ursula Kolbe, artist-in-residence • Parallel philosophy of Reggio Emilia though developed independently Communicating About Art • Development of verbal language to talk about art – Color, texture, line, patterns, mass, space, shape • Increase observation skills – children become more perceptive • Increasing awareness of visual environment – “stretch” visual understanding of cultural symbols through authentic visual forms Navajo Weaving Sustaining Creativity • Studies* show creativity rapidly diminishes over time – Age 3-5 – 98% think divergently – Age 8-10 – 32% – Age 13-15 – 10% – Age 25 – 2% • Where elementary age children continue to experience artistic guidance/stimulation, art production continues to flourish *Scottish Book Trust Conference, Glasgow, March 2005 Horace Pippin’s Interior Art in Development Summary of Key Skills • Increase problem-solving and critical thinking skills • Increase visual perception • Increase verbal skills through discussing art • Appreciation of cultural diversity • Collaboration • Sustain creativity throughout life Resources • Global Children’s Art Gallery - http://www.naturalchild.org/gallery/ • NGA Classroom for Teachers & Students - http://www.nga.gov/education/classroom/ind ex.mhtm
"Early Childhood Motor Development"