Early Childhood Motor Development

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					Early Childhood Motor
     Development

       Gross Motor
        Fine Motor
   Art in Development
                Definitions
• Gross Motor - whole body movement,
  movement from large muscle groups

• Fine Motor – coordination of small muscle
  movements (i.e. fingers/eye coordination)
When can I…




 Pedal and steer a tricycle?
When can I…




Pedal and steer a tricycle? 3-4 years

         Gross Motor Skill
When can I…




Zip and Unzip large zippers?
   When can I…




Zip and Unzip large zippers? 2-3 years

           Fine Motor Skill
When can I…




Draw a person with six parts?
  When can I…




Draw a person with six parts? 5-6 years

           Fine Motor Skill
 When can I…




Walk downstairs – alternating feet?
      When can I…




Walk downstairs – alternating feet? 4-5 years

              Gross Motor Skill
When can I…




   Tie shoes?
When can I…




 Tie shoes? 5-6 years

    Fine Motor Skill
When can I…




   Use scissors?
When can I…




  Use scissors? 3-4 years

      Fine Motor Skill
            Early Childhood
       Gross Motor Development
• Gravity shifts downward greatly improving
  balance.
• Children are steadier on their feet, freeing
  arms and torsos to experiment with new skills:
  – Throwing and Catching Balls
  – Pedaling Tricycles
  – Swinging on horizontal bars
            Early Childhood
       Gross Motor Development

• Then, upper and lower body skills combine
  into more refined actions
  – Pedal and steer a tricycle
             Early Childhood
        Gross Motor Development
                Changes in Catching
• Age 2 – Children extend arms
  rigidly, ball bounces off body.
• Age 3 – Children flex elbows
  in preparation for catching,
  trap ball against chest.
• Age 5-6 – Children involve
  whole body, catch ball with
  just hands and fingers
             Early Childhood
        Fine Motor Development
• Fine motor skills
  grow rapidly during
  preschool years.
• Growth most
  apparent in 2 areas:
  – Children’s care of
    their own bodies
  – Drawing/Painting
        Fine Motor Development
             Self-Help Skills
• Young children gradually become self-
  sufficient at dressing and feeding:
  – Age 2-3 – put on and take off simple items of
    clothing, use spoon effectively
  – Age 4-5 – dress and undress without
    supervision, adept with fork
  – Age 5-6 – use knife to cut soft foods
        Fine Motor Development
             Self-Help Skills
• Age 6 – Tying Shoes
  – Shows the connection between cognitive and
    motor development
  – Requires long attention span
  – Memory for intricate series of hand movements
    and dexterity to perform them
           Fine Motor Development
                  Drawing
• Other factors combine
  with fine motor control
  in the development of
  children’s artistic
  abilities:
   – Realization that pictures
     can serve as symbols
   – Improved planning and
     spatial understanding
   – Emphasis that the child’s
     culture places on artistic
     expression
        Fine Motor Development
               Drawing
Drawing typically progresses in the following
  sequence:
1. Scribbles
2. First Representational Forms
3. More Realistic Drawings



                               La Casa Fantastica, Marker, Alice F.,
                               Age 5, Fano, Italy
         Fine Motor Development
                Scribbling
• Western children begin to draw during 2nd
  year.
• First, intended representation is contained in
  gestures rather than resulting marks.
• Children experimenting with holding pencil
  (left or right-handed)



                          Choo Choo, Microsoft Paint, Alex H., Age 2,
                          Oklahoma, USA
          Fine Motor Development
        First Representational Forms
• Age 3 – scribbles start to
  become pictures
• Often, children notice they
  made a recognizable shape
  after making a mark through
  gesture and label it.
• Children begin to use lines to
  represent boundaries of
  objects enabling 3-4 year olds
  to draw the first pictures of a
  person.
                                    Yorin Dancing with Mama, Marker,
                                    Yorin B, Age 4, The Netherlands
        Fine Motor Development
         More Realistic Drawings
• As cognitive & fine motor skills begin to
  improve, children start to desire greater
  realism.
• More complex drawings
• Start to represent depth, art contains
  perceptual distortions


                                 Dancing Mice, Marker & Crayon,
                                 Megan B., Age 7, Canada
        Drawing
   Cultural Variations
• In cultures with rich artistic
  traditions, children create
  elaborate drawings
  reflecting cultural
  conventions.
• In cultures with little
  interest in art, even older
  children/adolescents
  produce simple forms.
             Drawing
Jimi Valley of Papua New Guinea
          Fine Motor Development
                  Printing
• First, preschoolers don’t
  distinguish between drawing
  and writing
• Age 4 – writing shows
  features of print
   – Separate forms aligned on a
     page
   – Often includes picture-like
     devices
• Age 4-6 – children realize
  writing stands for language
            Motor Development
           Individual Differences
• Wide individual differences exist in the ages
  when children reach motor milestones
• Sex differences in motor skills evident in early
  childhood
• Social pressures for boys to be physically
  active and for girls to play quietly exaggerate
  small genetically based sex differences
             Enhancing Children’s
             Motor Development
• Formal lessons during preschool
  years have little impact on motor
  development
• Children master motor skills
  naturally as part of everyday play
• Physical environment of informal
  play affects mastery of motor
  skills
• Supported by daily routines
• Social climate – focus on “fun”
  rather than winning or correct
  technique
  Art in Development




Lion Dance, Oil Pastel, Lisa C., Age 10, Sabah, Malaysia
                    Why Art?
• Human Right?
  – UN International Convention
  – Jewish Ghetto of Treason,
    Czechoslovakia – I Have Not
    Seen a Butterfly Around Here
• Means of enhancing
  everyday life
• Means of expression
• Means of understanding
  culture
                Why Not Art?
• Realm of the “gifted”
• Emotional rather than serious thought
  – Less obvious utility
• Expensive




              La Maison de Reve, Watercolor, Leonie V.,
              Age 5, Boulogne, France
       Art & Children’s Programs
• Employed parents have less
  time for traditional craft and
  cooking activities
• Early childhood educators
  have greater responsibility to
  provide range of sensory
  experiences
• Exploration of different
  media
• Developmentally appropriate
  practice
          Contemporary Models
              Reggio Emilia
• 1940s – Loris Malaguzzi –
  journalist/psychologist decided to rebuild war-
  ravaged school system in town close to
  Bologna, Italy




             Municipal Infant-Toddler Centers and
             Preschools - Reggio Emilia, Italy
             Contemporary Models
                 Reggio Emilia
• Philosophy based on belief
  that art is a natural form of
  symbolic expression, central
  to the education process, and
  integral to the rest of the
  curriculum
• Problem-solving approach to
  learning
• Develop projects over a long
  period of time
   – Allows for expansion of ideas,
     achievement of ambitious
     goals
            Contemporary Models
                Reggio Emilia
• Teachers:
  – Act as facilitators of
    children’s
    development
  – Challenge
    preconceived ideas,
    provoke new
    competencies
  – Act as collaborators
    with students by         Reggio Emilia precepts at work at Madison Avenue
    alternating              Presbyterian Church Day School
    leadership
         Contemporary Models
           Mia Mia Program
• Macquarie University, Australia
• Demonstrates how successful art program can
  be mounted at campus child-care center
• Day care for children 6 months – 5 years
• Unique collaboration between center’s staff
  and Ursula Kolbe, artist-in-residence
• Parallel philosophy of Reggio Emilia though
  developed independently
      Communicating About Art
• Development of verbal language
  to talk about art
  – Color, texture, line, patterns, mass,
    space, shape
• Increase observation skills –
  children become more perceptive
• Increasing awareness of visual
  environment
  – “stretch” visual understanding of
    cultural symbols through authentic
    visual forms                            Navajo Weaving
                Sustaining Creativity
• Studies* show creativity rapidly diminishes
  over time
   – Age 3-5 – 98% think divergently
   – Age 8-10 – 32%
   – Age 13-15 – 10%
   – Age 25 – 2%
• Where elementary age children continue to
  experience artistic guidance/stimulation, art
  production continues to flourish

 *Scottish Book Trust Conference, Glasgow, March 2005
Horace Pippin’s Interior
           Art in Development
          Summary of Key Skills
• Increase problem-solving and critical thinking
  skills
• Increase visual perception
• Increase verbal skills through discussing art
• Appreciation of cultural diversity
• Collaboration
• Sustain creativity throughout life
                Resources
• Global Children’s Art Gallery -
  http://www.naturalchild.org/gallery/

• NGA Classroom for Teachers & Students -
  http://www.nga.gov/education/classroom/ind
  ex.mhtm

				
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posted:2/16/2012
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