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					Environmental Issues and Sustainable
   Development in Northeast Asia

                 DR. KIM Myung Ja
        Member of the Korean National Assembly
       Former Minister of Environment (1999-2003)

1. Global Environmental Issues
2. Northeast Asian Environmental Issues

3. Global Efforts to Resolve Environmental Issues

4. Korea’s Sustainable Development Efforts

5. Future Policy Directions for Sustainable

1. Global Environmental Issues

   In the Past
   Impact from environmental pollution was limited to local areas


    Environmental issues are growing in complexity
    expanding beyond national boundaries
     requiring collective action


Environmental concerns intricately linked to social arena,
including economy and trade

Environment emerged as a top agenda item for the
  international community, exerting substantial
    influence on government decision-making

             Global Environmental Issues

         A. Global Warming and extreme weather patterns

Excessive use of fossil fuels like coal and petroleum
 increase in the level of carbon dioxide CO 2 in the
 atmosphere (early industrialization period: 280ppm → 1990: 363ppm)
 aggravating climate change

        Submersion of low-elevation areas
and extreme weather patterns such as flood, drought,
 and heavy snowstorms are occurring with frequency.
B. Destruction of ozone layer

    Due to ozone-depleting substances like CFCs, more than
    half of the ozone layer above the South Pole
    (320 times the size of the Republic of Korea) has been destroyed
    in the last 10 years
-   Increased amount of ultraviolet radiation reaches earth’s surface,
    leading to higher instances of skin cancer, eye ailments,
    weakening of the human immune system.

C. Biodiversity loss

 ! risk of extinction !

 14% of existing plant species (242,000 in total)
 33% of existing fish species (24,000 in total)
 11% of existing bird species (9,600 in total)
 14% of mammalian species (4,400 in total)

   Ecosystem balance and the capacity for natural purification are
   lost, along with the potential benefits of biological resources.

D. Exposure to harmful chemical substances

    Dangers arising from the increased use of various chemical
    substances on human health and biological organisms

   Increasing endocrine disruptors (environmental hormones),
   disturb regular hormonal activities in human body

2. Northeast Asian Environmental Issues

  Northeast Asia

     One of the most economically vibrant regions in the world
   - Expansion of economic activities
   - Environmental problems (air pollution, poor water quality,
     marine pollution, destruction of the natural
    Rapid desertification and dust and sandstorms
    from Inner Mongolia and the western part of China
    (phenomena closely linked to global warming)
    require extensive remediation and prevention efforts

Republic of Korea
  Rapid economic growth since the 1960s
  - Substantial air and water pollution
  Social overhead capital (SOC) construction projects such as
  large-scale housing, industrial zone developments,
  roads and dams
  - Destruction and loss of natural ecosystems

    Similar problems are now seen in China and other
     countries in Northeast Asia, which are currently
          undertaking intensive industrialization
Republic of Korea

  Small landmass, high population density, and scarce
  water resources

   Highest level of environmental pressures per unit
   area among OECD member countries

  To ensure environmental sustainability,

   Sound national policies for efficient use of land, energy, and
   other natural resources are necessary

Republic of Korea

  Environmental problems: closely linked to land use and land
  management measures

  Vicious cycle
    Reckless development that ignores the values of the
    natural environment
    natural ecosystem degradation
    deterioration of the living environment
    increased cost to society

Republic of Korea

 65.4% of national territory consists of forests
   outstanding natural ecosystems but limited land for urban
   Supply-oriented land development policies
   Severe damage of natural ecosystems such as Baek-du
   mountain range (ecological backbone of the Korea)

          Between 1992 and 2001, approximately 1.32
    billion square meters had been developed, while 1.88
           billion square meters of forests, farmland
                 and tidal flats had disappeared.
3. Global Environmental Protection Efforts

o Environmental preservation activities began in the 1970s.
 - UN Conference on the Human Environment (1972) & establishment
   of the UN Environment Programme (UNEP)
 - “Sustainable Development" (1987):
    Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising
    the ability of future generations to meet their own needs
 - UN Conference on Environment and Development (1992)
 - World Summit on Sustainable Development (2002)


Environmental cooperation through such mechanisms as
the annual Tripartite Environment Ministers Meeting
(TEMM) has been initiated.

Asia-Pacific Forum on Environment & Development (APFED)

- August 23-24, Adelaide, Australia

 Regional Environment Efforts

   In February 2003, the project to tackle dust and sandstorms
   began among Korea, China, Japan, and Mongolia as well as
   international agencies like UNEP, ADB and GEF.

   The Northeast Asia Environmental Cooperation Mid- to
   Long-Term Roadmap: Tumen River Basin Environmental
   Preservation Project

   Northeast Asian Sub-regional Programme of
   Environmental Cooperation (NEASPEC)

   Environment Congress for Asia and the Pacific (ECO-ASIA)

Korea’s Master Plan for Environmental Policy in 2004

                   • Special measures to improve air quality in capital region
  Creation of      • Protection of human health from hazardous substances
 Pleasant Env’t
                   • Total water pollution load management
                   • Strengthening waste resource management

Harmonization of   • Development of sustainable technologies for 21st C
Env’t & Economy    • Promotion of green corporate management

Establishment of   • Establishment of eco-friendly land use system
  Eco-Network      • Protection of ecosystem in Korean peninsula

  Global Env’t     • Active participation in global env’t effort
  Preservation     • 2004 UNEP Meeting

         Urban Air Quality Improvement

    Special Act on Air Quality Improvement in Capital Region

                      Before                          After

                Among the Lowest in             OECD Average
                OECD (NO2 in Seoul : 36ppb)     (NO2 in Seoul : 22ppb)

                Concentration Control         Total Local Emissions Load
                for Each Pollution Medium     Management
Policy                                        Emissions Trading Permit in
                Support for Diffusion of
Tools           Low-emission Vehicles
                                              Industrial Plants
                                              Obligatory Use of Low-
                                              Emission Vehicles

Estimated       Allocated Budget for          Plan to Invest 6 Trillion
 Budget         2003: 85.8 Billion Won        Won in Next 10 Years
                 Water Source Quality Improvement and
                 Demand-Side Management

           Integrated Management of 4 Major Domestic Rivers
               Special Acts on Water Management of 4 Rivers
                • Han River (1999.8)
                • Nakdong, Geum & Yeongsan Rivers (2002.7)

                                                           Non-point Pollution
Water Pollution Prevention   Spirit of Mutual Prosperity
                                                           Source Management

                              420 discussions              Non-point pollution
  Riparian buffer zones,
                              Collaboration btw. local     source management
  industrial location
                              residents and government     24-hour monitoring
                              Water User Fee imposition    network & scientific
  Land purchase
                              in lower stream region,      water quality modeling
 Total water pollution
                              support to upstream          River ecosystem
  load management
                              region                       restoration

                Precautionary Watershed Management System
        Resource-Circulating Waste Management

      Extended Producers Responsibility (EPR) System

       Objective : Reduce waste & facilitate recycling by
       Date of Enforcement : 2003. 1
       Producers Responsibility : Soundly dispose of mandatory
       waste recycling volume either directly or through
       commission (impose charges in case of non-compliance)

<Expected Effects>
                              394 billion won
         Reduction in waste                      Business cost
         treatment fees :                        reduction :
                                                 62 billion won
         332 billion won
    Volume-Based Waste Fee System

Use of special garbage bags   Promote recycling

                              Reduce the volume of waste
Charge collection fees        through economic incentives
based on the volume of
                              - 45%  in waste generation
waste disposed                - 115%  in recycling
                              - $ 4 billion in socio-economic

            Natural Environment Preservation

             Precautionary National Land Preservation

                             Comprehensive Plan on
                            National Land Management

                        Set Priority Targets on
                        National Land Management
                        Initiate Full-Scale Survey of the
                        National Land Environment

  Consolidating National             Prior Env’t             Greening the New
Land Protection Measures      Performance Assessment        Administrative Capital
  Preservation of natural      Strategic Env’t              Green space, env’t
                               Assessment                   friendly transportation
  sceneries, prior review
                               Reinforcement of Env’t       system
  National land env’t
                               Impact Assessment            Energy & resources
  evaluation map

                  Harmony btw. Development & Preservation-
                   Preventing Reckless Land Development                               22
Establishment of Ecological Network

       Protection of ecosystem in the Korean peninsula

                                                      Baek-du Mountain Range

 ㅇ Working to designate the                 The DMZ
    Demilitarized Zone as a UNESCO
    Biosphere Reserve
                                                      urban   urban
 ㅇ Creation of a nationwide ecological                        areas
    network by enacting Baek-du Mountain                  rivers
    Range Preservation Act (Dec ’03)
 ㅇ Enactment of “Act on the Protection
    of Wild Fauna and Flora” (Dec ’03)

                                 Small islands
 - Japanese occupation and Korean War
 - excessive logging, forest reclamation

o “Tree Planting Campaign” (1973)
  By 2000, 2 million hectares (31%) of
  the total mountain surface into
  economically valuable forest tracts.

o “Nature Recess Program” (1991)
  Rehabilitate their ecosystems by limiting
  public entrance for a specified period of

  Promotion of Green Corporate Management

 To promote voluntary environmental improvement
 activities in the industrial sector:

- “Environmentally Friendly Enterprise Designation System”
  (as of end of 2002, 133 enterprises have been designated)

- “Voluntary Environmental Agreement System”(as of end
  of 2002, 351 enterprises have signed the agreement)

 - Enterprise Environment Report, Environmental Cost
   Accounting, Environmental Performance Evaluation
   Index and other such guidelines on a trial basis

5. Future Policy Directions for Sustainable Development

 Industrialization era: focus on material fulfillment

 21st century: era for eco-civilization based on sustainable development
- Create a win-win era for the entire ecological community where
  humanity and nature, environment and economy coexist

 Current culture of excessive consumerism

- Sustainable culture based on responsibility and efficiency

  For the achievement of establishing a sustainable culture

Government: integrate one-sided SOC expansion policies that are
development-centered with policies aimed at sustainability
and eco-efficiency

Business sector: clean production and environmental
management system.

Industries, companies, governments, and the public:
  Collective quest for sustainable development
  Continuous dialogue and cooperation

    Symbiotic relationship through reliable administrative and
    institutional support

Thank You !


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