The Fight for Independence:
•In the beginning . . .
•European countries looking for new
•Wanting to become rich & powerful
•Columbus stumbles upon new territory!
Founding of the
•England Wants to Colonize in the New World
•Sets up colonies in the new world
•England the “Mother” country
•13 colonies the “children”
•Still wanting to become rich!
Option A: find riches!
Rumors of gold in the new world!
Jamestown settlers find no gold in Virginia!
favorable balance of trade
(sell more than you buy)
•13 colonies will make goods to be shipped
to England, so that England doesn’t have to
buy goods from other countries!
•England can also sell some of these goods
1) Restricted colonial trade by telling colonies they could export
certain goods only to England
2) Those goods traded w/ other countries had to be unloaded in
England first! These goods would be taxed by England &
England would make $$$!
Writs of Assistance
•Court document allowing British soldiers to
search colonists’ homes for goods that may have
been illegally smuggled (What kind of
document is needed today?)
• Parliament (the lawmakers)
overthrow the king!
• Parliament has the power!
• Britain too concerned w/
• Allows the colonists’ to rule
• The 13 colonies don’t mind!
They enjoy this freedom!
French & Indian War
French and Indians
The British win
• The “Gentleman”
Ways of War
• Each country’s
soldiers stand in a
straight line in front of
• Guerilla Warfare
• Each side “takes • Fighting whenever,
turns” shooting at one wherever
another • Fighters hide in trees
• Each side wears & ditches
uniforms to • Fighters wear clothing
“represent” its nation that allows them to
country “blend in” with their
• Often would travel w/ surroundings
a band or a trumpet
Albany Plan of Union
• Proposed by Benjamin Franklin in
• Join all the colonies under one govt.
at least to defend the nation during
• Suggested to have a president in
charge of the colonies, but still have
the king in charge
• So, not being independent from
Britain, but at least have some unity
Proclamation Line of 1763
•To appease the Native
Americans, Britain says the
colonists may not settle on any
land west should remain N.A.
•Colonists are furious! More
land = More $$
•Taxing all newspapers
& legal documents
•Will help repay war
•Again, colonists are
Sons of Liberty
• Political group of men who banded
together in an effort to try to change the
British govt.’s treatment of the colonies.
• After French & Indian War, people were
furious about Stamp Act and other taxes &
laws passed by Parliament
• Operated as an “underground” unit at first
b/c they wanted to remain loyal to Britain
(yet, still angry)
• Sons of Liberty groups began to emerge in
• Notable names: John Adams, John
Smaller groups that connected
groups like the Sons of Liberty
to keep all communication
linked so that each colony
would “be in the know”
•Colonists forced to house & feed British troops
•Britain says they want to protect colonists from Native Amer.
•Really want to continue searching for illegal goods
Writs of Assistance
“No taxation without
•Colonists refuse to be taxed without
having any representation in
•Slogan of the S of L
• Colonists boycott all goods
being taxed by Stamp Act
Parliament gives in &
repeals Stamp Act
• However, they come up w/
another way to control the
• Parliament: “We will make
all decisions for the
Writs of Assistance
The Bostonians Paying
Boston Tea Party
called it called it
Coercive Acts a.k.a. Intolerable Acts
• Restricted colonists’ rights
(including trial by jury)
• Reinforced writs of assistance
& Quartering Act
1st Continental Congress
•Olive Branch Petition: letter to King George demanding that
rights be restored!
•If rights not restored, they planned to meet again the next
April 1775 –
King George: “Who do they think they are?”
He sends troops to the colonies!
“Shot heard ‘round the
• The Revolutionary War begins!
• How could the “mother” country
fire on her “children” like this?
• It was a shot that the world
2nd Continental Congress
What to do?
1) Remain loyal! Can’t win against England
2) Fight & Declare independence
Thomas Paine writes
• Stop being loyal to King George
– the royal brute!
• He’s been treating the colonists
Declaration of Independence
“We hold these truths to be self-evident,
that all men are created equal…”
“…Life, Liberty, and the pursuit
“…Governments derive their powers from the consent of
“…that whenever any form of government
becomes destructive of these ends, it is the
Right of the People to alter or abolish it, and
to institute new Government…”
D.O.I.’s ideas borrowed from John
Locke’s Second Treatise of
• Good government is based on a social
contract b/t the pp. and the rulers.
• The ppl. Agree to give up some freedoms
& abide by the decisions of their govt.
• The govt. promises to protect the lives,
property, and liberty of the ppl.
• If the govt. misuses its power, the ppl.
The war continues in
Treaty of Paris
Finally, the colonists defeat
Britain gives the colonists their
The new 13 states are free
Now, they must decide
how they will create a new