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					       CalWORKs


California Work Opportunity
 and Responsibility to Kids

       September 2009


                              1
Federal – State – Stakeholder - County- Client Relationship

                                                                                            ACF
  FEDERAL

                               Administration for Children and Families               Provides funding
                                                                                            and
                                                (ACF)                                 minimal Program
                                                                                           rules.



                                   California Department                                  CDSS
                                              of                                       Oversees the
  STATE




                                                                                         Program

                                      Social Services
                                          (CDSS)
STAKEHOLDER




              County Welfare
  GROUPS




                Directors
               Association
                                                                          Advocates
                 (CWDA)
  COUNTIES




                                                                                         58 Counties
                                           58 Counties                                  Administer the
                                                                                           Program
  CLIENTS




                                                                                          Clients
                                               Clients                                 Benefit from the
                                                                                          Program


                                                                                                      2
A Little History




                   3
 Aid to Families with Dependent
         Children (AFDC)

• Federal/State Relationship

• Entitlement Program

• “No Limits”

                                  4
1996 Federal Welfare Reform
   Personal Responsibility and Work
    Opportunity Reconciliation Act
    (PRWORA)
   Temporary Assistance for Needy
    Families (TANF)
      -   Federal/State Relationship Change
      -   Block Grant Funding
      -   Time-Limited Aid
      -   Flexibility
      -   Reauthorization


                                              5
CalWORKs

• CalWORKs is a major component of
 California’s implementation of TANF
 (Temporary Assistance for Needy Families),
 the federal welfare reform effort authorized
 by the Personal Responsibility and Work
 Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) in
 1996.

• CalWORKs was enacted by state legislation
 (Assembly Bill 1542) and became effective in
 California January 1, 1998.

                                                6
Principles of CalWORKs

• Welfare is temporary in times of crisis – time limited cash
  aid.

• Personal responsibility/accountability is encouraged and
  rewarded – assisting families to achieve self-sufficiency.

• “Work first” attitude is fostered through strict work
  requirements – minimum hourly participation requirements.

• Counties have flexibility to meet recipients’ needs for
  services.

• Requirement for new and expanded partnerships.

                                                               7
   CalWORKs Caseload and Funding


Total caseload = 534,043



 Total Budget = $7.2 billion



                                   8
CalWORKs Eligibility. . .
 – Caretaker Relatedness

 – Child must be deprived of parental care or support
   due to:
    • Death
    • Incapacity
    • Absence
    • Unemployment



                                                    9
Other Eligibility Factors

 − Property
 − Income
 − Minor Parent Requirements
 − WTW requirements
 − Time Limits

                               10
Personal Responsibility and
Accountability

• Immunizations

• School attendance

• Child support

                              11
CalWORKs Grants...
• Grant Levels

  – Two Grant Structures Region 1 & 2
    • Region 1--Higher cost of living (coastal
        counties)
    •   Region 2--Lower cost of living

  − Exempt/Non-Exempt Maximum Aid
    Payment (MAP)

                                                 12
Special Needs

• Pregnancy

• Homeless assistance




                        13
60-Month Time Limits


• Adult parents are eligible for 60 months of cash aid.

• “Clock Stoppers”--exemptions that stop month(s) of
  aid from counting toward the 60-month time limit.

• “Time Extenders”--exceptions that can result in a
  recipient’s remaining on aid beyond the 60-month
  time limit.


                                                          14
       CalWORKs Time Limit Exemptions
             “Clock Stoppers”
• Eligible for,            • Grant amount $10 or
                               less
    participating in, or
    exempt from Cal-       •   Employed and
                               receiving only
    Learn program.             supportive services
•   Living in Indian       •   Caretaking
    Country                    responsibilities for:
•   Advanced Age               – Ill or incapacitated
                                 person
•   Disabled                   – Dependent child of the
•   Aid reimbursed by
                                 court or child at risk of
                                 placement in foster
    child support                care
                           • Unaided
                           • Domestic Abuse (Good
                               Cause)
                                                             15
CalWORKs Time Limit Exceptions--”Time
Limit Extenders”

• Advanced Age                 • Unable to maintain
                                 employment or
• Caretaking                     participate
  responsibilities
                               • Unaided
• Disabled--receiving
  SDI, TDI, IHSS or SSP        • Domestic Abuse (Good
  benefits and the               Cause)
  disability impairs ability
  to work/participate



                                                        16
Safety Net

• Eligible children continue to get cash aid
 after their parents have exhausted their
 60-month time limit.

• “Timed-out” adults are not eligible for
 General Assistance until the youngest
 child on aid is 18.


                                            17
CalWORKs Focus on Families


• CalLearn: services for CalWORKs pregnant and
  parenting teens to help them stay in school and get a
  high school diploma or equivalent.



• Family Planning Project: family planning services
  information material for CalWORKs clients.




                                                          18
CalWORKs Family Reunification
Program
• Established May 2002
• Eligibility:
  – CalWORKs recipient families whose children are
    removed from the home and determined to need
    CalWORKs services for family reunification

• Up to 180 days of services, with exceptions
• No CalWORKs cash aid or cash-linked
  MediCal: eligible for Food Stamps

                                                     19
Meeting the Challenge


• Eligibility’s role in supporting work
 efforts




                                          20
Welfare-To-Work
•Federal reauthorization and reforms

•California’s challenge to meet federal WPR
 requirements

•CalWORKs WTW participation requirements

•Services to remove barriers to employment

                                              21
2006 Welfare Reform
• TANF Reauthorization
  − In the Deficit Reduction Act of 2005
     • Signed by the President February 8, 2006
  – Federal Interim Final Rule
     • Published June 29, 2006 (effective October 1, 2006)
  – Final TANF Rule
     • Published February 5th, 2008 (effective October 1, 2008)
• Governor’s Budget 2006-07 (AB 1808)
  – Effective July 12, 2006
                                                             22
Major Impacts of
TANF Reauthorization

 • Recalibration of the caseload
  reduction credit
 • Newly identified work eligible
  individuals
 • Work activities defined
 • Work verification plan requirement
                                        23
Work Participation Rate
  Those participating
   the required number
         of hours
                             • All-families = 50%
--------------------------
                             • Two-parent = 90%
   Those required to
        participate




                                                    24
Caseload Reduction Credit and
Work Participation Rate
 • Caseload Reduction Credit (CRC) base year
      changed from 1995 to 2005
      Projected All Families CRC for Federal Fiscal Year 2007
50%                       4.5

                  45.5                       46.5

                                                     3.5

            1995 Base Year             2005 Base Year
             CRC (caseload decline)    WPR Requirement      25
Actual WPR for FFY 2007
with New Populations

         Actual All Families
           WPR: 22.3%



                50%




                               26
Who is work eligible?
• Adult (or minor child head-of-household)
  receiving assistance under TANF or SSP

• Non-recipient parent living with a child
  receiving assistance (child-only recipients)

• Work-eligible individuals that are in Separate
  State Programs funded with state
  Maintenance of Effort dollars (two-parent
  recipients)

                                                 27
Effect on WPR Denominator
   Cases in WPR Denominator "Work Eligible Individuals"
                   Based on 2007 Caseload Data
             14%
        1%
                                                 Single Parent
     13%                                         (Aided Adult)
                    58%                          Two Parent

       14%               164,500                 Safety Net

                                                 Drug and
                                                 Fleeing Felons
                                                 Sanction (less
  Denominator Prior to
                                                 20%)
  DRA


                                                                  28
The Challenge:
Balance between
CalWORKs and TANF
• CalWORKs is designed to provide flexibility
  to counties to meet the unique needs of their
  diverse populations
  – Participation requirements are different, more
    flexible in CalWORKs than TANF
     • Required hours of participation vary from TANF
     • Activity time limits vary from TANF
     • Exemptions/Disregards vary from TANF

                                                        29
The Challenge:
Balance between
CalWORKs and TANF (Cont.)
• CDSS and others have worked hard to
 maintain the structure of the CalWORKs
 program

• Goal: Find balance between maintaining the
 fundamentals of CalWORKs while meeting
 federal requirements and safeguarding the
 state from fiscal penalties


                                               30
Meeting the Challenge
 • Maintain the participation level of those
   currently meeting the WPR requirements

 • Increase participation for those partially
   participating

 • Fully engage those who are not participating
 • Re-engage sanctioned and noncompliant
   cases

 • Strive for better data
                                                31
AB 1808 Policy
• Required data master
 plan and data publishing

• Required county peer
 reviews

• Ended durational
 sanctions

• Clarified shared penalties
• Required county plan
 addendum

                               32
Additional Ongoing Efforts

• Stakeholder Workgroups
  - Fiscal Options, Programmatic Changes

• Reform Proposals
  - Governor’s Budget, Legislative Proposals

• Technical Support to Counties
  - Best Practices Website, Conferences

                                               33
Typical CalWORKs Flow

                           Exception to flow
• Orientation
                              – Self-Initiated
                                Programs (SIPs)
• Appraisal
                              – Full-timed employed
• Job Search (4 weeks)          (no WTW Plan)



• Assessment
• WTW Plan with assigned
 activities

                                                      34
Work Requirement Exemptions
− Under age 16
− Age 16, 17, or 18 and attending school full time
− Age 16 or 17 with a high school diploma (or equivalent) and
   enrolled/planning to enroll in postsecondary educational

− 60 years of age or older
− Disability
− Nonparent relative caring for a dependent/ward of the court or
   child at risk of foster care placement

− Caring for a disabled family member
− Parents with very young children
− Pregnancy that impairs ability to be regularly employed
− Full-time VISTA volunteer                                        35
Welfare-to-Work Plan
• After assessment, able-bodied recipients must enter
  into a written WTW Plan.

• Exempt recipients who volunteer to participate must
  also have a WTW Plan.

• Plans include:
   − Activities and services that will move the participant into
     employment and toward self-sufficiency
   − One or more core and/or non-core activities for the required
     minimum hours. No minimum hours for volunteers
   − Adult basic education, when necessary
   − Description of needed supportive services (transportation, child
     care, ancillary expenses)
   − School attendance requirements for children

                                                                 36
                      Weekly Number of Hours of Required Participation

 32 hrs. - Single-parent families                                   35 hrs. - Two-parent Families. Hours can be shared between
                                                                    the parents.

                                                                    Core and non core requirements to not apply to:
     All families must participate a minimum of 20 hours of
                                                                     - Exempt volunteers
     core activities – the balance can be spent in core or non-
                                                                     - Self-Initiated Programs
     core activities
                                                                     - CalWORKs Family Reunification Parents (AB 429)


                     CORE ACTIVITIES                                              BLENDABLE NON-CORE ACTIVITIES

Unsubsidized employment                                              Adult basic education

Subsidized private and public sector employment                      Job skills training directly related to employment
Work experience                                                      Education directly related to employment

On-the-job training (OJT)                                            Satisfactory progress in a secondary school
Grant-based OJT                                                      Mental health, substance abuse, domestic violence services
Supported work or transitional employment
Work study                                                                    NON-BLENDABLE NON-CORE ACTIVITIES
                                                                                                                              1
Self-employment                                                      Vocational education and training (post 12-months)

Community service                                                    Other activities to assist in obtaining employment   2

                                                                                                                                       2
Vocational education and training (up to 12 months)                  Participation required by school to ensure child's attendance
                                                                                                                2
Job search and job readiness assistance                              Non-credited study time (county option)
 1
  If hours in this activity are in the WTW plan, then hours in any non-core activity cannot count towards the core requirement.
 2                                                                                                                                37
     If hours in these activities are in the WTW plan, blendable non-core hours can count toward the core requirement.
Supportive Services
• Child Care
   – Three-phase system
   – Child care reimbursement rates are standardized with
     the California Department of Education (CDE).

• Transportation
   − Counties provide reimbursement for the least costly
     form of public transportation.
   − If public transportation not available, mileage
     reimbursement for individual to use vehicle.

• Ancillary
   − Books, tools, clothing specifically required for the job,
     fees and other necessary costs (tuition is not considered
     an ancillary expense.)


                                                                 38
Good Cause for Temporarily Not
Participating in CalWORKs WTW
Activities
• Lack of necessary supportive services

• Child care not reasonably available during hours of
  training or employment

• Other reasons, as defined by county, such as:
   – Death in the family
   – Court appearance
   – Sick child

• Individuals who are excused from participation with
  good cause are subject to the 60-month time limits
                                                        39
Noncompliance

• When determined noncompliant, within 20 days,
 the recipient can
  − Provide a good cause reason not participating
  − Agree to a compliance plan when no good cause exists


• With no good cause reason and no compliance
 plan, a financial sanction is imposed
  − Noncompliant participant removed from assistance
    unit, resulting in a reduction in family’s cash grant
                                                        40
Noncompliance
• Noncompliance means a participant

  − Failed to sign a WTW Plan
  − Failed to participate in assigned activity
  − Failed to provide proof of satisfactory
    progress
  − Failed to accept or continue employment at
    same level of earnings

                                                 41
     Learning Disabilities (LD)
• LD: A heterogeneous group of disorders manifested by
   significant difficulties in the acquisition and use of
   listening, speaking, reading, writing, reasoning or
   mathematical abilities

• Enrollees screened no later than appraisal and at other
   specified times, such as in good cause determinations

• Recipients can waive right to LD screening
• Referred to LD evaluation when screening shows
   potential LD

• When evaluation shows LD, the WTW Plan will include
   accommodation based on evaluation
                                                            42
Mental Health and Substance Abuse
Services
• Mental health services include assessment,
  case management, treatment, and
  rehabilitation services

• Substance abuse services include assessment,
  treatment, employment counseling, provision of
  community service jobs, or other appropriate
  services

• Counties must work with mental health and
  substance abuse treatment providers to
  establish linkages to treatment services
                                               43
 Domestic Abuse Services

The Federal Family Violence Option
 PRWORA of 1996 allows states to address domestic violence in
state welfare plans under TANF by:


   •   Confidentially screening applicants for domestic
       abuse

   •   Providing referrals for counseling and supportive
       services

   •   Granting good cause waivers

                                                                44
Goals of CalWORKs Provisions for
Domestic Abuse


• Victims are not placed at further risk or
  unfairly penalized by CalWORKs requirements

• Program requirements do not encourage a victim
  to remain with the abuser

• Participation in WTW activities is encouraged
  to enable clients to obtain employment and move
  safely toward self-sufficiency


                                                    45
Domestic Abuse Waivers

• A county may waive, on a case-by-case basis with
  good cause, any program requirement, including, but
  not limited to

    Time limits on receipt of aid

    Work and education requirements

    Paternity establishment

    Child support cooperation requirements

    Maximum family grant rule

                                                     46
Domestic Abuse Waivers (cont’d)

• Program requirements that cannot be waived

    Deprivation

    Assets

    Income

    Homeless assistance



                                               47
Importance of Collaboration Between
Child Welfare Services and CalWORKs
• 60 percent of Child Welfare Cases have history of welfare
  receipt

• Families receiving child welfare and CalWORKs services may be
  our most vulnerable families

• Close collaboration can ensure program requirements do not
  conflict

• Collaboration can remove barriers to allow families to become
  self-sufficient and help the state meet federal work
  participation requirements


                                                                  48
Questions and Answers...




                           49

				
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