STRUKTUR PERANCAH ; PENGGUNAAN DAN PERTIMBANGAN

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STRUKTUR PERANCAH ; PENGGUNAAN DAN PERTIMBANGAN Powered By Docstoc
					     STRUKTUR PERANCAH ; PENGGUNAAN DAN PERTIMBANGAN
           ASPEK-ASPEK KESELAMATANNYA DI TAPAK BINA




                        ZHARINAH EDWARD MIYUN




Laporan projek ini dikemukakan sebagai sebahagian daripada syarat penganugerahan
                    Ijazah Sarjana Muda Kejuruteraan Awam




                          Fakulti Kejuruteraan Awam
                         Universiti Teknologi Malaysia




                                   Mac 2004
“Saya akui karya ini adalah hasil kerja saya sendiri kecuali nukilan dan ringkasan yang
                   tiap-tiap satunya telah saya jelaskan sumbernya”




                 Tandatangan        :      …………………………
                 Nama Penulis       :      Zharinah Edward Miyun
                 Tarikh             :      8 Mac 2004
“Saya akui bahawa saya telah membaca karya ini dan pada pandangan saya karya ini
      adalah memadai dari segi skop dan kualiti untuk tujuan penganugerahan
                    Ijazah Sarjana Muda Kejuruteraan Awam”




               Tandatangan       :      ........................................………….
               Nama Penyelia     :      Tuan Haji Othaman Bin Salleh
               Tarikh            :      8 Mac 2004
                                   DEDIKASI




                                                     Buat ayah dan bonda tercinta…
                                 Encik Miyun B. Gualah & Puan Sipah Bte. Lamin…
          Jasa dan pengorbananmu tak mungkin kuterbalas hingga ke akhir hayatku…
                       Buat adik-adik akak yang tersayang dan sentiasa memahami…
                                           Faizal, Ferilidaus, Shailey dan Norsaila…
                                Kerana kalianlah akak berjuang untuk kejayaan ini…

                                                       Buat Mazlie B. Mohamad…
                     Terima kasih kerana banyak mengajar erti kehidupan buat umi…
         Terima kasih kerana dugaan bersamamu telah banyak mematangkan diri ini…
                                                      Budimu akan kubawa mati…

                                                              Buat Hairol Nizam…
             Thanks kerana sentiasa mendengar masalah saya yang tak pernah habis…
Dan sentiasa memahami…diri dan pendirianku tidak akan sekuat dan segagah sekarang
                                                         tanpa nasihat dari anda…

                                                    Buat rakan-rakan seperjuangan…
 Ziela, Ckin, Cmin, Mast, Aleng, Farah, Yanie, Cik Why, Emi, Mc-You, Nisa Fakurazi,..
                                                      Dan yg tak tersebut namanya…
                                 Kenangan bersama kalian tidak mungkin kulupakan…

                                    Akhir sekali, Buat Tuan Haji Othaman b. Salleh…
                         Terima kasih kerana sentiasa memberi panduan pada saya…
                                               Maafkan segala salah dan silap saya…
 Dan buat semua yang terlibat secara langsung atau tidak sepanjang pengajian di bumi
                                                       UTM yang indah permai ini…
                                 PENGHARGAAN




       Alhamdulillah berkat dan rahmat dari Nya, Projek Sarjana Muda ini dapat saya
siapkan walaupun menghadapi banyak kesukaran dan rintangan. Di sini saya ingin
mengambil kesempatan untuk mengucapkan setinggi penghargaan kepada Encik
Othaman Bin Salleh yang telah banyak membantu dan memberi tunjuk ajar kepada saya
tanpa jemu. Tidak lupa juga buat rakan-rakan seperjuangan yang sentiasa bersama dalam
suka duka. Segala jasa yang kalian taburkan akan dikenang sepanjang hayat.



       Buat keluarga tercinta, terima kasih kerana sentiasa memahami situasi dan
masalah serta sentiasa memberi semangat dan dorongan untuk terus berjuang bagi
mencapai kejayaan di bumi UTM ini. Tanpa anda semua, tidak mungkin kejayaan ini
menjadi milik saya.
                                       ABSTRAK




       Kerja sementara memainkan peranan yang penting dalam proses pembinaan
struktur kekal. Salah satu daripada kerja sementara adalah struktur perancah. Ia
digunakan sebagai penyediaan kepada laluan sementara, penyokong kepada acuan
konkrit dan bertindak sebagai pelantar untuk pekerja bekerja. Struktur perancah yang
baik adalah yang direkabentuk dan dibina berdasarkan peraturan dan kod amalan yang
telah ditetapkan. Pada masa kini, kebanyakan struktur perancah adalah dari jenis pasang
siap/ sistem. Perancah jenis ini lebih praktikal, selamat, kukuh serta menjimatkan masa
dan kos.



       Penyelidikan dalam pembangunan struktur kerja sementara adalah penting
dijalankan di Malaysia. Struktur perancah yang baik mestilah disediakan dengan faktor
keselamatan yang tinggi untuk menjamin keselamatan pekerja yang terbabit dengan
penggunaan struktur ini. Struktur perancah memainkan peranan dalam perjalanan proses
sesuatu projek pembinaan. Dalam menghasilkan struktur perancah yang lebih efektif,
lebih banyak penyelidikan dan teknologi terkini perlu diaplikasi dalam industri
pembinaan di negara kita.
                                       ABSTRACT




       Temporary work plays an important role in completing permanent structures in
construction industry. One of the elements of temporary work is scaffolding. It plays its
role by providing passageway, support to structures and as workers platform. Good
scaffolding must meet the standard and regulation and including design. In today
practices, mainly is pre-fabricated system. The system is adopted due its effectiveness in
terms of fabrication and installation time, cost and strength.



       The research work is concerned about the development of temporary work in that
currently used in Malaysia. A good scaffolding system must be provided with a high
provision to the safety of construction workers. Scaffolding system will always determine
the progress of the construction. In order to create an effective scaffolding system, more
research and the new and revolution technology on scaffold system should be applied to
the construction industry in our country
SCAFFOLDING ; USE AND CONSIDERATION OF THE SAFETY ASPECTS IN
                                      CONSTRUCTION SITE.

Zharinah Edward Miyun, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

                            Supervisor : Tuan Haji Othaman Bin Salleh

     Abstract: Temporary work plays an important role in completing permanent structures in construction
     industry. One of the elements of temporary work is scaffolding. It plays its role by providing
     passageway, support to structures and as workers platform. Good scaffolding must meet the standard
     and regulation and including design. In today practices, mainly is pre-fabricated system. The system is
     adopted due its effectiveness in terms of fabrication and installation time, cost and strength. The
     research work is concerned about the development of temporary work in that currently used in
     Malaysia. A good scaffolding system must be provided with a high provision to the safety of
     construction workers. Scaffolding system will always determine the progress of the construction. In
     order to create an effective scaffolding system, more research and the new and revolution technology
     on scaffold system should be applied to the construction industry in our country.

1.      INTRODUCTION
        Scaffolding is an important element in every construction process especially in
constructing of structure of building. Ordinarily, scaffolding was involved from the
beginning of a construction process until the end of it. In this project, the review actually
will be concerned about the application of scaffolding and also the safety aspect around
the construction site. Some of the review objective as below:
           i)       To observe the type of scaffolding and also it correspondence uses.
           ii)      To observe the design and the scaffolding construction Principe at the
                    construction site.
           iii)     To examine the right method of installation of the scaffolding to fulfill
                    the code of practice.
           iv)      To observe the root factor that caused the scaffolding failure at the
                    construction site.
           v)       To observe the safety procedure in using scaffolding which have been
                    assign in the rule and the code of practice.
Scope of this observation is focus on the interrogate research that have been perform to
the contractor. Otherwise, it also concern to the observation at the construction site
during in plant practical.

2.      LITERITURE REVIEW
        Ordinarily, construction of scaffolding can be divided to four main category
regarding to the material like bamboo, wood, steel and aluminium. Every of those
material will develop a different scaffolding according to the load that can be supported.
There are few type scaffolding can be found in market which corresponding to each uses
like example:
        a) Unsupported tied scaffolding                 b) Putlog scaffolding
        c) Bird nest scaffolding                        d) Tower scaffolding
        e) System scaffolding                           f) “Trestle & Ladder “
        g) Tube cylinder steel scaffolding              h) Tube frame steel scaffolding
        i) Modular system
To qualify the construction technologies in the construction industries, the scaffolding are
also not withdraw from it. There are few type of scaffolding that have been designed and
constructed to be adopted in this present construction system. As an example, tube steel
scaffolding which suitable for use on uneven ground surface, tube cylinder steel
scaffolding which suitable to use for any working situation especially at narrow place and
system modular which construct to be used in the form of cylinder or circle like
petrochemical plant (refer picture 1 and 2). The scaffolding design principe is according
to several factor as loading system, safety factor, economy, foundation, capability to be
constructed and also safety. The construction process at construction site has to consider
after designing process. Have a several factor that need to be considered as the uses of
material, drawing and design specification, workers, soleplate/ base plate, parallelism and
surface, stability, investigation and qualification. Figure 1 shows the scaffold procedure
design.




Picture 1 : Tube cylinder steel scaffolding           Picture 2 : Tube steel scaffolding


3.        ANALYSIS AND RESULT
          This observation have been recognized the failure purpose of a scaffold as below:
     i)      Deform of the material
             - This kind of failure caused by re-using a broken scaffold in term to reduce
                 the project cost. The deform material is like rusty and crooked scaffold.
     ii)     Insufficient of component
             - It usually caused by the workers careless during construction. It also
                 caused by the leakage of element in a scaffold. Leakage of coupler is
                 among of the failure that always happens during construction of tube
                 cylinder steel scaffolding.
     iii)    Over load
             - The workers attitude that using the platform as storage to keep tools and
                 material that cause the scaffold to bear overload.
             -
   iv)     Unqualified renovation
           - Modification without permission of a qualify engineer during using stage.
               This will cause the structure become unstable due to the change of the
               formation and function.
   v)      Colliding with a machine or logy
           - caused by uneven arrangement of the construction site and also there is no
               suitable path.
   vi)     Weather
   vii)    Soil condition
           - it is about the soil bearing capacity.
   viii)   Insufficient of wall ties and sharing.

To overcome and reduce the failure of scaffolding, the safety procedure need to be
considered start from the beginning until it can be used. The construction procedures
need to be fulfil during the installation process of scaffolding. The installation of a
scaffolding is almost similar for each type and it is an important to fulfill the specification
and follow the rule and also the code of practice that have been assign. Several item of
the regulation and the code of practice that been used in our country as below:
     i. BS 1139, Part 2 : 1982
    ii. BS 1139, Section 1.1 : 1990
   iii. BS 1139, Section 1.2 : 1990
   iv. B.S 1139, Section 2.1 : 1991
    v. Peraturan Kilang dan Mesin (Operasi Bangunan dan Kerja Kejuruteraan
        Pembinaan),Bahagian X, 1986
   vi. MS 10.1, 1975
The regulation and the code of practice is including all thing that involve to the
scaffolding as public rules, material specification, construction, safety investigation,
organizing and also the examination of material.
                      Method of permanent work construction




                                     Basic loads



                            Choose scaffold and layout




             Direct vertical loads                 Direct horizontal loads




                            Induced vertical loads




        Check verticals                                  Diagonal bracing




                                 Check stability




                                Improved layout




Foundation             Jacks              Special details           Setting out




                  Figure 1 : Scaffold procedure design
4.          CONCLUSION
            The conclusions that be drawn from this study are as follows;
     i)        There are several type of scaffolding have been made which match it uses in
               the construction industries likes tube steel scaffolding, tube cylinder steel
               scaffolding and the modular system.
     ii)       From the analysis, it is analysis shown that the tube steel scaffolding always
               used in the construction site. This is due to due to possibility to get it, high
               factor of safety, thrifty cost and can be used for many times.
     iii)      Most of contractors not followed the regulation and the code of practice of the
               scaffolding and only used it based on experience and knowledge.
     iv)       The failure of scaffolding is almost cause of human inattentive, it also when
               we do not follow the regulation and the code of practice.
     v)        It is importance to fulfill the specification and follow the safety procedure that
               been firmed in the safety procedure and code of practice. This is because the
               regulation and code of practice cover all aspect consist of the public rules,
               material specification, construction, safety investigation, arrangement and the
               examination of material.


5.          REFERENCES
1.          Badrie, A., safety At Work., A handbook to the occupational safety and health
            Act 1994, first edition, 1995.
2.          Murray Grant,BSc (Eng) Hons, C Eng, MICE, Scaffold Falsework Design to BS
            5975.
3.          Doughty, R., Scaffolding, Longman Scientific and Technical, 1986.
4.          Fadhil Othman (1998), “Principle Guide for Scaffolding Erection.”, National
            Seminar on Temporary Structures Design and construction for Safety, pp 1-6.
5.          A. Yabe, E.Y. Chuah, Ir. W.L. Yap (2000), “Scaffolding Quality Systems for The
            Construction of Main terminal Building,KLIA.”JURUTERA, pp. 52-28.
                                        KANDUNGAN




BAB      PERKARA                                            MUKA SURAT
         DEDIKASI                                                ii
         PENGHARGAAN                                             iii
         ABSTRAK                                                 iv
         ABSTRACT                                                v
         KANDUNGAN                                               vi
         SENARAI RAJAH                                           xii
         SENARAI JADUAL                                          xvi


BAB I    PENGENALAN
         1.1 Pengenalan                                          1
         1.2 Objektif kajian                                     2
         1.3 Skop kajian                                         3


BAB II   REKABENTUK DAN PEMBINAAN STRUKTUR
         PERANCAH DITAPAK BINA
         2.1 Pengenalan                                          4
         2.2 Binaan struktur perancah                            4
         2.2.1 Buluh                                             5
         2.2.2 Kayu                                              6
         2.2.3 Keluli                                            6
         2.2.4 Aluminium                                         7
         2.3 Fungsi struktur perancah                            7
         2.3.1 Pelantar tempat bekerja                           8
         2.3.2 Pelantar untuk menempatkan bahan atau loji        8
         2.3.3 Pelantar dan tangga laluan                        8
          2.3.4 Pelantar kerja sementara                      9
          2.4 Komponen utama struktur perancah                11
          2.4.1 Tiub perancah                                 11
          2.4.2 Papan perancah                                11
          2.5 Unsur-unsur utama perancah                      12
          2.6 Prinsip rekabentuk                              15
           2.6.1 Sistem pembebanan                            17
            2.6.1.1 Beban mati                                18
            2.6.1.2 Beban hidup                               18
            2.6.1.3 Beban alam sekitar/ beban angin           19
           2.6.2 Keboleh pemasangan                           19
           2.6.3 Faktor keselamatan                           20
           2.6.4 Penapak                                      20
            2.6.4.1 Rekabentuk saiz papan dan luas pengalas   20
                    tapak
           2.6.5 Ekonomi                                      22
           2.6.6 Keselamatan                                  22
          2.7 Prinsip pembinaan                               23
           2.7.1 Penggunaan bahan                             23
           2.7.2 Pekerja                                      24
           2.7.3 Lukisan dan spesifikasi rekabentuk           24
           2.7.4 Tapak                                        25
           2.7.5 Keselarian aras                              27
           2.7.6 Kestabilan                                   27
           2.7.7 Pengagihan beban                             28
           2.7.8 Pemeriksaan keselamatan dan kelulusan        28


BAB III   TEKNOLOGI TERKINI DALAM PENGGUNAAN
          STRUKTUR PERANCAH DITAPAK BINA
          3.1 Pengenalan                                      29
          3.2 Kualiti bahan                                   29
          3.3 Jenis-jenis perancah                            30
           3.3.1 Perancah terikat tak bersandar               30
           3.3.2 Perancah Putlog                              32
         3.3.3 Perancah sarang burung capaian                34
         3.3.4 Perancah menara                               35
         3.3 5 Perancah sistem                               37
         3.3.6 “Trestle & ladder”                            38
         3.3.7 Perancah tiub keluli bulat                    40
         3.3.8 Perancah sistem modular                       40
         3.4 Teknologi terkini dalam penggunaan struktur     41
             perancah
         3.4.1 Perancah rangka tiub keluli                   41
          3.4.1.1 Perbandingan                               41
          3.4.1.2 Komponen utama                             43
         3.4.2 Perancah tiub keluli bulat                    47
          3.4.2.1 Perbandingan                               47
          3.4.2.2 Komponen utama                             48
         3.4.3 Perancah modular                              54
          3.4.3.1 Perbandingan                               54
          3.4.3.2 Komponen utama                             55


BAB IV   ANALISIS DAN KEPUTUSAN
         4.1 Pengenalan                                      59
         4.2 Analisis dan keputusan                          59
         4.2.1 Perancah yang sering digunakan                59
          4.2.2.1 Kegunaan                                   60
          4.2.2.2 Kos dan keselamatan                        60
         4.2.2 Faktor-faktor kegagalan struktur perancah     63
          4.2.2.1 Kecacatan bahan                            63
          4.2.2.2 Kekurangan komponen                        63
          4.2.2.3 Beban berlebihan                           64
          4.2.2.4 Pengubahsuaian tanpa kelulusan             64
          4.2.2.5 Perlanggaran dengan mesin atau loji        64
          4.2.2.6 Cuaca                                      65
          4.2.2.7 Keadaan tanah                              65
          4.2.2.8 Kekurangan pengikat dinding dan perembat   67
         4.3 Keselamatan struktur perancah di tapak bina     67
        4.3.1 Pemasangan perancah                          67
         4.3.1.1 Bidang kuasa kerja pengendali perancah    68
        4.3.2 Prosedur pemasangan perancah                 68
         4.3.2.1 Perancah sistem rangka keluli             69
         4.3.2.2 Keselamatan dalam pemasangan kerangka     69
        4.3.3 Pembahagian dan pengiraan beban              70
        4.3.4 Pemasangan jaring keselamatan                71
         4.3.4.1 Peraturan memasang jaring                 71
         4.3.4.2 Spesifikasi jaring keselamatan            73
        4.4 Peraturan dan kod amalan                       74
        4.4.1 Peraturan umum bagi struktur perancah        77
        4.4.2 Penyenggaraan struktur perancah              79
        4.4.3 Kelulusan rekabentuk dan lukisan perincian   79
        4.4.4 Pengawasan kerja dan pemeriksaan bahan       80
        4.4.5 Pemeriksaan struktur perancah                80


BAB V   KESIMPULAN DAN CADANGAN
        5.1 Kesimpulan                                     82
        5.2 Cadangan                                       83
        RUJUKAN                                            85
        LAMPIRAN
                         SENARAI RAJAH




No. Rajah                 Tajuk                Muka surat
2.1         Unsur-unsur dalam binaan               13
            perancah
2.2         Prosedur dalam merekabentuk            16
            perancah
2.2 (a)     Tapak asas yang betul untuk            26
            tanah rata
2.2 (b)     Tapak asas yang betul untuk            27
            tanah bercerun
3.1         Perancah terikat tak bersandar         31
3.2 (a)     Perancah Putlog                        33
3.2 (b)     Pemasangan putlog pada dinding         33
3.3         Perancah sarang burung capaian         35
3.4         Perancah menara                        36
3.5         Penggunaan baji dalam perancah         38
            sistem
3.6 (a)     “Trestle&ladder”                       39
3.6 (b)     Trestle                                39
3.6 (c )    Ladder                                 40
3.7         Binaan asas perancah rangka tiub       44
            keluli dan komponen pemasangan
3.8 (a)     Plat tapak tetap                       45
3.8 (b)     Plat tapak boleh ubah                  45
3.9         Pengikat dinding                       47
3.10   Right angle coupler               51
3.11   Swivel coupler                    52
3.12   End to end coupler                52
3.13   Parallel coupler                  53
3.14   Perancah modular                  54
3.15   Tiang                             56
3.16   Anggota melintang                 56
3.17   Anggota condong                   58
4.1    Perancah rangka tiub keluli       61
4.2    Perancah tiub keluli bulat        61
4.3    Penggunaan perancah tiub keluli   62
       bulat di tempat yang sempit
4.4    Pemasangan jaring keselamatan     72
4.5    Contoh kiraan ukuran jaring       74
                           SENARAI JADUAL




No. Jadual                  Tajuk                  Muka surat
2.1          Spesifikasi minimum untuk                 6
             perancah
2.2          Kategori kerja dalam struktur             10
             perancah dan bilangan pelantar
             yang diperlukan
2.3          Jenis, kegunaan dan had beban             18
             maksimum
3.1          Spesifikasi tiub keluli saiz 2 inci       49
             dan 3 inci dan itub aluminium
             saiz 2 inci
3.2          Spesifikasi tiang perancah                55
             modular
3.3          Spesifikasi anggota melintang             57
             perancah modular
3.4          Spesifikasi anggota condong               58
             perancah modular
4.1          Kegunaan had beban bagi                   64
             struktur perancah
4.2          Keupayaan galas tanah                     67
4.3          Faktor kerja yang mampu                   77
             menghindarkan kemalangan

				
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