Periodization in Strength and Conditioning Training by 5bS7l4


									Periodization in
Strength and
Conditioning Training
By: Lisa Martin CSCS
Director of Strength and
Ideas behind
1.   Although training will produce positive
     outcomes, the desirable results can not
     continue indefinitely.
       General Adaptation Syndrome- body adapts easily
       Less frequent physical and psychological adaptations
       Plateaus, overtraining, risk of injury
2.   In order to gain any particular aspect of
     strength or conditioning, you need to
     overload your system with increased
     external stimulus
General Adaptation
Syndrome (GAS)
1.   Alarm- body is introduced to new or increased
       Soreness, temporary drop in performance
2.   Resistance Phase- body adapts to stimulus and
     returns to regular functioning
       “super compensation”- relies on neurological
       adaptations to continue training while muscle tissue
       undergoes biochemical, structural and mechanical
3.   Exhaustion- overtraining
       Fatigue, soreness; non-training stress may aid in leading
       to this stage
Definition of Periodization

   Periodization is an organized approach
    to training that involves progressive
    cycling of various aspects of a training
    program during a specific period of
    time to bring about optimal gains in
    physical performance.
Look Again

   Periodization is an organized approach
    to training
   that involves progressive cycling of
   various aspects of a training program
   during a specific period of time
   to bring about optimal gains in
    physical performance.
Why do we program this
   Periodization is most widely used in
    resistance program design to avoid
    over-training and to systematically
    alternate high loads of training with
    decreased loading phases to improve
    components of muscular fitness
    (strength, strength-speed, strength-
    endurance) aiming to peak at the most
    advantageous time for an athlete
Traditional Models

   Traditional models of periodization describes a
    progression from high volume and low-intensity
    work towards decreasing volume and increasing
    intensity during the different cycles.
   3 Traditional Models
    – Stepwise periodization- a reduction in volume and an
      increase in intensity in steps during the training cycle
    – Overreaching periodization- there is periodic short term
      (1-2 week) increase in volume or intensity followed by a
      return to normal training
    – Undulating periodization- training volume and intensity are
      increased and decreased on a regular basis, but not in the
      general pattern of always increasing intensity and
      decreasing volume as the training period progresses
“Various Aspects”

   Many training variables can be manipulated in
    an attempt to optimize the exercise program:
    – # of sets per exercise
    – # of repetitions per set
    – Types, order and # of exercises per training session
    – Rest periods between sets and exercises
    – Resistance/Load
    – Type and tempo of muscle action (e.g., eccentric,
      concentric, isometric)
    – Frequency of training sessions
Volume vs. Intensity
   Intensity- the weight lifted in relationship to a maximal
    strength level (e.g., one repetition maximum), or a multiple
    repetition maximum (e.g., 10 repetition maximum).
     – In a running or conditioning program, intensity is often used to
       describe a percentage of an age predicted maximum heart rate
       or Vo2 max.
   Volume- refers to the TOTAL number of repetitions, sets and
    exercises performed in a strength training session
     – In a running session, volume refers to the total distance and/or
       time of a conditioning program

     – the higher the intensity, the lower the volume of a particular
       exercise or workout.
     – the lower the intensity, the higher the volume
“Specific Period of Time”

1.   Macrocyle- 1 to 4 years
2.   Mesocycle- a couple weeks to
3.   Microcycle- 1 to 4 weeks (daily to
     weekly variations)
Time Intervals Specific to
Collegiate Athletes
   Macrocyle- 1 Year
   Mesocycle
    – Off Season Phase (Preparatory)
    – Pre Season Phase (Transition I)
    – In Season Phase (Competition)
    – Post Season Phase (Transition II)
Time Intervals Specific to
Collegiate Athletes, cont.
   Fall Sports
     Off Season: January-June
     Pre Season: July-August
     Competition: September-November
     Post Season: December
   Winter Sports
     Off Season: May-August
     Pre Season: September-October
     Competition: November-March
     Post Season: April
   Spring Sports
     Off Season: July-December
     Pre Season: January-February
     Competition: March-May
     Post Season: June
Off Season Phase
   Longest Mesocycle
   Emphasis: Conditioning base, correct muscle
    imbalances, aid in muscular endurance,
    develop neural adaptations to prepare
    athletes for increased intensity
   3 Phases (Microcycles)
    – Hypertrophy
    – Basic Strength
    – Strength/Power
3 Phases In Off Season

   Hypertrophy/Endurance (1-6 weeks)
    – Increase anaerobic capacity, increase lean muscle mass,
      develop muscular and metabolic endurance base
    – Recovery week of low intensity/low volume afterwards
    – 50-75% of 1RM / 3-5 sets of 10-20 reps
   Basic Strength
    – Increase strength of muscles relative to sport, become
      more sport specific, heavier loads, less volume
    – 78-90% of 1RM / 3-5 sets of 4-8 reps
   Strength/Power
    – Explosive Training at high loads and low volume
    – 75-95% of 1RM / 3-5 sets of 2-5 reps
Novice/Beginner Athletes

   Can not tolerate drastic changes in volume
    or intensity
   Linear Periodization Model: Start at lower
    intensities and higher volume protocols in
    order to condition and train neural muscular
   May stay in low intensity training periods for
    a longer time
Advanced/Elite Athletes

   Typically train closer to their abilities train at
    high volume and high intensity, and have
    smaller adaptation windows
    Summated Microcycle Periodization: Basic
    macrocyclic pattern of decreasing volume
    and increasing intensity is evident, but both
    parameters vary at meso- and microcycle
    levels more frequently
    – Increase volume and intensity each week for 3
      weeks then unload for a week
Pre-Season Phase
(Transition I)
   Short duration- May only consist of 1-4
    weeks of training in this phase
   Emphasis: sport-specific training,
    technique work, high intensity
    training/ low volume, longer periods of
    rest, injury prevention work, train
    speed, agility and quickness
In Season Phase
   Lasts duration of season- can be 3-5 months
   Emphasis: increased technique and injury
    prevention work, decreased volume,
    preserve strength if not get stronger, more
    – Maintenance: 80-85% of 1RM / 2-3 sets of 6-8
    – Peak: >93% of 1RM / 1-3 sets of 1-3 reps
Post Season Phase
(Transition II)
   “Regeneration Phase”- unstructured
    active rest cycle
   Short duration- 1 to 4 weeks
   Emphasis: non-sport specific activities,
    low intensity/low volume, rehab
    injuries, rest physically and mentally
   Unloading week afterwards to prepare
    body for increased physical demands
Unloading Phases

   Careful not to detrain (time of interrupted training resulting in a loss
    of psychological adaptations)
   Emphasis: create less fatigue but maintain fitness levels
   Overall volume should be decreased, primarily by cutting out the
    non-specific tasks and low intensity exercises
   Can only happen 2 to 3 times per year and lasts anywhere between
    a couple days to 1 month
     – Shorter durations are appropriate when the preceding mesocycle
       involved a progressive reduction in volume/load
     – Longer durations needed when preceding phase involved high
   Frequency should be maintained at relatively high levels, 80% of
    normal, especially for elite athletes
     – During final competition phases, athletes can reduce frequency to 30-
       50% in order to achieve large reductions in volume
   Progressive declines in volume produce better results than sharp
    dramatic drops in volume

   Periodization is an organized approach
    to training that involves progressive
    cycling of various aspects of a training
    program during a specific period of
    time to bring about optimal gains in
    physical performance.

To top