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									                           University of Calgary
              School and Applied Child Psychology Program
Education Tower - Rm 302, 2500 University Drive N.W. Calgary, AB, T2N 1N4




     PRE-MASTER’S PRACTICUM MANUAL (OFF-CAMPUS)

          SCHOOL AND APPLIED CHILD PSYCHOLOGY
                                  Table of Contents

1. Preface                                                      3

2. Contact Information                                          4

3. Course Outlines
   i. Course Goals                                              5
  ii. APSY 656                                                  6
 iii. APSY 675                                                  7
 iv.  APSY 676                                                  8

4. Practicum Duties                                             9

5. Elaborated Objectives                                        11

6. Procedure for Applying for an External Practicum Placement   15

Appendix A
Approval of Practicum Supervisor Form                           16

Appendix B
Approval of Practicum Organization Form                         19

Appendix C
Sample Contract                                                 22
  i.  Practicum Agreement                                       23
 ii. Schedule A:                                                29
         i.  Terms and Conditions                               29
        ii. Learning Plan                                       38

Appendix D
Recording and Evaluation Forms
      i.  Core Activities                                       36
     ii.  Practicum Logs                                        38
    iii. Sample Daily Log                                       39
    iv.   Applied Experience Documentation Form                 41
     v.   Evaluation Form                                       45




                                          2
                                        PREFACE

National Association of School Psychologists (NASP) and Canadian Psychological
Association (CPA) accreditation standards require that students complete 600 hours of
practicum prior to their internship.

There are three practicum courses in the School and Applied Child Psychology program.
Each practicum consists of 200 hours of practicum work and consists of duties which
school psychologists usually perform such as assessment, intervention, prevention,
education/training, and research. Such activities will primarily take place in a school
setting; however, additional experiences may be obtained in a hospital, clinic, or
community mental health agency that serves the psychological and educational needs of
children.

It is expected that the practicum courses will afford each graduate student with the
opportunity to apply theoretical and technical knowledge and to develop and refine
particular professional skills. In particular, each of the three practicum courses will focus
on the acquisition of specific skills related to the assessment and intervention of:
      Academic and language skills (APSY 656),
      Cognitive and neuropsychological functioning (APSY 675), or
      Social, emotional, and behavioural well-being (APSY 676).

Following completion of the practicum courses, graduate students will be required to
complete a 1200 hour internship. It is at this step that graduate students are expected to
integrate the theoretical, practical, and scientific in their emergent roles as independent
professional psychologists. In contrast, the practicum experiences focus more concretely
on the acquisition of specific skills and close supervision and instruction.

The purpose of this manual is to assist students in understanding, identifying, and
attaining practicum placements within their community that meet the requirements of the
program. This Manual does not apply to students selecting to complete their practicum
online or on-campus with the University of Calgary Applied Psychological and
Educational Services (U-CAPES) clinic.

Students can complete practicum work within their community in the winter term (APSY
656; APSY 675), spring term (APSY 676), and/or summer term APSY 656, 675, 676).
To be eligible for the practicum, student must have completed the prerequisite assessment
and intervention theory courses.

Although much of the essential information needed to accomplish the tasks of applying
and securing a practicum can be found in this guide, there will inevitably be information
that one will need to obtain elsewhere. It is strongly recommended that graduate students
remain in close communication with the Practicum Coordinator when applying for and
selecting a practicum site. The key to successful practicum application is to begin early,
allowing oneself enough time to thoroughly research possible sites and complete the
required paperwork.


                                              3
                                 Contact Information

MEd Program Coordinator
Dr. Michelle Drefs
Email: madrefs@ucalgary.ca
Phone: 403.220.3675
Fax: 403.282.9244

Practicum Coordinator
Clint Westgard
Email: chwestga@ucalgary.ca
Phone: 403.2190.3892
Fax: 403.282.9244

Graduate Program Administrator
Irene Pullar
Email: apsyweb@ucalgary.ca
Phone: 403-220-2808

Practicum Course Instructor
Contact information can be found on course Blackboard site.




                                           4
                                     Course Outlines

Course Goal
The supervised practicum courses are designed to provide graduate students in School
and Applied Child Psychology with opportunities to apply classroom knowledge of
assessment and intervention with individuals seeking services within the school setting.

The practicum is a collaboration between the training program and field site that assures
the completion of activities consistent with the goals of the training program.

Students are expected to attend weekly class lectures in real-time and complete 200 hours
of field experience.

The field experience requires students to integrate previous training experiences with
practical application of these skills in the school environment. To guide the practicum
supervisor, who accepts responsibility for the practicum, specific content objectives of
the practicum experience have been delineated below. These objectives should serve as a
guide, and the field supervisors are encouraged to expose the graduate student to a
sufficient variety of experiences to obtain the outlined learning objectives. Graduate
students receive an average of at least two hours of field-based supervision per full-time
week from an appropriately registered psychologist school psychologist or, for non-
school settings, a psychologist appropriately registered for the practicum setting.

A written plan specifies the responsibilities of the training program and practicum site in
providing supervision, support, and both formative and summative performance-based
evaluation of student performance.

Calendar description and learning objectives are listed below for each of the three
practicum courses (APSY 656, 675, 676). Following this section, the practicum duties,
evaluation, and other course details that are consistent across the three practicum courses
are detailed.

NOTE: Students completing practicum requirements within their home communities are
required to first attend (online or on-campus) and participate in the summer Intensive
Training Week (APSY 656 and APSY 675, only). Activities during the Intensive Week
include instruction in the administration of selected assessment instruments and
evaluation of test administration competencies through submitted videos. Individuals
needing to attend this session are to contact the Graduate Program Administrator and ask
to be manually entered into the Summer Practicum Blackboard course. You will then
need to review the information provided and complete the Practicum Survey in which
you will specify if you will be completing the Intensive Week on-campus or online.



                                             5
                                       APSY 656

       Practicum in Academic and Language Assessment and Intervention

Calendar Description
This course provides a supervised practicum in academic and language assessment and
interventions. Students will practice language and academic assessment and systematic
remediation of language and academic problems through application of these techniques

(Prerequisites: Consent of Training Director in School and Applied Child Psychology or
Program Coordinator; Open only to students enrolled in the MEd or MSc in School and
Applied Child Psychology).

Course Goal
The supervised practicum in academic and language assessment and intervention is
designed to provide graduate students in School and Applied Child Psychology with
opportunities to apply classroom knowledge of academic and language assessment and
intervention with individuals seeking services within a community or school setting.
National Association of School Psychologists (NASP) and Canadian Psychological
Association (CPA) accreditation standards require that students complete 600 hours of
practicum prior to their internship. There are three practicum courses in the School and
Applied Child Psychology program. Each practicum consists of 200 hours of practicum
work.

Learning Objectives:

1. Students will develop productive working relationships with their client, parents,
teachers and other relevant caregivers, the practicum supervisor, the course instructor and
their classmates.

2. Students will consult with the client’s parents, teachers and other relevant caregivers
about learning and language behaviors that are of concern.

3. Students will design, implement and evaluate academic and language competencies
and develop individualized academic and language plans to address areas of concern.

4. Students will write and present a report detailing the results of their assessment and
outlining plans for remediating language and academic deficits.

5. Students will demonstrate professional and ethical behaviours with their clients, in
their placement settings, and in the class.




                                             6
                                       APSY 675

  Practicum in Cognitive and Neuropsychological Assessment and Intervention


Calendar Description
This course provides a supervised practicum in cognitive and neuropsychological
assessment and interventions. Students will practice cognitive and neuropsychological
assessment and systematic remediation of developmental problems through application of
these techniques.

(Prerequisites: Consent of Training Director in School and Applied Child Psychology or
Program Coordinator; Open only to students enrolled in the MEd or MSc in School and
Applied Child Psychology).


Course Goal
The supervised practicum in cognitive and neuropsychological assessment and
intervention is designed to provide graduate students in School and Applied Child
Psychology with opportunities to apply classroom knowledge of cognitive and
neuropsychological assessment and intervention with individuals seeking services within
a community or school setting. National Association of School Psychologists (NASP)
and Canadian Psychological Association (CPA) accreditation standards require that
students complete 600 hours of practicum prior to their internship. There are three
practicum courses in the School and Applied Child Psychology program. Each practicum
consists of 200 hours of practicum work.

Learning Objectives:

1. Students will develop productive working relationships with their client, parents,
teachers and other relevant caregivers, the practicum supervisor, the course instructor and
their classmates.

2. Students will consult with the client’s parents, teachers and other relevant caregivers
about cognitive and neuropsychological behaviors that are of concern.

3. Students will design, implement and evaluate cognitive and neuropsychological
competencies and develop individualized plans to address areas of concern.

4. Students will write and present a report detailing the results of their assessment and
outlining plans for remediating cognitive and neuropsychological deficits.

5. Students will demonstrate professional and ethical behaviours with their clients, in
their placement settings, and in the class.




                                              7
                                       APSY 676

   Practicum in Social, Emotional, and Behavioural Assessment and Intervention

Calendar Description
This course provides a supervised practicum in social, emotional, and behavioural
assessment and intervention. Students will undertake comprehensive social, emotional,
and behavioural assessment and interventions with children and youth presenting with
various developmental disorders.

(Prerequisites: Consent of Training Director in School and Applied Child Psychology or
Program Coordinator; Open only to students enrolled in the MEd or MSc in School and
Applied Child Psychology).


Course Goal
The supervised practicum in social, emotional, and behavioural assessment and
intervention is designed to provide graduate students in School and Applied Child
Psychology with opportunities to apply knowledge of comprehensive multi-modal
assessment and intervention methods to children and youth seeking these services within
school and/or community settings. National Association of School Psychologists
(NASP) and Canadian Psychological Association (CPA) accreditation standards require
that students complete 600 hours of practicum prior to their internship. There are three
practicum courses in the School and Applied Child Psychology program. This practicum
consists of 200 hours of clinical activities.

Learning Objectives

1. Students will develop productive working relationships with their client, parents,
teachers and other relevant caregivers, the practicum supervisor, the course instructor and
their classmates.

2. Students will consult with the client’s parents, teachers and other relevant caregivers
about social, emotional, and behavioural issues that are of concern.

3. Students will design, implement and evaluate social, emotional, and behavioural
assessment strategies and develop individualized social, emotional, and behavioural plans
to address areas of concern.

4. Students will write and present a report detailing the results of their assessments and
outlining plans for remediating and/or strengthening social, emotional, and behavioural
competencies.

5. Students will demonstrate professional and ethical behaviours with their clients, in
their placement settings, and in the class.




                                             8
                                    Practicum Duties

Practicum Learning Plan. A written plan of the practicum experience should be prepared
by the graduate student and agreed to by the field supervisor(s), the practicum site
representatives, and the Practicum Course Instructor (see attached Practicum Learning
Plan form). The Learning Plan will serve as a guide for the practicum. However, the
Learning Plan does not preclude the possibility of adding additional experiences if
opportunities for enriching the graduate student’s training arise (see Elaborated
Objectives).

Practicum students will provide services for approximately 13 to 15 hours per week for a
minimum of 200 practicum hours. This work will involve:

              conducting assessments
              designing interventions
              implementing interventions
              scoring test protocols
              writing reports
              conducting case conferences.

Daily Log. Students will be asked to keep a log to document hours on a daily basis. Logs
must be sent to the practicum supervisor every two weeks (see Appendix D for a sample
of logs).

Portfolio. For each of the course Learning Objectives, graduate students should keep a
portfolio, which includes non-confidential permanent product material, which document
activities related to each of the above objectives. Although the log sheets provide brief
descriptions, these permanent products will provide more tangible evidence of the
student’s practicum experiences and should also serve as a valuable professional resource
in future roles.

Course Work. Students will also be required to attend weekly online class lectures and
complete assignments as specified within the course outline. You must participate in the
lectures in real team as these sessions are used to review work done over the previous
week. Students should be prepared to discuss their practicum assignment and may be
asked to present information about the clients with whom they are working; discuss the
literature related to their decisions about assessment and intervention plans and
recommendations, and report progress. Additionally, students may be asked to attend
special sessions offered on topics such as interprofessional collaboration which will occur
at alternatively scheduled times or to present at U-CAPES Clinical Case conferences.

Evaluation

Over the course of the program, we anticipate that within the practicum work, a student
will progress from demonstrating novice, to intermediate and finally advanced
competencies in assessment and intervention skills.


                                              9
The practicum supervisor will complete a formative and summative evaluation to
document the student’s progress and guide future training activities (i.e., at midterm and
completion of the practicum experience). A grid adapted from The Association of
Directors of Psychology Training Clinics (ADPTC) Practicum Competencies Working
Group will be used to evaluate your evolving skills using the grading criteria of the
University of Calgary (see Appendix D).

Evaluations and logs should be submitted by the practicum supervisor to the Course
Instructor at the mid-point and completion of the practicum. The final grade will be
either a PASS or FAIL.

Required Readings

Students must familiarize themselves with the School and Applied Child Psychology Pre-
Master’s Practicum Manual, Division of Applied Psychology, University of Calgary.

Academic Accommodation

Students with a disability, who require academic accommodation, need to register with
the Disability Resource Centre, MC 295, telephone 220-8237. Academic
accommodation letters need to be provided to course instructors no later than fourteen
(14) days after the first day of class. It is a student’s responsibility to register with the
Disability Resource Centre, and request academic accommodation, if required.




                                              10
                               Elaborated Objectives
          Pre-Master’s Practicum for School and Applied Child Psychology

One of the purposes of the practicum is to provide graduate students with the opportunity
to develop and refine general skills fundamental to the practice of school and applied
child/youth psychology. Objectives are both to improve proficiency in providing clinical
activities with children and adolescents, their parents and teachers, and to enhance the
personal and professional qualities necessary to participate cooperatively in the various
domains while being responsive to the needs and skills of the child/adolescent and his/her
family.

The following “elaborated objectives” identifies key areas that should be addressed in
the practicum experience (i.e., data-based decision making, consultation, intervention), in
addition to other areas that may be addressed within the practicum experience.

Objectives:

Data-Based Decision Making and Accountability

Psychological assessment is a fundamental role of each psychologist. Graduate students
will gather knowledge of varied models and methods of assessment that yield information
useful in identifying strengths and needs, in understanding problems, and in measuring
progress and accomplishments. Students will use these models and methods as part of a
systematic process to collect data and other information, translate assessment results into
empirically-based decisions about service delivery, and evaluate the outcomes of
services.

Assessment is emphasized during the practicum. Assessment training includes selection
of appropriate instruments, test administration, scoring, data interpretation, acquisition
and integration of information from collateral sources, preparation of written reports, and
oral communication of findings and recommendations to clients, parents and
professionals. Attention will be offered to the use of assessment techniques with ethnic
and culturally diverse populations and legal/ethical issues in assessment of children,
adolescents, and families. In addition, all students are required to develop and refine
report writing skills. Students are trained to provide concise and accurate test results as
well as to develop appropriate recommendations.

Consultation and Collaboration

Practicum students will be given field-based experiences with behavioral, mental health,
collaborative, and/or other consultation models and methods. Practicum students will use
these models and methods and apply them in the appropriate settings based on each
particular situation. Practicum students will collaborate effectively with others in
planning and decision-making processes at the individual, group, and system levels.
These skills will assist in a practicum student’s consultation and collaboration with
parents, schools, other service settings, and outside personnel regarding mental health,



                                            11
behavioral, and/or educational concerns. These skills will also aid in designing and
developing procedures for preventing disorders, promoting mental health and learning,
and improving systems. This will include the development of collaborative relationships
with clients and involvement of clients in assessment, intervention, and program
evaluation procedures.

Consultation experiences include a broad range of professional activities with students
and staff in various settings. Practicum students may be encouraged to provide in-service
training and other skill enhancement activities for professionals, parents, and others in the
community regarding issues of human learning, development, and behavior. Consultation
and collaboration are emphasized in numerous settings within the practicum setting.
Practicum students may be required to consult with teachers, parents, administrators,
outside community professionals, and other individuals. Practicum students may be
expected to attend re-evaluation considerations meetings, placement meetings, and
discipline reviews. Consultation may also involve developing behavior management
plans, supporting and assisting other professionals to implement behavioral interventions
in various settings, facilitating program design, or developing psychological and
psychoeducational modifications.

Effective Instruction and Development of Cognitive and Academic Skills

Practicum students will develop knowledge and understanding of human learning
processes, techniques to assess these processes, and direct and indirect services
applicable to the development of both cognitive and academic skills. Practicum students,
in collaboration with others, will learn to develop appropriate cognitive and academic
goals for children and youth with different abilities, disabilities, strengths, and
weaknesses. In addition, practicum students will develop skills to implement
interventions to achieve these goals and to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions.

Student Diversity in Development and Learning

Practicum students will have the opportunity to develop further understanding of
individual differences, abilities, and disabilities as well as the potential influences of
biological, social, cultural, ethnic, experiential, socioeconomic, gender-related, and
linguistic factors in development and learning. Practicum students will be exposed to the
sensitivity and skills needed to work with individuals of diverse characteristics and to
implement strategies selected and/or adapted based on individual characteristics,
strengths, and needs.

Practicum students will have the chance to receive experiences related to assessment,
interventions, counseling, and consultation. Practicum students are encouraged to
participate on the committee that reviews assessment scales, presents and problem-solves
difficult cases, and provides an arena for professional collaboration within various
settings.

Awareness of Ethical Considerations


                                             12
Practicum students must follow the ethical standards outlined by the Canadian
Psychological Association to ensure that they engage in best practice that promotes the
well-being of children in various settings. Practicum students must always remember
that they must first do no harm. As such, opportunities must be provided to teach the
practicum student accepted ethical and professional practices.

Home/School/Agency/Community Collaboration

Practicum students will be exposed to experiences that assist in gaining knowledge of
family systems, including family strengths and how families influence student
development, learning, and behavior. Practicum students will also be provided with
methods to involve families in service delivery. These experiences will assist in
developing skills needed for psychologist to work effectively with families, professionals,
and others in the community to promote and provide comprehensive services to children
and families.

Socialization and Development of Life Skills

Practicum students will gather knowledge of human developmental processes, techniques
to assess these processes, and direct and indirect services applicable to the development
of behavioral, affective, adaptive, and social skills. Practicum students, with collaboration
with others, will learn to develop appropriate behavioral, affective, adaptive, and social
goals for students of varying abilities, disabilities, strengths, and weaknesses. In addition,
practicum students will develop skills to implement interventions to achieve these goals
and to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions.

Opportunities for practicum students to work with children and youth either through
individual or group interventions are encouraged. Practicum students can assist in co-
leading groups with other professionals, leading child guidance groups, parent training
groups, or theme-oriented groups. Practicum students may participate in activities such as
parent training and the development of behavior management plans. (NOTE: Applies
only to students in APSY 676)

Prevention, Crisis Intervention, and Mental Health

Practicum students will develop knowledge of human development, psychopathology,
and of associated biological, cultural, and social influences on human behavior.
Practicum students may be provided with opportunities to contribute to prevention and
intervention programs that promote the mental health and physical well-being of students.

Research and Program Evaluation

Practicum students may have the opportunity to be involved in a broad range of research
projects. Research and program evaluation experiences will assist in developing
knowledge of not only research, but also statistics and other evaluation methods.
Practicum students may be provided with opportunities to evaluate research, translate


                                             13
research into practice, and understand research design and statistics in sufficient depth to
plan and conduct investigations and program evaluations for improvement of services.

Psychology Practice and Development

Practicum students will continue to develop knowledge and understanding related to the
history and foundations of the profession, various service models and methods, public
policy development applicable to services provided to children and families, and of
ethical, professional, and legal standards.

Information Technology

Practicum students may be provided with the opportunity to develop additional
knowledge of information sources and technology relevant to the field of psychology.
Practicum students will be able to access, evaluate, and utilize information sources and
technology in ways that safeguard or enhance the quality of services provided to children
and families.




                                             14
            Procedure for Applying for an External Practicum Placement

The following directions will be of assistance when applying for an external practicum
placement. The onus and responsibility is on the student to submit all required forms
outlined below to the Practicum Coordinator for approval at least one month before the
beginning of the term in which you are planning to complete your practicum.

It is the responsibility of the student to identify and secure a practicum site with an
outside organization. Students unsuccessful in securing a practicum with an outside
organization have the option to complete the practicum through U-CAPES during the
summer term.

                          Activity                              Required Forms
Step   Familiarize yourself with the Pre-Master’s
 1     Practicum Manual.
Step   Register in the course (APSY 656, 675, or
 2     676): online section.
Step   Locate a potential site and practicum           Organization Approval Form
 3     supervisor. The organization and potential      Appendix A
       supervisor should be provided with a copy of
       the Sample Contract and Terms of                Practicum Supervisor Approval
       Agreement.                                      Form
                                                       Appendix B
Step   The Practicum Coordinator provides written
 4     notification of site/supervisor approval.
Step   Work in conjunction with your practicum         Practicum Learning Plan
 5     supervisor to develop a Practicum Learning      Appendix B (Schedule A)
       Plan (Schedule A in Contract)
Step   The Practicum Coordinator consults with the
 6     Course Instructor to ensure the proposed
       practicum plan is appropriate and of
       sufficient magnitude. You will receive
       written notification of this approval.
Step   A contract between the practicum site,          Sample Contract
 7     Division of Applied Psychology, and student     Appendix E
       is distributed by the Practicum Coordinator
       and signed by all parties.
Step   Have the organization forward a copy of a      Certificate of Insurance
 8     certificate of insurance (See Section 6.3 of   (Includes: insurance carrier, expiry
       the Practicum Agreement for more detailed      date, policy number and the
       information).                                  amount of coverage)
Step   Complete the applicable WCB form.              WBC Form
  9                                                   Appendix C
All forms should be forwarded to the Practicum Coordinator, Clint Westgard either by
fax (403-282-9244) or email (chwestga@ucalgary.ca). If either you or the organization
has any questions or concerns, please forward them to Clint Westgard (403-210-3892).


                                            15
                                                     Appendix A




                                                                                Approval of Practicum
                                                                                     Supervisor


A Masters of Education degree (School and Applied Child Psychology specialization) with the Division of
Applied Psychology normally involves the completion of three practicum placements. The nature of a practicum
experience and the activities and expectations for supervisors, students, and faculty members will vary from one
practicum site to another. However, some activities and expectations are common to all practicum experiences.
These are listed below.

1. Students are expected to spend approximately 15 hours per week over a 13-week period (winter/spring terms) or 33
   hours per week over a 6-week period (summer term) at their practicum site for a minimum of 200 practicum hours. A
   minimum of 100 hours should be spent in direct client contact.

2. Common activities that should be included within the student’s practicum experience are:
       Conducting assessments;
       Designing interventions;
       Implementing interventions;
       Scoring test protocols;
       Writing reports;
       Conducting case conferences.

3. Students will spend at least 2 hours per week with their supervisors in supervision, case consultation, and other
   activities. At least one of these hours should be direct, individual supervision of the student’s work by the supervisor.

4. There will be one mid-term formative evaluation, conducted between the student, supervisor, and practicum
   instructor. There will be a final summative evaluation conducted between the student, supervisor, and instructor at
   the end of the term.

5. Students may be asked to discuss their practicum assignment at the weekly case conferences held at U-CAPES
   (University of Calgary Applied Psychological and Educational Services) or their practicum class.


Practicum Supervisors will normally possess one or more of the following:
   Designation as a Chartered Psychologist in Alberta (or other provincial equivalent); or
   Completion of a graduate degree related to school psychology, approved by the Practicum Coordinator.


Because of the distance nature of the MEd program, Practicum Supervisors will normally meet the following
criteria (exceptions must be negotiated with the Practicum Coordinator):
   Regular access to email and Internet;
   Access to a computer with certain hardware and software requirements (outlined on the link below); and
   Availability for a monthly half-hour teleconference meeting with the practicum instructor during the practicum


                                                           16
    placement.

If you have question about your involvement in this role, please contact the Practicum Coordinator:
                                       Clint Westgard
                                       E-mail: chwestga@ucalgary.ca
                                       Phone: (403) 210-3892
                                       FAX: (403) 282-9244


                         TO BE COMPLETED BY POTENTIAL PRACTICUM SUPERVISORS
                                              (Please type)
Last Name                                       First Name                          Phone                      Fax


Mailing Address
Street                                                   City               Province / State       Country              Postal /
                                                                                                                        Zip

Email Address                                   Personal Webpage                    I have included a Resume or Curriculum
                                                                                    Vitae
                                                                                             Yes
                                                                                             No
Affiliation (Employment Information):                                               Identified areas of applied practice (point
                                                                                    form):




Qualifications (e.g., education, years of experience):




             Becoming a Field Supervisor:

             Approved Practicum Supervisors may become Field Associates of the Division of Applied
             Psychology. Field Associates will be listed on the Division’s website, along with their applied
             practice areas, and may be approached by other students seeking practicum supervision. You
             may opt out at any time in the future or you may choose to opt in after supervision of one or more
             practicum students.




                                                                17
                         TO BE COMPLETED BY POTENTIAL PRACTICUM SUPERVISORS
I am interested in becoming a Field Associate:
        Yes
        No

             If you are interesting in becoming a Field Associate of the Division of Applied Psychology, please
             complete the following:

                            TO BE COMPLETED BY POTENTIAL FIELD ASSOCIATES
List of Approved Practicum Supervisors:                                     APSY Email Updates:
         Please include me in your list of approved supervisors.                  Please include me in your e-mail list to
         Please do not include me in your list of approved supervisors.           keep me informed of new developments
                                                                                  in this initiative.
                                                                                  Please do not include me in your email
                                                                                  list.
Supervision Loads:
   How many students are you willing to supervise at a given time?



If you are willing to be included on the list of approved supervisors, please provide a paragraph (4-8 sentences)
describing your areas of expertise and applied practice for us to post for students to use in their selection of a potential
supervisor.




             Please complete this form as soon as possible and submit with a copy of your current
             curriculum vitae to the Practicum Coordinator (chwestga@ucalgary.ca). Thank you.




                                                               18
                                                      Appendix B




                                                                               Approval of Practicum
                                                                                   Organization

A Masters of Education degree (School and Applied Child Psychology specialization) with the Division of Applied
Psychology normally involves the completion of three practicum placements. The nature of a practicum experience
and the activities and expectations for supervisors, students, and faculty members will vary from one practicum site
to another. However, some activities and expectations are common to all practicum experiences. These are listed
below.

6. Students are expected to spend approximately 15 hours per week over a 13-week period (winter/spring terms) or
   33 hours per week over a 6-week period (summer term) at their practicum site for a minimum of 200 practicum
   hours. A minimum of 100 hours should be spent in direct client contact.

7. Common activities that should be included within the student’s practicum experience are:
       Conducting assessments;
       Designing interventions;
       Implementing interventions;
       Scoring test protocols;
       Writing reports;
       Conducting case conferences.

3. Students are required to spend at least 2 hours per week with their supervisors in supervision, case consultation,
   and other activities. At least one of these hours should be direct, individual supervision of the student’s work by the
   supervisor, utilizing direct observation, videotape, or some other medium that provides first-hand observation of the
   student’s work by the supervisor.


A practicum placement is required to provide the student with:
1. Permission to share case information within the University setting (excluding identifying information): Students may
   be required discuss their practicum assignment at weekly case conferences sessions held at U-CAPES (University
   of Calgary Applied Psychological and Educational Services) or their practicum class.

2. Client contact time and supervision on a weekly basis throughout the duration of the placement.

Before completing this form to apply for approval as a Practicum Site, please ensure that you have read the
information provided within this Manual.

If you have question about your involvement in this role, please contact the Practicum Coordinator:
                                       Clint Westgard
                                       E-mail: chwestga@ucalgary.ca
                                       Phone: (403) 210-3892
                                       FAX: (403) 282-9244




                                                           19
                   TO BE COMPLETED BY PRACTICUM ORGANIZATION REPRESENTATIVE
                                          (Please type)
Name of Organization                                                                  Email Address             Webpage


Mailing Address
Street                                                  City                  Province / State       Country            Postal /
                                                                                                                        Zip

Contact Person                                   Position Title (e.g., Director / Manager)   Phone                Fax




                   TO BE COMPLETED BY PRACTICUM ORGANIZATION REPRESENTATIVE
                                          (Please type)
Types of school psychology services provided (e.g., assessment, intervention):




Number and qualifications of personnel:




Kinds of clients who utilize the services (ages, gender, common presenting issues, numbers):




Agreement to allow sharing of student work:

  Students will be permitted to discuss their work (excluding identifying information) within their practicum course or at a U-
CAPES (University of Calgary Applied Psychological and Educational Services) clinical case conference.



             Approved agencies may choose to be listed on the APSY website and may be approached by
             other students seeking a practicum placement. You may opt out at any time in the future or you
             may choose to opt in after placement of one or more practicum students.




                                                               20
                     TO BE COMPLETED BY PRACTICUM ORGANIZATION REPRESENTATIVE
List of Approved Practicum Organizations:                                  APSY Email Updates:
         Please include our organization in your list of approved                Please include our organization in your e-mail
         practicum sites.                                                        list to keep me informed of new developments
         Please do not include our organization in your list of approved         in this initiative.
         practicum sites.                                                        Please do not include our organization in your
                                                                                 email list.




             Please complete this form as soon as possible and submit it chwestga@ucalgary.ca.
             Thank you.




                                                              21
                              Appendix C


                SAMPLE CONTRACT BETWEEN
DIVISION OF APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY, PRACTICUM SITE,
                  AND PRACTICUM STUDENT




                          University of Calgary
               School and Applied Child Psychology Program
Education Tower - Rm 302, 2500 University Drive N.W. Calgary, AB, T2N 1N4




                                   22
                                                                    Practicum
                                                                    Agreement


             TO BE COMPLETED BY THE PRACTICUM ORGANIZATION
                               (Please type)


BETWEEN:

                                     Organization Name:
        Please show the full name of the organization. Please do not use acronyms.



                                     (the “Organization”)


AND:

                THE UNIVERSITY OF CALGARY GOVERNING COUNCIL
                             (“University of Calgary”)

       WHEREAS the University of Calgary wish to utilize the facilities of the
Organization for the practical education of its students, or to conduct clinical research for
academic purposes;

      AND WHEREAS the Organization wishes to utilize the services of the students
upon and subject to the terms and conditions below:

                                        ARTICLE 1
                                       DEFINITIONS

1.1    In this Agreement, the following words and phrases have the following meanings:

       (a)      “Confidential Information” means all information that is of a confidential
                or proprietary nature, which may be related to the business and
                management of either party or the personal information of the student
                and/or the personal and health care information and records of any
                patient of the Organization to which access is granted or obtained by the
                other party or to which the student has access, but does not include
                information:

                (i)    was previously known to the recipient;
                (ii)   was independently developed by the recipient;



                                             23
             (iii)   is subsequently lawfully obtained by the recipient from a third
                     party;
             (iv)    becomes publicly available other than through breach of this
                     Agreement;
             (v)     is disclosed where the other party has provided its prior written
                     consent; or
             (vi)    is disclosed by court order or otherwise by law;


      (b)    “FOIP” means the Freedom of Information and Protection of Privacy Act,
             R.S.A. 2000, c. F-25, as amended;

      (c)     “HI Act” means the Health Information Act, R.S.A. 2000, c. H-5, as
             amended; and

      (d)    “Practicum” means a supervised learning opportunity at the
             Organization to enable the student to develop knowledge, competencies,
             judgment, attitudes and practical experience related to applied
             psychology.


                                      ARTICLE 2
                            PRACTICUM PARTICIPATION

2.1   The University of Calgary and the Organization shall mutually agree in writing
      upon the particulars of the Practicum for each student as more fully set out in
      Schedule “A”.

2.2   The Organization acknowledges that, during the Practicum, a student may use
      the facilities, resources and services of the Organization in accordance with the
      policies, rules, regulations and procedures of the Organization as made known to
      the University of Calgary in advance of the Practicum.

2.3   The Organization and the University of Calgary shall cooperate in establishing
      the plans and forms of evaluation of the students.

2.4   The parties agree that the University of Calgary shall be the representative of the
      University of Calgary in all dealings with the Organization.

                                      ARTICLE 3
                              TERM AND TERMINATION

3.1   This Agreement shall commence on the start date (listed below) and shall
      continue in force until the end date (listed below), subject to early termination in
      clause 6.4. At the expiry of such period, this Agreement will terminate unless
      renewed by mutual written agreement of the parties.

                             Start Date:                     End Date:




                                           24
3.2   If for any reason a student is no longer a participant in a Practicum, then the
      placement of that student shall terminate on the date that the student’s
      participation in the Practicum is terminated.


                                       ARTICLE 4
             RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALGARY

4.1   The University of Calgary shall take reasonable steps to ensure that the student
      is made aware of the policies, rules and regulations of the Organization as made
      known to the University of Calgary.

4.2   The University of Calgary shall provide the Organization with the University of
      Calgary’s policies, rules and regulations that are necessary for the Organization
      to effectively participate in the Practicum. Further, as reasonably possible, the
      University of Calgary will meet with the Organization to review the University of
      Calgary’s and the Organization’s applicable policies, rules and regulations and to
      clarify any questions either party may have regarding such policies, rules or
      regulations.


                                       ARTICLE 5
                    RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE ORGANIZATION

5.1   The Organization shall provide the student (and the University of Calgary, as
      required) with an orientation to its facilities, administrative structure and policies,
      including any requirements of HIA, where applicable, so that the student can
      effectively and safely participate in the Practicum.

5.2   The Organization shall ensure that its applicable staff is made aware of the
      policies, rules and regulations of the University of Calgary as they apply to the
      Practicum and the Organization shall take reasonable steps to ensure
      compliance.

5.3   During the term of the Practicum, the Organization shall make available facilities
      to the University of Calgary and the student(s) such as

      (i)     suitable conference room space on a schedules basis; and
      (ii)    such other materials and equipment as is reasonable required.

5.4   The Organization agrees to ensure that the student receives adequate,
      consistent and appropriate supervision, direction and learning opportunities
      during the Practicum.

5.5   The Organization recognizes the student status of the student and shall not
      require the student to undertake activities, responsibilities or duties that exceed
      the capabilities of the student.

5.6   The Organization, acting reasonably, reserves the right to refuse access to its
      facilities to any student.


                                            25
5.7   The Organization shall notify the University of Calgary immediately in the event a
      student is sick, ill, injured, incapacitated or involved in any claim concerning the
      activities he or she has taken or not taken during the Practicum. After
      notification, and to the extent practical, the Organization and the University of
      Calgary shall collectively determine an appropriate response to the matter or
      issue being dealt with by the student.

5.8   The parties acknowledge that this Agreement is subject to FOIP and all of the
      terms and conditions of this Agreement shall be carried out in compliance with
      FOIP and any statutes or laws regarding confidentiality of personal or health care
      records as may apply in the jurisdiction of the Organization and the location of
      the Practicum.

5.9   The parties shall use reasonable efforts to ensure that the students are aware of
      the obligations of the Organization pursuant to FOIP and the Organization shall
      ensure such students also are made aware of other requirements under any
      statutes or laws regarding confidentiality of personal and health care records as
      may apply in the jurisdiction of the Organization and the location of the
      Practicum.

                                      ARTICLE 6
                                      GENERAL

6.1   The University of Calgary agrees to indemnify and save harmless the
      Organization from and against all manner of actions, cause of action, damages,
      suits, claims, demands and costs whatsoever arising from any tortuous or
      wrongful act or omission of its employees, students, volunteers or agents, save
      and except those acts that were undertaken at the direction or consent of the
      Organization or those manner of actions, damages, cause of action, suits,
      claims, demands and costs arising from or as a result of the negligence of the
      Organization.

6.2   The Organization agrees to indemnify and save harmless the University of
      Calgary from and against all manner of actions, cause of action, suits, claims,
      demands and costs whatsoever arising from any tortuous or wrongful act or
      omission of its employees, volunteers or agents of the Organization undertaken
      pursuant to this Agreement.

6.3   Both parties shall insure their respective operations under a contract of
      comprehensive general liability insurance, with an insurer licensed in Canada in
      the amount of not less than $2,000,000 per occurrence, insuring against bodily
      injury, personal injury and property damage, including the use thereof arising out
      of this Agreement. The Organization shall provide proof of insurance in the form
      of a certificate of insurance prior to the commencement of this Agreement and
      upon a request during the term of this Agreement.

6.4   The Organization understands that the University of Calgary will provide workers
      compensation coverage to only those students resident in Alberta (as determined
      by the Workers Compensation Board) and those students as set out in Schedule
      “B”.


                                           26
            6.5   Either party may give notice to terminate this Agreement without cause, by giving
                  to the other party sixty (60) days notice in writing. Notices shall be deemed to be
                  effective by sending by facsimile or by delivery and with providing proof of
                  receipt. Notices shall be sent to:

                  If to the Organization:


Organization Overseeing Body Name                                 Phone                      Fax


Title                                                             Position


Address 1
Street                                         City             Province / State   Country          Postal / Zip


Address 2
Street                                         City             Province / State   Country          Postal / Zip




                  If to the University of Calgary:

                  Clint Westgard
                  Practicum Coordinator
                  Division of Applied Psychology, Faculty of Education
                  The University of Calgary
                  2500 University Drive NW
                  Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4
                  Tel: (403) 210-3892
                  Fax: (403) 282-9244

            6.6   This Agreement, including the Schedules attached hereto, constitutes the entire
                  agreement between the parties and supersedes all other agreements, oral or
                  written between the parties with respect to the Practicums, and no addition,
                  variation or amendment of this Agreement shall take place except by agreement
                  in writing between the parties.

            6.7   The parties acknowledge that nothing in this Agreement is intended to create an
                  employee/employer relationship, partnership, joint venture or agency
                  relationship.

            6.8   The parties agree that copyright and all other intellectual property rights created
                  by the student and all materials and supplies furnished or provided by the
                  University of Calgary for use in the performance of this Agreement are and
                  remain the property of the University of Calgary subject to their intellectual
                  property policies.



                                                       27
     6.9      The Organization agrees not to use or refer to the University of Calgary, or the
              Universities, their logos, corporate symbol or representation in any promotional
              material or otherwise, without the University of Calgary’s express written consent.

     6.10     This Agreement shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws
              in force in the Province of Alberta. The Courts of Alberta shall have exclusive
              jurisdiction over all claims, disputes and actions related to this Agreement, and
              the parties attorn to the jurisdiction of those courts.

     6.11     The parties shall exercise every reasonable effort to meet their respective
              obligations under this Agreement but shall not be liable for failures to perform or
              delays in performance resulting from causes beyond their reasonable control.

     6.12     No waiver or any breach of any term or condition of this Agreement shall be
              construed to waive any subsequent breach of the same or any term or condition
              of this Agreement.


           IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties or their authorized representatives have duly
           executed this Agreement as of the day and year first above written.


ON BEHALF OF THE ORGANIZATION:
IMPORTANT: Before signing this agreement,
please ensure that you possess signing authority. If
                                                       Name:
you belong to an educational institution, please
ensure that your Risk Management Department is
aware of the fact that you have signed an agreement
between your organization and the University of
Calgary.

                                                       Position:
                                                       Organization:
                                                       Please show the full name of the organization.
                                                       Please do not use acronyms.
                                                       Date:

ON BEHALF OF THE GOVERNORS
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALGARY:
                                                       Dr. Bruce Clark
                                                       Dean of Education, University of Calgary
                                                       Date:


     Room 302 Education Tower • 2500 University Drive NW •Calgary, AB T2N 1N4 •
     Phone: 220-5651 • Fax: 282-9244




                                                        28
                                       Schedule A



 TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR PREMASTER’S PRACTICUM IN SCHOOL
              AND APPLIED CHILD PSYCHOLOGY


      CONTRACTUAL AGREEMENT FOR PREMASTER’S PRACTICUM
               IN SCHOOL AND APPLIED CHILD PSYCHOLOGY
                                         Between


                             Division of Applied Psychology
                                   Faculty of Education
                                  University of Calgary
                                           -and-




The goal of our pre-master’s practicum is to provide graduate students in School and
Applied Child Psychology with opportunities to apply classroom knowledge of
assessment and intervention with individuals seeking services within the school setting.
The practicum is a collaboration between the training program and field site that assures
the completion of activities consistent with the goals of the training program. Practicum
students are expected to engage in continued learning experiences within the University
setting (weekly course lecture and clinical case conferences) and through field
experiences.
It is expected that the practicum courses will afford each graduate student with the
opportunity to apply theoretical and technical knowledge and to develop and refine
particular professional skills. Objectives are both to improve proficiency in providing
clinical activities with children and adolescents, their parents and teachers, and to
enhance the personal and professional qualities necessary to participate cooperatively in
the public school domain while being responsive to the needs and skills of the student.
The practicum allows students to develop a variety of new skills and to interact with
clients from diverse backgrounds. Students will refine competencies in psychological
assessment, intervention, and consultation as detailed within this contract.
Following completion of the practicum courses, graduate students will be required to
complete a 1200 hour internship. It is at this step that graduate students are expected to
integrate the theoretical, practical, and scientific in their emergent roles as professional
psychologists. It is this integrative process and requirement that sets the internship apart
from the current practicum experiences which focus more concretely on the acquisition of


                                            29
specific skills. As such, students should not be engaging in independent practice within
the practicum.


Practicum Duties
The pre-master’s practicum in School and Applied Child Psychology will consist of
duties which school psychologists usually perform such as assessment, intervention,
prevention, education/training, and research. Such activities will primarily take place in a
school setting; however, additional experiences may be obtained in a hospital, clinic, or
community mental health agency that serves the psychological and educational needs of
children.
Students will engage in both direct and indirect psychological services continuously.
Students are required to complete a minimum of 200 hours within the practicum course.
A minimum of two hours of supervision must be provided per week to the student, with a
greater amount of supervision time required at the beginning of the practicum experience
(see below Models of Supervision). Practicum hours are documented through the use of
a daily log which is signed by the student’s supervisor (see attached). The student’s
supervisor will complete two evaluations to document the student’s progress and future
training activities.
The primary purpose of the internship in school psychology is to help develop the
student’s assessment and intervention skills in specific areas. The practicum integrates
previous training experiences with practical application of these skills in the school
environment.
To guide the practicum supervisor, who accepts responsibility for the practicum, the
following specific learning objectives are identified for the practicum. Please refer to the
learning objectives below for the specific course that has been check off.
As the practicum courses are taken in a specified sequence (i.e., APSY 656, APSY 675,
APSY 676), students are able to and permitted to engage in activities and skills that have
been learned in a preceding practicum course. For example, students in the final
practicum course (APSY 676: Practicum in Social, Emotional, and Behavioural Well-
Being) may complete academic and cognitive assessments and interventions. Conversely,
students are not to engage in activities that are covered in later practicum courses (e.g.,
students in the initial practicum should not be completing cognitive and/or social-
emotional assessments or interventions).


            APSY 698: Practicum in Academic and Language Assessment
Students are to be provided with opportunities to apply classroom knowledge of
academic and language assessment and intervention with individuals seeking services
within a community or school setting. Learning objectives include:
1.Students will develop productive working relationships with their clients, parents,
  teachers, and other relevant caregivers, the practicum supervisor, the instructors, and
  their classmates.


                                             30
2.Students will consult with the client’s parents, teachers and other relevant caregivers
  about learning and language behaviors that are of concern.
3.Students will design, implement and evaluate academic and language competencies and
  develop individualized academic and language plans to address areas of concern
  (APSY 656: Academic and Language Assessment)
4.Students will write and present a report detailing the results of their assessment and
  outlining plans for remediating language and academic deficits.
5.Students will demonstrate professional and ethical behaviours with their clients, in their
  placement settings, and in the class.


       APSY 675: Practicum in Cognitive and Neuropsychological Assessment
Students are to be provided with opportunities to apply classroom knowledge of
cognitive and neuropsychological assessment and intervention with individuals
seeking services seeking services within a community or school setting. Learning
objectives include:
1. Students will develop productive working relationships with their client, parents,
   teachers and other relevant caregivers, the field supervisor, the instructor and their
   classmates.
2. Students will consult with the client’s parents, teachers and other relevant caregivers
   about cognitive and neuropsychological behaviors that are of concern.
3. Students will design, implement and evaluate cognitive and neuropsychological
   competencies and develop individualized plans to address areas of concern.
4. Students will write and present a report detailing the results of their assessment and
   outlining plans for remediating cognitive and neuropsychological deficits.
5. Students will demonstrate professional and ethical behaviours with their clients, in
   their placement settings, and in the class.


      APSY 676: Practicum in Social, Emotional, and Behavioural Well-Being
Students are to be provided with opportunities to apply classroom knowledge of social,
emotional, and behavioural assessment and intervention with individuals seeking
services seeking services within a community or school setting. Learning objectives
include:
1. Students will develop productive working relationships with their client, parents,
   teachers and other relevant caregivers, the field supervisor, the instructor and their
   classmates.
2. Students will consult with the client’s parents, teachers and other relevant caregivers
   about social, emotional, and behavioural issues that are of concern.



                                             31
3. Students will design, implement and evaluate social, emotional, and behavioural
   assessment strategies and develop individualized social, emotional, and behavioural
   plans to address areas of concern.
4. Students will write and present a report detailing the results of their assessments and
   outlining plans for remediating and/or strengthening social, emotional, and
   behavioural competencies.
5. Students will demonstrate professional and ethical behaviours with their clients, in
   their placement settings, and in the class.
In addition to the specific learning objectives of the practicum, an additional nine specific
content objectives of the practicum experience have been delineated and are based on the
Domains of School Psychology Training and Practice outlined in the Standards for
Training and Field Placement Programs in School Psychology (2000). These experiences
should serve as a guide, and the field supervisors are encouraged to modify or add
supplementary experiences to these lists so that the student is exposed to a sufficient
variety of experiences (see page 11).
A written Learning Plan (see page 38) of the practicum experience is to be prepared by
the student and agreed to by the field supervisor(s), the internship site representatives,
and the Practicum Course Instructor. The practicum plan will serve as a guide for the
practicum. However, the practicum plan does not preclude the possibility of adding
additional experiences if opportunities for enriching the student’s training arise. Though
variation of emphasis may exist, the practicum must address the learning objectives
outlined above and may provide experiences relevant to each of the following nine
objectives.
For each of the nine objectives, students should keep a portfolio, which includes non-
confidential permanent product material, which document activities across the nine
objectives. Although the log sheets provide brief descriptions, these permanent products
will provide more tangible evidence of the student’s practicum experiences and should
also serve as a valuable professional resource in future roles.


                                  Elaborated Objectives
          Pre-Master’s Practicum for School and Applied Child Psychology
One of the purposes of the practicum is to provide graduate students with the opportunity
to develop and refine general skills fundamental to the practice of school and applied
child/youth psychology. Objectives are both to improve proficiency in providing clinical
activities with children and adolescents, their parents and teachers, and to enhance the
personal and professional qualities necessary to participate cooperatively in the various
domains while being responsive to the needs and skills of the child/adolescent and his/her
family.
The following “elaborated objectives” identifies key areas that should be addressed in the
practicum experience (i.e., data-based decision making, consultation, intervention), in
addition to other areas that may be addressed within the practicum experience.


                                             32
Objectives:
Data-Based Decision Making and Accountability
Psychological assessment is a fundamental role of each psychologist. Graduate students
will gather knowledge of varied models and methods of assessment that yield information
useful in identifying strengths and needs, in understanding problems, and in measuring
progress and accomplishments. Students will use these models and methods as part of a
systematic process to collect data and other information, translate assessment results into
empirically-based decisions about service delivery, and evaluate the outcomes of
services.
Assessment is emphasized during the practicum. Assessment training includes selection
of appropriate instruments, test administration, scoring, data interpretation, acquisition
and integration of information from collateral sources, preparation of written reports, and
oral communication of findings and recommendations to clients, parents and
professionals. Attention will be offered to the use of assessment techniques with ethnic
and culturally diverse populations and legal/ethical issues in assessment of children,
adolescents, and families. In addition, all students are required to develop and refine
report writing skills. Students are trained to provide concise and accurate test results as
well as to develop appropriate recommendations.
Consultation and Collaboration
Practicum students will be given field-based experiences with behavioral, mental health,
collaborative, and/or other consultation models and methods. Practicum students will use
these models and methods and apply them in the appropriate settings based on each
particular situation. Practicum students will collaborate effectively with others in
planning and decision-making processes at the individual, group, and system levels.
These skills will assist in a practicum student’s consultation and collaboration with
parents, schools, other service settings, and outside personnel regarding mental health,
behavioral, and/or educational concerns. These skills will also aid in designing and
developing procedures for preventing disorders, promoting mental health and learning,
and improving systems. This will include the development of collaborative relationships
with clients and involvement of clients in assessment, intervention, and program
evaluation procedures.
Consultation experiences include a broad range of professional activities with students
and staff in various settings. Practicum students may be encouraged to provide in-service
training and other skill enhancement activities for professionals, parents, and others in the
community regarding issues of human learning, development, and behavior. Consultation
and collaboration are emphasized in numerous settings within the practicum setting.
Practicum students may be required to consult with teachers, parents, administrators,
outside community professionals, and other individuals. Practicum students may be
expected to attend re-evaluation considerations meetings, placement meetings, and
discipline reviews. Consultation may also involve developing behavior management
plans, supporting and assisting other professionals to implement behavioral interventions
in various settings, facilitating program design, or developing psychological and
psychoeducational modifications.


                                             33
Effective Instruction and Development of Cognitive and Academic Skills
Practicum students will develop knowledge and understanding of human learning
processes, techniques to assess these processes, and direct and indirect services
applicable to the development of both cognitive and academic skills. Practicum students,
in collaboration with others, will learn to develop appropriate cognitive and academic
goals for children and youth with different abilities, disabilities, strengths, and
weaknesses. In addition, practicum students will develop skills to implement
interventions to achieve these goals and to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions.
Student Diversity in Development and Learning
Practicum students will have the opportunity to develop further understanding of
individual differences, abilities, and disabilities as well as the potential influences of
biological, social, cultural, ethnic, experiential, socioeconomic, gender-related, and
linguistic factors in development and learning. Practicum students will be exposed to the
sensitivity and skills needed to work with individuals of diverse characteristics and to
implement strategies selected and/or adapted based on individual characteristics,
strengths, and needs.
Practicum students will have the chance to receive experiences related to assessment,
interventions, counseling, and consultation. Practicum students are encouraged to
participate on the committee that reviews assessment scales, presents and problem-solves
difficult cases, and provides an arena for professional collaboration within various
settings.
Awareness of Ethical Considerations
Practicum students must follow the ethical standards outlined by the Canadian
Psychological Association to ensure that they engage in best practice that promotes the
well-being of children in various settings. Practicum students must always remember
that they must first do no harm. As such, opportunities must be provided to teach the
practicum student accepted ethical and professional practices.
Home/School/Agency/Community Collaboration
Practicum students will be exposed to experiences that assist in gaining knowledge of
family systems, including family strengths and how families influence student
development, learning, and behavior. Practicum students will also be provided with
methods to involve families in service delivery. These experiences will assist in
developing skills needed for psychologist to work effectively with families, professionals,
and others in the community to promote and provide comprehensive services to children
and families.
Socialization and Development of Life Skills
Practicum students will gather knowledge of human developmental processes, techniques
to assess these processes, and direct and indirect services applicable to the development
of behavioral, affective, adaptive, and social skills. Practicum students, with collaboration
with others, will learn to develop appropriate behavioral, affective, adaptive, and social
goals for students of varying abilities, disabilities, strengths, and weaknesses. In addition,


                                             34
practicum students will develop skills to implement interventions to achieve these goals
and to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions.
Opportunities for practicum students to work with children and youth either through
individual or group interventions are encouraged. Practicum students can assist in co-
leading groups with other professionals, leading child guidance groups, parent training
groups, or theme-oriented groups. Practicum students may participate in activities such as
parent training and the development of behavior management plans. (NOTE: Applies
only to students in APSY 676)
Prevention, Crisis Intervention, and Mental Health
Practicum students will develop knowledge of human development, psychopathology,
and of associated biological, cultural, and social influences on human behavior.
Practicum students may be provided with opportunities to contribute to prevention and
intervention programs that promote the mental health and physical well-being of students.
Research and Program Evaluation
Practicum students may have the opportunity to be involved in a broad range of research
projects. Research and program evaluation experiences will assist in developing
knowledge of not only research, but also statistics and other evaluation methods.
Practicum students may be provided with opportunities to evaluate research, translate
research into practice, and understand research design and statistics in sufficient depth to
plan and conduct investigations and program evaluations for improvement of services.
Psychology Practice and Development
Practicum students will continue to develop knowledge and understanding related to the
history and foundations of the profession, various service models and methods, public
policy development applicable to services provided to children and families, and of
ethical, professional, and legal standards.
Information Technology
Practicum students may be provided with the opportunity to develop additional
knowledge of information sources and technology relevant to the field of psychology.
Practicum students will be able to access, evaluate, and utilize information sources and
technology in ways that safeguard or enhance the quality of services provided to children
and families.
Supervision Models:
We recommend that a five-staged process of supervision with goal-directed activities be
used as a guide, although it is recognized that not all stages may be necessary or
accomplished. The five stages are:
   1. Shadowing and Modeling. Here the student will directly observe the supervisor
      perform pertinent professional activities (i.e., cognitive, academic and process
      assessments; consultation with parents and teachers; functional behavioral
      assessments; participation in individualized educational program meetings;
      participation in the response to intervention procedures). During this time, the


                                             35
       practicum student will become familiar with the school system organization, the
       schools served, school district resources and psychological services. During this
       period of development, the practicum student will be scheduled to observe a
       variety of classrooms including: regular education, special education, art, music,
       physical education, recess, lunch, after school activities and counseling groups.
       Experienced and novice teachers should also be observed.
   2. Observation and Assessment of Professional Skills. In this stage the supervisor
      closely observes the practicum student performing a variety of psychological
      services which may include (but not limited to): cognitive, academic and process
      assessments; consultation with parents and teachers; functional behavioral
      assessments; participation in individualized educational program meetings; and
      participation in the response to intervention procedures. During this stage, the
      skills of the practicum student are assessed and a specific plan to provide
      appropriate training experiences is mutually formulated and agreed upon. The
      plan will be formulated to meet the needs of the student and the university
      requirements for the student as detailed in the Course Outline. During
      observation, the supervisor will, generally, not correct the student in front of
      others; however, the supervisor will interrupt if damage is being done.
   3. Guided Independent Practice. Here the student independently performs specific
      tasks that the student has been determined to be competent to perform through
      prior observation. The student continues to follow steps 1 or 2 in areas that still
      require more skill building. Frequently, in this stage, the student and supervisor
      work together to complete a case. For example, the student might give the
      achievement tests, while the supervisor gives the cognitive assessment.
   4. Increasing Independent Practice. As the student gains more experience and
      skills, the amount of independent professional activities increases. At this stage,
      states take more initiative and responsibility for professional activities.
      Independent decisions are made by the student and discussed with the supervisor.
   5. Professional Independence. While it is not expected that the students will reach
      this stage during the practicum, supervisors should help students make long-term
      plans to attain this stage.


Practicum Evaluation
We ask that students be given feedback about their progress in the practicum on an
ongoing basis. This ongoing feedback includes a written evaluation in a format provided
by the School and Applied Child Psychology, University of Calgary, program (see
attached). The evaluation should be completed by the supervisor at two points during the
training year (i.e., at midpoint and at the end of the practicum). The written evaluation
should be reviewed with the student by the supervisor, filed in the student’s file, and a
copy given to the student and the Course Instructor.
Students who, in the opinion of the internship site, are not meeting standards should be:




                                            36
   advised of their substandard performance in writing with a copy sent to the Course
    Instructor; and
   be given a reasonable period of time and reasonable professional support to achieve
    standard performance. Time and support to achieve standard performance includes a
    remediation plan, developed and agreed to by all supervisors and the student, and
    documented in writing. Both the practicum program and student are responsible for
    fulfilling the terms of any remediation plan developed and instituted by both parties.
Students unsuccessful in the practicum will be required to repeat the practicum course.


Signatures


_______________________________
Dated


________________________________
Signature of Intern


_________________________________
Signature of Internship Agency


_________________________________
Signature of Coordinator for the MEd in
School and Applied Child Psychology
University of Calgary




                                            37
                                                                        Practicum Learning Plan


                                       TO BE COMPLETED BY THE STUDENT
                                                 (Please type)
Student’s Name                                                  Student’s Email Address


Practicum Course                                                Session:     Winter       Spring       Summer
        APSY 656         APSY 675         APSY 676              Year:

Supervisor’s Name                                               Supervisor’s Email & Phone Number


Practicum Organization/Site                                     Date of Submission


The nature of a practicum experience and the activities and expectations for supervisors, students, and faculty members will
vary from one practicum site to another. However, some activities and expectations are common to all practicum sites.
These are listed below. In addition, space is provided to list particular activities or expectations that may be unique to a
given practicum site.
General Expectations:

1. Students are expected to complete 200 practicum hours at their practicum site. Some agencies may require students to
   spend more than the minimum time required by the university. Any additional time should be negotiated between the
   student, practicum supervisor, and instructor of record.
2. Practicum activities should be selected in alignment with the course objectives as detailed in the Terms and Conditions.
   A large proportion of the client contact hours should be in assessment, intervention, and consultation activities. Included
   in these hours are a range of direct and indirect activities – observations of assessment sessions, co-facilitation of
   groups, case conferences or other agency meetings, report writing and so on.
3. Normally, students will spend at least 2 hours per week with their supervisors in supervision, case consultation, and
   other activities. At least one of these hours should be direct, individual supervision of the student’s work by the
   supervisor, utilizing direct observation, videotape, or some other medium that provides first-hand observation of the
   student’s work by the supervisor.
4. Students shall be expected to demonstrate acceptable skill competencies (shown in the attached Practicum Evaluation
   Form) and shall conduct themselves with high professional and ethical accord at all times.
5. If any party to this agreement (i.e., student, practicum supervisor, instructor of record) has concerns over the behaviour
   of another party to this agreement, that party should approach the second, informing him/her of the concern and making
   an attempt to resolve the matter. If this does not result in a satisfactory solution, then the concern shall be raised at a
   joint meeting of all the parties.
6. The practicum experiences should focus on the acquisition of specific skills through close supervision and instruction, as
   opposed to the independent practice expected during the subsequent 1200 hour internship. As such, practicum
   students are not intended to provide solutions to systematic agency staffing needs.
7. There will be one mid-term formative evaluation, conducted between the student, supervisor, and practicum instructor.
   There will be a final summative evaluation conducted between the student, supervisor, and instructor at the end of the


                                                           38
   term.


               TO BE COMPLETED BY THE STUDENT AND THE PRACTICUM SUPERVISOR
                                        (Please type)

Specific Expectations:
Students and practicum supervisors should meet to discuss and formulate clear responses to the following questions
prior to final approval of the practicum placement by the instructor of record.

Outline briefly the primary student learning goals for the practicum.




Outline the activities that the student will engage in while at the practicum site. Please provide an estimate of the
proportion of time expected to be given to each of these activities.




From the list of activities above, please identify the subset of activities that will be used in the evaluation of the
student’s practicum performance.




                                                              39
All parties must review and sign the Practicum Learning Plan. By signing below you confirm that
you have read this plan and agree to the items contained herein. Original signatures are required.

   NAME (please print)                                    SIGNATURE                           DATE



          Student



   Practicum Supervisor



   Practicum Coordinator


Please complete this form as soon as possible and submit it to chwestga@ucalgary.ca or fax
(403) 282-9244. Thank you.




                                               40
                                 SCHEDULE “B”

                      WCB COVERAGE FOR STUDENTS


The University of Calgary will provide WCB coverage (or it is provided
automatically by province/territory) for students who are Residents in the
following provinces/territories and who are undertaking their practicum in their
province/territory of Residency:

Alberta
British Columbia
New Brunswick
North West Territories
Nunavut
Ontario
Prince Edward Island
Quebec

All students who are Resident in other provinces/territories or in countries outside
of Canada will NOT be covered by Workers Compensation coverage through the
University of Calgary. All students who are taking a Practicum outside of their
province/territory of Residency (except for those who are Resident in Alberta) are
NOT covered by Workers Compensation through the University of Calgary.




                                        41
                      Applied Experience Documentation Form
                                  Summary Log


The applied experience documentation form is designed to assist the practicum student in
summarizing his or her activities across the practicum. Students are expected to use the
Summary Log to keep both a weekly record and provide two summary accounts (mid-
term, end of term) of their practicum experiences.
The data included on this form provides vital information to the School and Applied
Child Psychology program about your experiences while on your practicum. Practicum
students should keep a photocopy of their logs. Mid-term and final summary logs should
be sent to the course instruction.
The following guidelines for completing the Practicum Log necessary for documenting
the practicum hours are provided.


Guidelines for completing this form:
   1. Please provide the appropriate demographic information at the top of the form.
   2. Under each category, please indicate the number of clients for which you
      completed services and the number of hours in which you spent completing such
      services.
   3. At the end of the form, please indicate the appropriate number of supervision
      hours under each category.
   4. Tally about the number of hours completed.
   5. You should have a summary log for each week of your practicum, in addition to a
      mid-term and summary log.
   6. Submit the mid-term and summary logs to your Course Instructor upon
      completion.




                                           42
                             Applied Documentation Form
                    Summary Log for Daily Practicum Experiences


Name:                                                      Date:
Location of Practicum:
Practicum Supervisor:                                      Position:


Note: Student and Supervisor should feel free to add other categories or modify existing
ones.


Assessment
Total # of intelligence tests administered                 # hours
        Children ages under 12                             # hours
        Children ages 12 to 18                             # hours
        Youth 19 to 25 years                               # hours
        Other (specify)                                    # hours

Total # of achievement and language tests administered     # hours
        Children ages under 12                             # hours
        Children ages 12 to 18                             # hours
        Youth 19 to 25 years                               # hours
        Other (specify)                                    # hours

Total # of neuropsychological tests administered           # hours
        Children ages under 12                             # hours
        Children ages 12 to 18                             # hours
        Youth 19 to 25 years                               # hours
        Other (specify)                                    # hours

Total # of adaptive and developmental tests administered   # hours
        Children ages under 12                             # hours
        Children ages 12 to 18                             # hours
        Youth 19 to 25 years                               # hours
        Other (specify)                                    # hours

Total number of curriculum-based assessments               # hours
       Children ages under 12                              # hours
       Children ages 12 to 18                              # hours
       Youth 19 to 25 years                                # hours
       Other (specify)                                     # hours



                                             43
Total # of other tests administered (specify)          # hours
        Children ages under 12                         # hours
        Children ages 12 to 18                         # hours
        Youth 19 to 25 years                           # hours
        Other (specify)                                # hours


Total Number of behavior and personality assessments   # hours
       Children ages under 12                          # hours
       Children ages 12 to 18                          # hours
       Youth 19 to 25 years                            # hours
       Other (specify)                                 # hours

Total # of reports
        Children ages under 12                         # hours
        Children ages 12 to 18                         # hours
        Youth 19 to 25 years                           # hours
        Other (specify)                                # hours

Therapeutic/Remediation Support Plans
      # of children ages under 12                      # hours
      # of children ages 12 to 18                      # hours
      # of youth 19 to 25 years                        # hours
      Other (specify)                                  # hours

Individual Therapy
       # of children ages under 12                     # hours
       # of children ages 12 to 18                     # hours
       # of youth 19 to 25 years                       # hours
       Other (specify)                                 # hours

Group Therapy
      # of groups (children ages under 12)             # hours
      # of groups (children ages 12 to 18)             # hours
      # of groups (youth 19 to 25 years)               # hours
      Other (specify)                                  # hours

Setting-based Behavioral Interventions
        Children ages under 12                         # hours
        Children ages 12 to 18                         # hours
        Youth 19 to 25 years                           # hours
        Other (specify)                                # hours

Setting-based Academic Interventions
        Children ages under 12                         # hours
        Children ages 12 to 18                         # hours



                                                44
        Youth 19 to 25 years               # hours
        Other (specify)                    # hours

Consultations
       # of children ages under 12         # hours
       # of children ages 12 to 18         # hours
       # of youth 19 to 25 years           # hours
       # Systems/Administration            # hours
       # Others (specify)                  # hours

Program Evaluation (specify)               # hours

Research (specify)                         # hours

Administrative Responsibilities
      Staff meetings                       # hours
      Committees                           # hours
      Special projects                     # hours

Other (list)
        ___________________________        # hours
        ___________________________        # hours
        ___________________________        # hours

Supervision
       Individual                          # hours
       Group                               # hours
       Other                               # hours
       Of others                           # hours


Total Hours: __________________


Signature of Practicum Student:

Signature of On-site Supervisor:

Date:




                                      45
                                                                                                                                        Descriptive Evaluation
Description of Skills Leading to Competencies that are Developed During the Practicum Experience


1. Relationship/Interpersonal Skills
The ability to form and maintain productive relationships with others is a cornerstone of professional psychology. Productive relationships are respectful, supportive, professional
and ethical. Professional psychologists should possess these basic competencies when they first begin their clinical training. Although the ability to form such relationships is
grounded in basic skills that most students will have developed over the course of their lives to date, helping the student hone and refine these abilities into professional
competencies in the clinical setting is a key aim of the practicum.
In particular, the practicum seeks to enhance students’ skills in forming relationships:



     a)   With clients/families:
          i)     Ability to take a respectful, helpful professional approach to clients/families.

          ii)    Ability to form a working alliance.

          iii)   Ability to deal with conflict, negotiate differences.

          iv)    Ability to understand and maintain appropriate professional boundaries.




     b)   With colleagues:
          i)     Ability to work collegially with fellow professionals.


          ii)    Ability to support others and their work and to gain support for one’s own work.



          iii)   Ability to provide helpful feedback to peers and receive such feedback nondefensively from
                 peers.



     c)   With supervisors, the ability to make effective use of supervision, including:
     i)     Ability to work collaboratively with the supervisor.
            Collaboration means understanding, sharing and working by a set of common goals for
            supervision. Many of these goals will change as the student gains professional competence,
            although a core goal, of working cooperatively to enhance the student’s skills as a clinician,
            will remain constant.
     ii)    Ability to prepare for supervision.




     iii)   Ability/willingness to accept supervisory input, including direction; ability to follow through on
            recommendations; ability to negotiate needs for autonomy from and dependency on
            supervisors.

     iv)    Ability to self-reflect and self-evaluate regarding clinical skills and use of supervision,
            including using good judgment as to when supervisory input is necessary.



d)   With support staff :




     i)     Ability to be respectful of support staff roles and persons.




e)   With teams at clinic:



     i)     Ability to participate fully in team’s work.




     ii)    Ability to understand and observe team’s operating procedures.




f)   With community professionals:




                                                                                          47
     i)     Ability to communicate professionally and work collaboratively with community professionals.



g)   For the practicum site itself:



     i)     Ability to understand and observe agency’s operating procedures.



     ii)    Ability to participate in furthering the work and mission of the practicum site.



     iii)   Ability to contribute in ways that will enrich the site as a practicum experience for future
            students.



2. Skills in Application of Research
Clinical practice in all health-care fields (e.g., medicine, nursing, dentistry) is based on accumulating
research results, knowledge derived from practice, and the good judgment of the clinician (see, e.g.,
“What is evidence-based medicine [EBM],” http://www.hsl.unc.edu/lm/ebm/whatis.htm). A core
research knowledge base, and training in accessing and applying research knowledge to clinical
practice form a core competency for psychologists.
a)   Development of skills and habits in seeking and applying theoretical and research knowledge
     relevant to practice of psychology in the clinical setting, including accessing and applying scientific
     knowledge bases.

b)   Understanding and application of theoretical and research knowledge related to
     diagnosis/assessment and intervention, diversity, supervision, ethics etc.



3. Psychological Assessment Skills
Psychological assessment is a fundamental competency for psychologists, and it includes
comprehensive and integrated assessment from the initial interview, psychological testing, intervention
and the evaluation of the outcome of psychological service. A foundation of knowledge and skill is
needed for psychological assessment.




                                                                                         48
a)   Ability to select and implement multiple methods and means of evaluation in ways that are
     responsive to and respectful of diverse individuals, families and groups.



b)   Ability to utilize systematic approaches to gathering data to inform clinical decision making.



c)   Knowledge of psychometric issues and bases of assessment methods.



d)   Knowledge of issues related to integration of different data sources.



e)   Ability to integrate assessment data from different sources for diagnostic purposes.



f)   Ability to formulate and apply diagnoses; to understand the strengths and limitations of current
     diagnostic approaches.

g)   Capacity for effective use of supervision to implement and enhance skills.



4. Intervention Skills
a)   Ability to formulate and conceptualize cases.



b)   Ability to plan interventions



c)   Ability to implement intervention skills, covering a wide range of developmental, preventive and
     “remedial” interventions.


d)   Knowledge regarding the concept of empirically supported practice methods and relationships




                                                                                      49
e)   Knowledge regarding specific empirically supported treatment methods and activities.



f)   Ability to apply specific empirically supported intervention methods.



g)   Assessment of intervention progress and outcome


h)   Effective use of supervision to implement and enhance skills



 5. Consultation Skills/Interprofessional Collaborations:


a)   Knowledge of the unique client care roles of other professionals.


b)   Ability to effectively relate to other professionals in accordance with their unique client care roles.


c)   Understanding of the consultant’s role as an information provider to another professional who will
     ultimately be the client care decision maker.

d)   Capacity for dialoguing with other professionals which avoids use of psychological jargon.


e)   Ability to choose an appropriate means of assessment to answer referral questions.


f)   Ability to implement a systematic approach to data collection in a consultative role.


g)   Consultative reports are well organized, succinct and provide useful and relevant
     recommendations to other professionals.


6. Diversity – Individual and Cultural Differences:
a)   Knowledge of self in the context of diversity (one’s own beliefs, values, attitudes, stimulus value,
     and related strengths/limitations) as one operates in the clinical setting with diverse others (i.e.,
     knowledge of self in the diverse world).




                                                                                        50
b)   Knowledge about the nature and impact of diversity in different clinical situations (e.g., clinical
     work with specific racial/ethnic populations)


c)   Ability to work effectively with diverse others in assessment, treatment and consultation.




7. Ethics:

a)   Knowledge of ethical/professional codes, standards and guidelines; knowledge of statutes, rules,
     regulations and case law relevant to the practice of psychology.


b)   Recognize and analyze ethical and legal issues across the range of professional activities in the
     practicum setting.


c)   Recognize and understand the ethical dimensions/features of his/her own attitudes and practice in
     the clinical setting.


d)   Seek appropriate information and consultation when faced with ethical issues.



e)   Practice appropriate professional assertiveness related to ethical issues (e.g., by raising issues
     when they become apparent to the student).

f)   Evidence commitment to ethical practice.



             E.   Professional Development:
Practicum training is a key experience in professional development for the novice psychologist. Certain
central features that characterize professional development in later professional life are a particular
focus during the practicum, and serve as a foundation for continuing professional development. These
can be gathered under the heading of:

             F.   Practical Skills to Maintain Effective Clinical Practice
The student will develop practical professional skills such as




                                                                                       51
          1) Timeliness: completing professional tasks in allotted/appropriate time (e.g., evaluations,
          notes, reports); arriving promptly at meetings and appointments.


          2) Developing an organized, disciplined approach to writing and maintaining notes and
          records.

          3)   Negotiating/managing fees and payments.



          4) Organizing and presenting case material; preparing professional reports for health care
          providers, agencies, etc.

          5)   How to self-identify personal distress, particularly as it relates to clinical work.


          6) How to seek and use resources that support healthy functioning when experiencing
          personal distress.


          7)   Organizing one’s day, including time for notes and records, rest and recovery etc.




These features may be considered to be a focal subset of a broader group of skills related to the
clinician’s professional development that will continue throughout the career. This broader group
includes:

b) Professional Development Competencies


          1)   Critical thinking and analysis.


          2)   Using resources to promote effective practice (e.g., published information, input from
               colleagues, technological resources).

          3)   Responsibility and accountability relative to one’s level of training, and seeking
               consultation when needed.

          4)   Time management.




                                                                                         52
               5)   Self- awareness, understanding, and reflection.



               6)   Self-care.


               7)   Awareness of personal identity (e.g., relative to individual and cultural differences).



               8)   Awareness of one’s own beliefs and values as they relate to and impact professional
                    practice and activity.


               9)   Social intelligence; ability to interact collaboratively and respectfully with other
                    colleagues.

               10) Willingness to acknowledge and correct errors.


               11) Ability to create and conduct an effective presentation.


H. Knowledge/Metacompetencies – Skilled Learning
Definition: The training program should help students begin on the path of reflective understanding and knowledge about their own knowledge and competencies.
A broadly drawn definition characterizes metaknowledge as knowledge about knowledge – knowing what you know and what you don’t know. Metaknowledge includes being aware
of the range and limits of what you know; knowing your own intellectual strengths and weaknesses, how to use available skills and knowledge to solve a variety of tasks, how to
acquire new or missing skills, or being able to judge that a task can’t be done with current knowledge. Metacompetencies similarly refer to the ability to judge the availability, use
and learnability of personal competencies. The development of metaknowledge and metacompetencies depends on self-awareness, self-reflection and self-assessment (Weinert,
2001). For psychologists, this would include:
     a)   Knowing the extent and the limits of one’s own skills; learning the habit of and skills for self-
          evaluation of clinical skills.
     b)   The ability to use supervision, consultation and other resources to improve and extend skills (note
          the related relationship competence – to work collegially and responsively with supervisors).
     c)   Knowledge of the process for extending current skills into new areas.

     d)   Knowledge of the epistemologies underlying various aspects of clinical practice (e.g., assessment,
          diagnosis, treatment).
     e)   Commitment to life-long learning and quality improvement.

     f)   Awareness of one’s identity as a psychologist (Education Leadership Conference): an aspect and
          reflection of metaknowledge that is role specific, knowing what one knows and can do (and should
          do) as a psychologist.




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