COMPETENCIES_ KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS OF EFFECTIVE

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					COMPETENCIES, KNOWLEDGE
  AND SKILLS OF EFFECTIVE
DISTRICT SCHOOL NUTRITION
  DIRECTORS/SUPERVISORS




                   Editedby

                  H.
           Deborah Carr, MS, RD
               Jerry Cater,MS
          MarthaT. Conklin, PhD, RD


    NationalFood ServiceManagement  Institute
          Division of AppliedResearch
      The Universityof SouthernMississippi
                   Box 10077
          Hattiesburg, MS 39406-0077

              Phone: 601-266-5773
              FAX: 601-266-4682



                     No.
          Publication NFSMI-R23-96
                 February,1996
                                       PREFACE




This *publicationis the secondreport that arises becauseof the National Food Service
Management Institute initiativesin human                   It
                                                development. is the culminationof a multi
                                         resource
                                                   of
yearprojectto identifythehowledge andskillsrequired Child Nutrition Programmanagement
personnel. A prior publicationdetailedthe competencies, knowledge,and skills requiredof
                                     and                                      for
effective schoolnutrition managers, this documentexplainssimilar standards district
schoolnutrition directors/supervisors.

The report is truly a team effort. Drs. Mary Gregoire and Jeannie heed conducted       the
competencyresearch on which the knowledge and skills for district school nutrition
dhsctodsupervisors based. Ms. Deborah Carr andMs. Jerry Cater researched wrote
                    are                                                        and
theknowledge skill statements.
               and                Theyalsoworkedwith a nationalpanelof expertsto provide
                                                                                    CNP
validation. Togetherover twelve hundreddistrict schoolnutrition directors/supervisors,
statedirectors, otherCNP professionals providedvaluableinput to this document.We
               and                       have
             to
are indebted themall for their time andexpertise.

Otherindividualsat the NFSMI helpedwith this project. Dr. Mary Frances Nettles provided
editorial support,and Ms. Lisa Odom preparedthe manuscript otherwiseassisted the
                                                            and                   in
                                                    for
productionof this publication. Our thanksto everyone a job well done.



MarthaT. Conklin, PhD, RD                                     JosephineMartin, PhD, RD
Director of AppliedResearch                                   ExecutiveDirector




                                            ii


        NATIONAL   FOOD SERVICE MANAGEMENT       INSTITUTE
                                               TABLE OF CONTENTS




           .
    ‘Prefaie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..~
      ExecutiveSummary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii

      Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

      Phase I: Competency Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

                        Performance:Laying the Foundation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
      DevelopingCompetent

                    Sneed,
              Jeannie      PhD, RD
              FormerDirector of AppliedResearch
              NationalFood ServiceManagement Institute

                 for
      Competencies District SchoolNutrition Directors/Supervisors. . .                       . . . . . . . . . . . . .   11
,
               Mary B-.Gregoire,PhD, RD
               FormerAssociateDirector of AppliedResearch
               NationalFood ServiceManagement  Institute

                     Sneed,
               Jeannie    PhD, RD

      Phase II: Development and Validation of Knowledge Statements .                           . . . . . . . . . . . .   43

                   and                        and
      Development Validationof Knowledge Skill Statements District       for
                                          .
      SchoolNutrition Directors/Supervisors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .            . . . . . . . . .   45

               Jerry Cater,MS
               School Food ServiceDirector
               Long BeachSchoolDistrict
               Long Beach,MS

                       H.
               Deborah Carr, MS, RD
               ResearchAssociate
                                           Institute
               NationalFood ServiceManagement

                                                              ...
                                                              111


               NATIONAL      FOOD SERVICE MA!!AGEMENT               INSTITUTE
  AppendixA: Competencies,            and
                           Knowledge Skills of Effective District
       SchoolNutrition Directors/Supervisors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

  AppendixB: Original Competency                 for
                                  Statements District SchoolNutrition
                           .
       Directors/Supervisors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175

r AppendixC: Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185

  JobDescription . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191

       INSIGHT: Job FunctionsandTasksof SchoolNutrition Managers
  ZVFSMZ
                                      .
      andDistrict Directors/Supervisors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . 199




                                                        iv

          N~1’I’I( )NAL FOOD SKRVICE MANAGEMENT              INSTITUTE
                                                     LIST OF TABLES




     /
                                of                         in
         Table 1. Characteristics schooldistrictsrepresented study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

                                 of
         Table2. Characteristics district schoolnutrition directors/supervisors               participating
               instudy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

                                  and
         Table3. Meanimportance frequency   ratingsby district schoolnutrition
                                   for          relatedto nutrition management . . . . . . . 23
               directors/supervisors competencies                              .

         Table4. Meanimportance frequency
                                  and       ratingsby district schoolnutrition
                                   for          relatedto humanresource
               directors/supervisors competencies                         management. . . 25

         Table5. Meanimportance frequency
                                  and       ratingsby district schoolnutrition
                                   for          relatedto operations
               directors/supervisors competencies                              .
                                                                    management . . . . . . 28

                                  and
         Table6. Meanimportance frequency   ratingsby district schoolnutrition
                                   for          relatedto programmanagement. . . . . . . . 33
               directors/supervisors competencies
                                  and
         Table7. Meanimportance frequency   ratingsby district schoolnutrition
                                   for          relatedto servicemanagement . . . . . . . . 38
               directors/supervisors competencies                              .

                                  and
         Table8. Meanimportance frequency   ratingsby district schoolnutrition
                                   for          relatedto informationmanagement. . . . . . 39
               directors/supervisors competencies

                                      and        of
         Table9. Reliability estimates comparison schoolnutrition directors/supervisors
               competency         for
                           scores functionalareas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40




--
                                                                V


                 NATIONAL     FOOD SERVICE MANAGEMENT               INSTITUTE
                                                                                                           , =?
                                        LIST OF FIGURES
                                                                                                              1
                                                                                                            ‘.__.



Figure 1. Model for developing        performance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
                              competent

                                modelfor Child Nutrition Programs(CNPs) . . . . . . 8
Figure 2. A curriculumdevelopment

                          for            a
Figure 3. Responsibilities implementing curriculumdevelopment               modelfor
       Child Nutrition Programs(CNPs) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10




                                                                                                            -’
                                                    vi

         N:1’I’I( JNAL FOOD SERVICE MANAGEMENT           INSTITUTE
i   EXECUTIVESUMMARY
I




           vii
                        COMPETENCIES, KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS
                       OF EFFECTIVE DISTRICT SCHOOL NUTRITION
                               DIRECTORS/SUl’ERVISORS

                                     EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
f


    This document          the
                   details research     activitiesof the Division of AppliedResearch,NationalFood
    ServiceManagement                      rmining the competencies,
                           Institute in dete                           knowledge,and skills required
    of effective district schoolnutrition directors/supervisors.   Theseresearchactivitiesspanned  a
    period of approximately four years and involved over 1200 district school nutrition
    directors/supervisors.                                   to
                             Thereweretwo distinctphases the project.



            I
    Phase wasthe collectionof datafrom two national,systematic                    of
                                                                   randomsamples 600 district
     school                                              list                   was
                                          A comprehensive of 192competencies dividedinto
             nutritiondire~tors/supervisors.
    two questionnaires this study. Onequestionnaire
                         for                                    94            that
                                                      contained competencies weregrouped
    into nine functionalareas. The second    questionnaire          98
                                                          contained competencies    groupedinto
    seven functionalareas. Respondents      were askedto rate the importanceof eachcompetency
     statement a 4-pointscale
               using               rangingfrom 1 (notimportant) 4 (very important). Respondents
                                                               to
     were askedto indicatehow frequentlythey performedeachcompetency        usinga Spoint scale
                                                   were
     rangingfrom 0 (never)to 4 (daily). Responses received      from 306 (51%) and310 (52%) of
                                A
     the directors/supervisors. totalof 159of the 192(83%)competency             had
                                                                       statements importance
                                        that                   were
     ratingsof 3.0 or higher, suggesting mostcompetencies importantor very importantto
     the director’s/supervisor’s job.       The most frequently performed competenciesby
                            were                                                   and
     directors/supervisors thoserelatedto service,food production,procurement, sanitation
     and safety. Competencies     performedleast frequentlytendedto be thoserelatedto providing
                           for
     nutrition education students.

                                                Phase II

        II                 and                    and              to
    Phase wasthe development validationof knowledge skill statements coincidewith
     eachcompetency
                 statement effective
                        for        districtschool
                                                nutrition                 Content
                                                        directors/supervisors.
                             on
     analysiswasconducted the original list of competency              to          if
                                                             statements determine theycould
                 into
     be collapsed broader              to
                             categories fit a formatwith attending           and
                                                                  knowledge skill statements.
                                                                                    for
     The 196statements reduced 46 asa resultof this process. Skill statements effective
                        were          to
                                                  were written by two former schoolfoodservice
     district schoolnutrition directors/supervisors
     directorsto encompass skills requiredto mastereachcompetency
                            the                                         statement.A 16-member
                           was          to                      and
     panelof CNPexperts convened validatethe knowledge skill statements consensus.by
                                                         and                  the
     In additionto reviewingand finalizing the knowledge skills documents, panelidentified



            NATIONAL    FOOD SERVICE MANAGEMENT        INSTITUTE
                  and                                                                      as
    theknowledge skills requiredof entry-leveldistrict schoolnutrition directors/supervisors
                                 and
    distinct from other knowledge skills acquired on the job. The culmination of this entire
    reteach project is the list of knowledge and skill statements required by entry-level district
    school‘ nutrition directors/supervisors and a similar list of knowledge and skills required
    beyond entry-level (Appendix A).

I       .
                        District School Nutrition Diiors/Supervisors        Job Description

                 job
    A benchmark description        on                    by
                               based thisprojectwascreated NFSMI staff. Job functionsare
                               based competency
    listedin order of importance    on           research.A copy of this documenthasbeen
    included.

                                                  NFSMI INSIGHT
    An issue of NFSMZINSIGHT hasbeenpublished      listing the job functionsand tasksof school
                        and
    nutrition managers district nutrition directors/supervisors.  The findings from the district
                                       competency
    schoolnutrition directors/supervisors         research                         in
                                                            havebeensummarized this issue.
    This issueof NFSMZINSIGHT is foundundertab 7.




                                                           ix                                        LJ

            Nil-IIf   )NAL   FOOD   SERVICE   MANAGEMENT        INSTITUTE
    \                              Knowledge, and Skills
            Directors’ Competencies,                                                                    Page 1


                                 COMPETENCIES, KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS
                                OF EFFECTIVE DISTRICT SCHOOL NUTRITION
                                        DIRECTORS/SUPERVISORS
        /
                                                   INTRODUCTION


            QuaEed employees the keys to effective Child Nutrition Programs (CNPs). This is particularly
                                 are
            true concerning managementpositions becausedistrict school nutrition directors/supervisorsare
            leaders that create the CNP vision as integral partners in the education of children. The National
            Food Service Management Institute (NFSMI) recognized the importance of human resource
                         to
            development CNPsby conductinga multi phasedresearchactivity to determinethe competencies,
            knowledge,and skillsrequiredof effectivedistrict school nutrition directors/supervisors. This report
            summarizesthe many aspectsof the researchthat spannedover four years, and it is a companion
            document to Competencies,                 and
                                        KitavlZedge, Skills of Efictive School Nutrition Managers which
            was publishedby NFSMI in 1995.

            There were two distinct phases to the research project for district school nutrition
                                   The
            directors/supervisors. first was a national surveyto determineimportant job responsibilitiesand
            how frequently district school nutrition directors/supervisorsperformed these activities. NFSMI
            research staE used this list of job responsibilitiesas the basisfor the second phase of the project,
            developing and validating knowledge and skill statements. This report describeseach phaseof the
            research project through articleswritten by membersof the NFSMI researchstaff who took primary
            responsibility for that phaseof the project.

            The NFSMI plans to use this information to develop curriculum materials for basic and continuing
            professional education. This report would be useful to the American School Food Service
            Associationandto the School Nutrition ServicesDietetics Practice Group in establishingpersonnel
            standardsor credentialingrequirements. School administratorsmight tid this document helpful in
            preparingjob descriptionsfor district school nutrition directors/supervisors. We sincerelyhope the
            information included in this report will be useful to all professionalgroups as we work to prepare
            CNP practitioners for the challengesof future.




-


                    NATIONAL    FOOD   SERVICE   MANAGEMENT      INSTITUTE
     .




               PHASE I
!
 I

         COMPETENCY RESEARCH
         I                           Knowledge, and Skills
              Directors’ Competencies,                                                                                      Page 5


                                 DEVELOPING COMPETENT PERFORMANCE: LAYING
                                              THE FOUNDATION

                                                           JeannieSneed,PhD, RD’


              Public Law 101-147, passed in 1989, created the National Food Service Management Institute
              (NFSMI). Guiding purposesfor the NFSMI, as specifiedin PL 101-147, include the provision of
              training and technical assistancerelated to improving the quality of meal service to children, the
              establishment of a national network of trained professionalsto present training programs and
                                                                      of
              workshopsfor food servicepersonnel,andthe development training programs and materials(Child
                                                Act
              Nutrition andWIC Reauthorization of 1989). Also, the five-year strategic plan of the American
              School Food ServiceAssociation (ASFSA), Shaping a Healthy Future 1991-1995, proposesthat
              by 1995 ASFSA will lead the way for healthy children through four initiatives. One of those
              initiatives focuses on “membership development demonstratedby memberswho are competent,
              confident and Willed professionally” (ASFSA, 1991).

              Gale and Pol(l975) define competenceas the quality of being functionally adequatein performing
              tasks and assumingthe role of a specifiedposition with the requisite knowledge, ability, capability,
              skill, judgments, attitudes, and values. The competency and motivation of school food service
              personnelareimportantfactors for effective production and serviceof nutritious mealsthat are well
              accepted by children. School food service personnelplay a key role in increasingacceptanceof
              school nutrition programsby students@Owen,Vaden & Newel, 1982).

                                             Model for Developing Competent Performance

              Based on the research literature, NFSMI staff developed a M&M for Developing Conqktent
              Pe@xmance (Figure 1). The U.S. Department of Labor establisheda Secretary’sCommissionon
              Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS) to ident@ skills and tasks for jobs. That commission
              completedits work in 1992andpublishedits report, Skills a& E&s for Jobs: A SCANSReportfor
              America2000 (U.S. Department of Labor, 1992). The five core areasof competencywhich the
              SCANS Report identifies as typical of a competent worker are ability to handle resources,
              ir6ormation,interpersonalcommunication,systems,and technology. The specific subcompetencies
              of each core area are:
                     Resources             Allocates time
                                           Allocates money
                                           Allocates material and facility resources
                                           Allocates human resources

         ,
          I


-’   /
                       ‘Dr.   head   is dy      Director   of the School of Family ad Co-   stlldies,   Kent state university,
                  , Ohio.

                     NATIONAL         FOOD    SERVICE      MANAGEMENT       INSTITUTE
    Pwe 6                                                                 Knowledge, and Skills
                                                   Directors’ Competencies,
,
                                             4         A
        N:1l’IONAL   FOOD   SERVICE   MANAGEMENT   INSTITUTE
Directors’ Competencies,Knowledge, and Skills                                               Page 7

       Information             Acquires and evaluatestiormation
                               Organizesand maintainsinformation
                               Interprets and communicatesinformation
                               Uses computersto processinformation

       Interpersonal           Participatesas a memberof a team
                               Teachesothers
                               Servesclients/customers
                               Exercisesleadership
                               Negotiates to arrive at a decision
                               Works with cultural diversity

       Systems                 Understandssystems
                               Monitors and correctsperformance
                               Improves and designssystems

       Technology              Selectstechnology
                               Applies technologyto task
                               Maintains andtroubleshootstechnology

Competent work performancedependson employeeshaving the requisite knowledge, skills, and
attitudes. The SCANS report also identified three foundation skill areas, including basic skills
(reading,writing, arithmetic,mathematics,listening,and speaking),thinking skills (creative thinking,
decision making, problem solving, seeingthings in the mind’s eye, knowing how to learn, and
reasoning), and personal qualities (responsibility, self-esteem, social, se&management, and
integrity/honesty). Core training provided to employeescan help insure that knowledge, skills, and
attitudes are adequateand appropriateto job requirements.

The modelwe developedincludes an on-going processsupervisorscan use to evaluateworkers. If
work is performed in a competent manner,the supervisor gives appropriate positive feedback to
employees.In addition,administratorscan provide maintenancetraining and change-driventraining
when changes technologyor systemsoccur. Ifworkers faif to perfbrm at a competent level, they
               in
receive core training to develop the basic knowledge, skills, and attitudes they require.


                               Model for Curriculum Development

In order to implement a comprehensiveprogram for training and development, NFSMI staff
developed a curriculum developmentmodel to guide activities (Figure 2). The iterative model
includesthe following steps:

        A         Develop and validate competencystatements
        B.        Develop and validate skill andknowledge statements

       NATIONAL     FOOD   SERVICE   MANAGEMENT    INSTITUTE
                                                                   .


    Page 8                                               Directors’ Compete&es, Knowledge, and Skills             ; ---
                                                                                                                  ,?



                           Figure 2. A Cm                  DevelopmentModel
                                 for Child Nutrition      S?mgmms (CNI?)




                                           A. Developandvalidate
                                           Competency Statements
                             3.
             M. EvaluateCurriculum                                     B. Develop andValidateSkill
                   Effectiveness                                        and KnowledgeStaxemenrs

                  f
     L. ImplementCticulum                                                          C. EstablishCurriculum
                                                                                     Advisory Commitee

              f                                                                      h
K Market Curricnlum                                                               D. ReviewCNP Persoxmel
                                                                                            NMiS                  r
                                                                                                                  :-I
             t-                                                                         4
J. ReviewandPilot Test                                                                             Needed
                                                                                 E. Identify Changes
  Curri~umMaterials

                                                                                    4
               t                                                            E FormulateObjectivesfor Curriculum
    I. DevelopCurriculum                                                                 &
                                                                              Development EvaluationModel
     Materialsa&Format

                                                                     1/
                            \
                       H. PlanOutcome-Based                G. plan Ctidum  Content
                       EvaluationFramework +=--                  andFramework




          NA’I’IONAL      FOOD   SERVICE   MANAGEMENT    INSTITUTE
-.
         Directors’ Competencies,
                                Knowledge, and Skills                                            Page 9

              C.       Establishcurriculum advisory committee
              D.       Review CNP personnelneeds
              E.       IdentiQ changesneeded
     /      . F-       Formulate objectivesfor curriculum developmentand evaluation model
              G.       Plan curriculum content and hework
              H.       Plan outcome-basedevaluationfiamework
              I.       Develop curriculum materialsand format
              J.       Review and pilot test curriculum materials
              K.       Market curriculum
              L.       Implement curriculum
              M.       Evaluate curriculum effectiveness

                                                           to
         Oneversionof the model(Figure3) was developed includewhat group or groups of people would
         have primary responsibilityfor each step in the competencydevelopmentprocess. Researchis the
         basisof the process. There is a transition that occurs between applied researchand education and
         training, yet both groups work closely together.

                                           Developing Competencies

         As shown in the model, one important basis for planning education and training programs is         -
         competency  statements.Thesecompetency               are
                                                   statements validated by a processof determining the
         functionsandt&s for a position and identi@ng the actual responsibilitiesof job incumbents(Baird
         & Jones,1981;D’Cosfa& Schreolq1983;Gale& Pol, 1975;Hoadley, Vaden, & Spears,1981; Jones
         & Baird, 1981;Kane & Estes, 1991; Loyd & Vaden, 1977; Mariampolski, Spears,& Vaden, 1980;
         Martin, 1984; Recommended   Functions, 1984). Validated competenciesallow individuals charged
         with educationandtrainiq to specificallytarget areasin which personnelhave the greatest need for
         training (hhrth, 1984) and can serveasthe basisfor credential& programs.

         TheMzster Pkm for Education and Professional Development provides standardsfor cetication
         of schoolfood servicepersonnel                         statementsvalidated in 1984 (Martin,
                                        (ASFSA, 1987). Competency
         1984) provide the basisfor this ce!rtificationprogram.

         Child Nutrition Programs operate in a dynamic environment that includes changesin legislation,
         economy, technology, customers, and nutritional information. In light of these changes,
         administratorsneedto review and update their competencystatementson an ongoing basis. Thus,
         the NFSMI is developing compete&es for various levels of CNP professionals.




                NATIONAL   FOOD SERVICE MANAGEMENT        INSTITUTE
Page 10                                                                         Knowledge, and Skills
                                                         Directors’ Competencies,                                    r)

       -3.                 RespoasibilitiasforIm~AC-Devdopmerrt
                                ModeI For Child Nut&ion bograms                 (CM?‘)


                                              A Developand\
                                              comps=Ys-


                   M. EvaluateCurriclllum                             B. Develop and Validate Skill
                       Effectiveness                                   and Kllowledgc s-

                            f
          L. Imp1emcntcurriculum                                                   c. Estilishcticulum
                                                                                     Advisory Commitee
                                                                            \          \

                       f
                                                                                   D. Review CNP Persomel
   IL Market Cticnlum
                                                                                          I Needs


                   t
                                                                                  E. Idtatify Changes Needed
    J. Review and Pilot Test
      cllniculumMaterials


                                                                            F. Formulate Objectives for Curriculum
                                                                               Deveiopmnt dz Evaluation Model
          I. DeWelop clpricurum
          MaterialsandFormat
                                  k
                                      \
                            H. PhnOutcomc-Based
                                                                         J
                                                               G. PianCunicdumContent
                             EvahationFxamework                      andFIameworlc




             Applied Research (AR)

             AR, Educatio? aadTrain$g (ET)
             AR,XuCuumAdmsoryConrmiacc(CAC)

             AR, ET: CAC
             AR, ET, CAC
             AR, ET, CAC
             ET, CAC
             ET
             ET
             FT
          M AR, ET, CAC




     N.4’I’IONAL       FOOD     SERVICE   MANAGEMENT     INSTITUTE
Directors’ Competencies,
                       Knowledge, and Skills                                                    Page 11



                         COMPETENCIES FOR DISTRICT
                   SCHOOL NUTRITION DIRECTORS/SUPERVISORS’

                                      Mary B. Gregoire, PhD, lXD*
                                       JeannieSneed,PhD, RD’



                       for
Specificcompetencies school nutrition directors/supervisorswere publishedby ASFSA in 1978,
and were validated and republishedby Martin in 1984. Little researchhas beendone sincethen to
examine the impact of changes in legislation, increasedtechnology, and expanded emphasison
nutrition on thesecompetencies.The NFSMI initiated a large-scalenational study to provide current
information on the competenciesneededfor the role of district school nutrition director/supervisor
that would serve as a basis for educational programs being developed by the NFSMI. Specsc
objectivesof this studywere to: develop a comprehensivelist of competencystatementsfor district
school nutrition directors/supervisors; validate competencystatementsby determining ratings of
importanceand frequency of performance;and determinewhether directors/supervisors’         ratings of
importance and frequency of performance difi?erbased on district variables (region, number of
schools, and number of students in district) and personal variables of the directors/supervisors
(education level, certification status, registered dietitian status, and years worked in school food
service). In this study,directors/supervisorwere definedas individuals responsiblefor managingthe
food serviceprogram of a district with multiple schools.


                                          METHODOLOGY
                                              Sample

Data for this study were collected from two national, systematicrandom samplesof 600 district
school nutrition directors/supervisors. The sampleswere purchasedCorn Market Data Retrieval,
                                                  for
a companythat maintainscurrent mailing addresses 16,466 school districts, 71,315 elementary



        ‘A variation this manuscripthasbeenpublishedin the SchoolFoodServiceResearch
                    of                                                                Review: Gregoire,
              J.                      for                                         school Food Service
M.B., & Sneed, (1994). Competencies district schoolnutrition directors/supervisors.
Research Review, 18(2), 89- 100.

                                         director,Food andNutrition Services,
        ?MaryGregoireis presentlyassociate                                                     Luke’s
                                                                            Rush-Presbyterian-St.
Medical Center,Chicago,IL.

       3Jeamie     is                                                 Studies,Kent StateUniversity,
              Sneed preseutlydirectorof the Schoolof Family andConsumer
     OH.

        NATIONAL     FOOD   SERVICE    MANAGEMENT      INSTITUTE
    Page 12                                               Directors’ Competencies,Knowledge, and Skills
                                                                                                          -_.’
    schools, 3878 1 junior high schools, and 24,627 high schools, representing public, private, and
    parochial schools acrossthe United States.

,        .                                   Questionnaire Development

    A comprehensive list of 192 competencies was developed for district school nutrition
    directors/supervisors based on the M&ster Plm for Education and Professional DeveIopment
    (ASFSA, 1987); researchon competencies,   roles, and functions of school food service personnel
    (Baird & Jones,1981;Bowen, Vaden,Newell, & Dayton, 1982;Canter, 1988;Curtis & Messersmith,
    1986;Jones& Baird, 1981;Martin, 1984; McProud, Tseng,Dutcher, & Roefs, 1983), and research
    on competencies for food service personnelin health care (Baird & Armstrong, 1981; Baird &
    Sylvester, 1983a,b; D’Costa, 1984; D’Costa & S&reck, 1983’;.Hoadleyet al.; l981; Kane, et al.,
    1990; Loyd & Vaden, 1977; Morales, Spears,& Vaden, 1979; Rinke, David & Bjoraker, 1982qb;
    Rose, 1978;Sneed,Burwell, & Anderson, 1992;Yates, Shanklin& German, 1987) and restaurants
    (MIaiampols~ spears,& vadg 1980). Thesecompetencies grouped into 16 functional areas
                                                              were
                                                                by
    basedon the competencyresearchwith food servicemanagers Sneedand White (1993).

                                                               for
    The competencieswere divided into two questionnaires this study; 94 were included on one
    questionnaireand 98 on the other. Competencies      were divided into the 16 functional areason the
    questionnaires(seven fUnctional areaswere on one questionnaireand nine were on the other).
    Respondentswere askedto rate the importance of each competencystatementusing a four-point
    scalerangingfrom 1, not important to 4, very important. Respondentsalso were askedto indicate
    how frequently they performed each competency using a five-point rating scale (0 never, 1
    periodically,2 monthly, 3 weekly, and4 daily). The secondsection of both questionnairesconsisted
    of items requesting information about the district including state, food production system,number
    of schools in district, and district enrollment. Items were included to determine the
    director’slsupervisor’s certification and registration status, education level, and years of work
    experiencein school food service.

                                  Questionnaire Review, Approval, and Pilot test

                                             were approvedby the University of Southern Mississippi
    Prior to datacollection,the questionnaires
    Human Subjects Protection Review Committee and evaluated by the school food service
    subcommittee the Education Information Advisory Committee
                  of                                              @AC) of theChiefStateSchool
    Officers.

                      and
    The questionnaires cover letter were pilot testedusing two samplesof 25 directors/supervisors
    who were not included in the study sample. Each director/supervisorwas asked to complete the
    questionnaire and evaluateit using a critique form provided. Minor changeswere made based on
    commentsreceived.




             N:~‘I’IONAL   FOOD    SERVICE   MANAGEMENT    INSTITUTE
  Directors’ Competencies,
                         Knowledge, and Skills                                                Page 13

                                           Data Collection

  One of the questionnaires,a cover letter explainingthe purpose and importance of the study, and a
  postage-paidreturn envelope,were mailedto each school nutrition director/supervisor in the study
                        were
’ sample. Questionnaires codedso follow-up could be done with non-respondents. Participants
  were assuredof completeconfidentiality.

  TWO  weeks after the original mailing, a follow-up postcard was mailed to encourageparticipation.
  Five weeks &et the original mailing, a second letter and questionnaire were mailed to non-
  respondents.

                                            Data Analysis

  Programs and routines in the SPSSx(1986) systemwere used for all data analyses. Frequencies,
  means,and standarddeviations  were calculated the importance and frequency ratings. Frequency
                                              for
  of response determined all demographicvariables. Chi-squareanalysiswas used to examine
             was            for
  whether the demographicprofile of the two researchsamplesdiffered.

  A meanimportanceandfrequencyscorefor eachfUnctionalareawas computed by averaging ratings
  of all competenciesin that functional area. Coefficient alpha was used to indicate reliability of the
  scores.

  Analysis of variance was used to determineif importance and frequency scores differed based on
                 of
  characteristics the district (including USDA region of country, number of schools in district, and
  number of students in district) and the director (including educational level, certification status,
  registereddietitian status, and years of school food serviceexperience). A probability level of 0.05
  was used for all tests of significance.


                                   RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

                   Characteristics of School Districts and Directors/Supervisors

      study
   Each       included school
          sample     600           directors/supervisors
                           nutrition                and       representation
                                                       included
                            questionnaires received 306(51%) directors/supervisors
   from all 50 states.Useable           were      from                         in
   samplegroup 1 and 3 10 (52%) from group 2. Table 1 provides information about the districts that
   were represented the two samplesused in this study. Results of Chi-square analysisindicated no
                      in
                                                         of
   significant differencesin the district characteristics the two samples.

   The districts were dispersedacrossthe U.S. with representationfrom each of the USDA regions.
   Many of the districts were in rural areas(60.4%, 56.9%), with five or less schools in the district
   (48.7%, 47.6%), and less than 2,500 students(46.5%, 45.1%). The conventional food service
          in
   system, which foods arepreparedand servedat the samelocation, was the most prevalent (82.2%,


          NATIONAL    FOOD SERVICE MANAGEMENT          INSTITWI’E
  Page 14                                                                  Knowledge, and Skills
                                                    Directors’ Competencies,

  77.4%), although many districts had basekitchens (46.7%, 45.5%) where food was prepared and
  distributed to other schools.

  Characteristics of the directors/supervisorsparticipating in this research are shown in Table 2.
’ Resultsindicatethat the educationlevel of directors/supervisorsvaried greatly; however, nearly half
  hadlessthana bachelor’s   degree(48.5%, 46.7%). Many directors/supervisorsheld state or ASFSA
  certification, but only 10.1% and 12.2% were registered dietitians, Directors/supervisors had
  extensive  food serviceexperience,much of it in schools. Nearly a third of the directors/supervisors
  in both samplegroups had been in their position for more than 10 years. C&square analysis
                                    in                 of                           in
  indicatedno significantciifErences the characteristics the directors/supervisors the two sample
  groups.

                                   Importance    of Competencies

  Mean Importance Ratings

  Tables3 through 8 summarizethe meanimportance ratings for each competencystatement. Table
  3 includesmeanratings for competencies                                    in
                                         related to nutrition management the functional areasof
  nutrition and menu planning and nutrition education. Table 4 presents mean ratings for human
  resource management              in
                        competencies the fbnctionalareasof personnel  managementand professional
                                                        in
  development.Mean ratingsfor operationalcompetencies the functionalareasof procurement,food             ,: 3
  production, facility layout and design and equipment selection, sanitation and safety, and             ’ ’
  environmentalmanagementare in Table 5. In Table 6, mean ratings for competenciesrelated to
                        in
  programmanagement the functional areasof financial managementand record keeping, program
  accountability, general management,and marketing, are presented.Table 7 includes importance
  ratingsfor the servicecompetenciesand Table 8 detailsthe ratings for the information management
                 in
  competencies the functional areasof computer applicationsand researchand development.

  A total of 159 of the 192 (83%) competency statementshad importance.ratings 3.0 or higher
  suggestingthat most competencieswere important or very important to the director’s/supervisor’s
 job. Competenciesrated less than 3.0 tended to be related to nutrition education, professional
  development,and marketing.

  Comparison   of   Importance Scores

 Mean importance ratings for competenciesin a functional area were averaged to produce an
 importance score for that functional area. Coefficient alpha was used to examinethe reliability of
 eachscore. All reliabilityestimates
                                   were high (Table 9) suggestingstrong internal consistencyof the
                                                  for
 itemsthat hadbeengroupedtogether. Mean scores each functional area, also are shown in Table
 9. Resultsindicate that directors/supervisorsperceivedcompetenciesrelated to service,sanitation
                                     and
 and safety,andfinancialmanagement record keeping as the most important aspectsof their jobs.
 Nutrition education and professionaldevelopmentcompetencies     were rated least important.
                                                                                                         ..J _

         N:1’I’IONAL   FOOD SERVICE MANAGEMENT       INSTITUTE
  Directors’ Competencies,Knowledge, and Skills                                             Page 15

  Analysis of variance was used to compare the importance scores based on demographic
  characteristicsof the school district and the director/supervisor. Several differences were noted
  (Table 9). In most cases the importance scores increased as the size of the district and the
  directors’kupervisors level of education increased. Importance scores tended to be higher for
                      who
’ directorssupervisors were ASFSA certikd andregistereddietitians. No differenceswere found
  for any of the importance scoresbased on the amount of school food service experienceof the
  director.

                             Frequency of Competency Performance

  Mean Frequency Ratings

  Tables3 through 8 summarize meanfrequencyratingsfor eachcompetencystatement. The most
                              the
  frequently performed competenciesby directors/supervisorswere those related to service, food
                          and
  production,procurement, sanitationand safety. Competencies       performed least frequently tended
  to be those related to providing nutrition education for students. These findings suggest that
  directors/supervisorsare spending a greater portion of their time on tasks related to the actual
  preparationand serviceof foods and less time on activities related to providing nutrition education
  for students.

  All but one of the competencies,writes articles for professionaljournals, had meanratings greater
  than .5 suggesting competencies
                    the             were performedat least periodically. None of the competencies
  were ratedabove3.5 which would indicatethey were performeddaily, and only 36 (19%) had ratings
  above 2.5 indicating they were performed at least weekly. These results suggestthat the role of
  directorslsupervisorsconsistsof manycompetencies   most of which are performed periodically rather
  than daily.

  Comparison of Frequency Scores

                                           in
  Mean frequencyratingsfor competencies a functional areawere averagedto produce a frequency
  score for that functional area. Coefficient alpha was used to examinethe reliability of each score.
                         were moderate high (Table 9) suggestingstrong internal consistencyof the
  All reliabiity estimates              to
  itemsthat hadbeengroupedtogether. Mean scoresfor eachfUnctional area also are shown in Table
  9. Resultsindicatethat directors/supervisors      performedserviceand food production-related
  competencies    more frequently than competenciesin other functional areas.

  Analysisof variancewas usedto comparethe frequencyscoresbasedon demographiccharacteristics
  of the school district and the director/supervisor. Several differences were noted (Table 9).
  Directors/supervisors in districts with less than six schools and less than 2,500 students had
              higherfrequencyscores the areasof nutrition and menu planning, procurement,food
  significantly                      for
  production, service, and sanitation and safety than did directors/supervisorsin larger districts.
  Conversely, directors/supervisorsin districts with more than 20 schools and more than 10,000
           had
  students significantlyhigher frequency scoresfor facility layout and design/equipmentselection,


         NATIONAL    FOOD   SERVICE   MANAGEMENT     INSTITIJTE
 Page 16                                                                   Knowledge, and Skills
                                                    Directors’ Competencies,                              ,-..
                                                                                                          ! -I
  professional development,  marketing,andcomputerapplications. Frequencyscoresfor nutrition and           . ..
  menu planning, procurement, food production, environmentalmanagement,        service, and sanitation
  and safety decreasedsignificantly as the diiectors’/supervisors’ education level increased,whereas
  frequencyscoresfor professionaldevelopmentand computer applicationsincreasedsignificantly as
’ educationlevelincreased.DifI&encesalsowere notedfor somescoresbasedon the certification and
  registrationstatus of the director/supervisor. In all cases,exceptthe procurement frequency score,
                        who
  directors/supervisors were ASFSA certified and/or registereddietitians had significantly higher
  scores than those without such credentials. No differenceswere found for any of the frequency
  scoresbasedon the amount of school food serviceexperienceof the director/supervisor.


                                          APPLICATION

 Severaldifferences                                   of                  and
                    were found in both the importance the competencies the frequency of their
 performance based on demographic characteristicsof the district and the director/supervisor.
 Directors/supervisorsin smallerdistricts perceivedmany aspectsof their job as less important than
                                                            in
 did directors of larger districts and directors/supervisors smaller districts spent more time on
 operational activities related to menu planning, procurement, production, and service tharr did
 directors/supervisorsin larger districts. Thesefindings might reflect greater division of functional
 areasamongnutrition program administrative   staffand more delegationof operational tasks in larger
                                                                                                            ”
 districts.                                                                                              :,: 7 i
                                                                                                              rI
                               that
 Resultsof this study suggest the role of the district school nutrition directorlsupetisor includes
 performme     of many competenciesin multiple areas. Nearly all of the 192 competenciesincluded
 in this studywere rated of at leastsomeimportanceto the directorWsupexvisois   job, however, none
 were perfiormed on a daily basis,mostwere performedon a monthly or periodic basis. Suchfindings
 suggest that persons in the role of school nutrition director/supervisor need to be capable of
 performing a wide variety ’of tasks and-must be Ilexible enough to. deal with the potential of
 performingdi&reni tasks each day. Thesefindings emphasize needfor educationalpreparation
                                                              the
 in diverse areasfor school nutrition directors/supervisors.

 The educational level of the directors/supervisorsvaried greatly; many had only a high school
 education, about half had a bachelor’sdegree,and somehad a master’sdegree. The importance of
 manyof the functionalareasandthe tiequencyof performanceof these areasoften differed basedon
 the educational level of the director/supervisor. Having suchdiversity in educationalbackground
 raisesquestionsas to how to best plan educationalprogramsto meet the diverse needsof those in
 the position of school nutrition director/supervisor. Educational programs need to provide
                                       to
 opportunitiesfor directors/supervisors improvetheir knowledgeand skills. Results of this research
 can provide a basisfor planning theseprograms.

 The results of this study provide useful information to professional organizations, educators,
           and
 employers, schoolnutrition directors/supervisors.This report would be useful to the American
 School Food Service Association and to the SchoolNutrition ServicesDietetic Practice Group in


         N.d’I’I()NhL   FOOD SERVICE MANAGEMENT      INSTITUTE
  Directors’ Competencies,Knowledge, and Skills                                                Page 17

  establishing personnel standards or credentialing requirements. The National Food Service
  Management     Institute will usefindigs from this studyin their developmentof a suggestedcurriculum
  for directorskupervisors. Competencies      identified in this researchcan be used in the refinement of
  certification requirementsby organizationssuch as the American School Food Service Association
                        of
’ or th&development a credentialing       processfor school nutrition professionals. Educators will find
  these competenciesuseful in the developmentof coursesand materialsfor directors/supervisors.
  Employerscanusethe resultsof this researchin developingvalid job positions and defining position
  descriptions, performance               or
                                standards, performanceevaluationtools. Directorskupetisors can use
  this information for self evaluation of competence and to help identify areas for professional
  development.




           NATIONAL,   FOOD SERVICE MANAGEMENT          INSTITUTE
Page 18                                              Directors’ Competencies,Knowledge, and Skills


                                            REFERENCES



American School Food Service Association (1978). Recommended competencies for school
      nutrition program personnel. Insert in School Food ServiceJbumaZ. July/Aug, l-20.

American School Food Service Association (1991). ASFSA: Shaping a Healthy Future 1991-
      1995. Alexandria, VA: Author.
                                                                     .
American School Food Service Association (1992). Creating Policy for Nutrition Integrity in
      Schools. Alexandria, VA: Author.

American School Food Service Association (1987, March). Master Phn for Education and
      profi&omZ Development. Englewood, CO: Author.

Baird, J., & Jones, M.B. (198 1). Investigating school food setice training needs: Part I.
       School Food ServiceJournal, 35(4), pp. 70,72.

Baird, S.C. &- Armstrong, RV. (198 1). Role Delineation and Verzjication for EnzpLeveI
                           Dietetics. Chicago: American Dietetic Association.
       Positions in CZinicaZ

Baird, SC. & Sylvester,J. (1983a). Role Delineation and Ver#cation for Enty-Level Positions
       in CommunityDiefetics. Chicago: American Dietetic Association.

Baird, S.C. & Sylvester,J. (1983b). Role Delineation and Verification for Entry-Level Positions
       in Foodsewice SyS;temS Management. Chicago: AmericanDietetic Association.

Bowen, D.L., Vaden, A.G., Newell, K., & Dayton, A.D. (1982). Nutrition-related training,
     knowledge, attitudes, and practicesof Kansasschool food service personnel. School Food
       service   Research   Review,   6, 102- 108.

Canter, D.D. (1988). Identification of competenciesof school food service workers in Kansas
       asthe basisfor a statewideeducationalplan. SchooZFocdService ResearchReview, 12,780
       83.    ’

Curtis, S.R, & Messersmith,A.M. (1986). Job tinction time allocation of school food service
        directors. School Food ServiceResearchReview, 10,87-92.

D’Costa, A., & S&reck A. (1983). The Role of the Dietary Manager: An Overview of the
      HIEFSSRole DelineationStudy.Chicago,Ill: The Hospital, Institution, & Educational Food         ;
      ServiceSociety.

       N:1I’IONAL    FOOD SERVICE MANAGEMENT          INSTITUTE
    Directors’ Competencies,
                           Knowledge, and Skills                                               Page 19

    D’Costa, A. (1984). Introducing the dietary manager. Dietetic Currents, (12) 21-26.

    Gale, L.E. & Pol, P. (1975). Competence: A definition and conceptual scheme. EducationaZ
           TechnoZogy.1S(6),19-25.
,
    Hoadley, PK., Vaden, A.G., & Spears, MC. (1981). Role differentiation of dietitians and
          dietetic technicians. JmrnaZ of the American Dietetic Association, 79, 145-153.

    Jones, M-B., & Baird, J. (1981). Investigating school food service training needs: Part II.
           SchoolFood ServiceJournal, 35(5), 67-68.

    Kane, M.T., Estes, C-A., Colton, D.A., & Eltoft, C.S. (1990). Role Delineation for Registered
          Dietitians andEWy-ZeveZ Dietetic Technicians.Chicago,IL: American Dietetic Association.

    Loyd, M. S., & Vaden, A. G. (1977). Practitionersidentify competenciesfor entry-level
           generalist dietitians. JownaZ of the American Dietetic Association, 71, 5 10-517.

    Mariampolski, A., Spears,MC., & Vaden, A.G. (1980). What the restaurant manager needs
          to know: The consensus. ne Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Aa’ministration QuarterZy,
          21(6) 77-81.

                                                    Food SenticeJournuZ, 38(5), 129-134.
    Martin, J. (1984). Validating Competencies.SchooZ

    McConnell, P-E., and Shaw, J.B. (1993). Position of the American Dietetic Association: Child
         nutrition services. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 93,334-336.

    McProud, L-M., Tseng, R.Y., Dutcher, J.K., & Roefs, V. (1983). Training program for entry-
                                                    FoodService ResearchReview, 7, 88-94.
         level employeesin school food service.SchooZ

    Morales, R., Spears,M-C., & Vaden, A. (1979). Menu planning competenciesin administrative
          dietetic practice. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 74, 646-651.

    National Food ServiceManagementInstitute. (1993). Strategic Plan. University, MS: author.

         W-J.,David,B-D.,& Bjoraker,
    Rinke,                                     The        generalist
                                   W.T. (1982a). entry-level               I.
                                                                  dietitian:
            Employers’ general opinions of the adequacyof educational preparation in administration.
            JoumaZof the American Dietetic Association, 80, 132-139.

    Rinke, W-J., David, B-D., & Bjoraker, W.T. (1982b). The entry-level generalist dietitian: II.
           Employers’ perceptions of the adequacy of preparation for specific administration
           competencies.Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 80, 139-147.    * .




            NATIONAL    FOOD   SERVICE   MANAGEMENT     INSTITUTE
    Page 20                                                                     Knowledge, and Skills
                                                         Directors’ Competencies,

    Rose, J.C. (1978). Perf ormance of taskfinctions by dietetic technicians. Unpublished Master’s
           thesis. Loma Linda University.

    SPSSInc. (1986). SpsSx User’s Guide, 2nd ed. [Computer program]. Chicago, IL: author.
       .
/
    Sneed, J., Bwwell, EC., & Anderson, M. (1992). Development of financial management
                       for                    dietitians. TheJournaZof the American Dietetic
          competencies entry-and advanced-level
          Association, 92, 12234229.

    Sneed, J. and White, K.T. (1993). Development and validation of competency statementsfor
          managersin school food service. SchoolFood ServiceResearchReview. 17, 50-6 1.

                                                                      of
    Yates, SC., Shanklin, C-W., & German, M.A. (1987). Competencies foodservice
           directors/managersrequired in health care operations. Joumal of the American Dietetic
           Association, 87, 16364543.




           N:1’I’I( )NAL   FOOD   SKRVICE   MANAGEMENT    INSTITUTE
 Directors’ Competencies,Knowledge, and Skills                                                   Page 21

 Table 1. Characteristics of school districts representedin study


                                                                    -                    SamDle
, characteristics                                                   N         %          N        %

  Region

           Mid Atlantic                                                 33    10.9       37       11.9
           Midwest                                                      75    24.8       80       25.8
           MountainPlains                                               33    10.9       31       10.0
           Northeast                                                    36    11.9       31       10.0
           southeast                                                    46    15.2       61       19.7
           southwest                                                    40    13.2       32       10.3
           Western                                                      40    13.2       38       12.3

  Locationof SchoolDistrict

           Major city                                                21        7.2        25       8.7
           UIblIl                                                    95       32.4        99      34.4
           Rllral                                                   177       60.4       164      56.9

                  in
  Numberof Schools District

           l-5                                                      146       48.7        147     47.6
           6-20     _                                               130       43.3        119     38.5
           >20                                                       24        8.0         43     13.9

  District Enrollment

           a,500                                                        133   46.5        130     45.1
           2,500-10,ooo                                                 121   42.3        118     41.0
           >lO,ooo                                                       32   11.2         40     13.9

                               in
  Typesof FoodProductionSystems Districr

           Conwntional                                              249       82.2        240     77.4
           convenience                                                  111   36.6        112     39.4
           Basei
               Kitchen                                                  143   46.7        141     45.5
           commissary                                                    40   13.1         48     15.5
           Cook- chill                                                   12    3.9         13      4.2

  wt                               repmdentscouldhavemorethanonesystemin district thus percentdoesnot equal
           xxqmdngyes to eachsystem,
  100




            NATIONAL     FOOD   SERVICE   MA!VAGEMENT       INSTITUTE
  Page 22                                                                         Knowledge, and Skills
                                                           Directors’ Competencies,                         f -
                                                                                                            :-I
                                                                                                              -_
  Table 2. Characteristics of district schoolnutrition directors/supervisorsparticipating in study


         . .                                                  SamDle                    SamDle
. cllamawcs                                                   N    %                    N    %
  EducationLevel

          High school                                         66         21.9           77       24.8
          Somecollege                                         80         26.6           68       21.9
                   degree
          Bachelor’s                                          51         16.9           50       16.1
          somegraduate                                        40         13.3           42       13.5
          Master’sdegree                                      55         18.3           58       18.6
          Other                                                9          3.0           15        4.8

  C&cation    Status’

          Not certified                                      108         35.6           94       30.5
          StateDept..of Educationcertified                    95         31.4          103       33.4
          ASFSA certikd                                      128         42.2          122       39.6
          Registered
                   Dietitian                                  31         10.1           38       12.2

  YearsinFoodService

          <5                                                  15          6.0           18        5.9
          S-10      .                                         60         20.0           53       17.5
          1l-20                                              134         44.7          126       41.4
          >20                                                 88         29.3          107       35.2

  Yearsin SchoolFoodservice

           -=5                                                43         14.4           50       16.2
           S-10                                               76         25.4           75       24.4
           1l-20                                             126         42.1          122       39.6
           >20                                                54         18.1           61       19.8

                Position
  Yearsin Present

           (5                                                 87         29.3          102           33.2
           S-10                                              101         34.0          108           35.2
           1l-20                                              95         32.0           77           25.1
           >20                                                14          4.7           20            6.5


                   yes                       couldhaveresponded to morethanoneoption thuspercentdoes
  apercentresponding to eachoption,respondents                yes
  not equal 100




           N:1’I’IONAL   FOOD   SERVICE      MANAGEMENT      INSTITUTE
 Directors’ Competencies,
                        Knowledge, and Skills                                                    Page23

                                                                                                    for
 Table 3. Mean importance and frequency ratings by district school nutrition directors/supervisorsvisors’
 competenciesrelated to nutrition management.


, competent                                                            Importancec                FItXpX$
                                                                       <------           f D.
                                                                                     mean Se ----------->


  NUTRITIONANDMENUPLANNING

  Facilitatesmenuplanningof mealsservedin
  schools.                                                             3.79 f .49                 2.28* x0

                nutritionfor all program
  hsures adequate
  participants.                                                        3.69 f .54                 288*120

  Incorporatesnutritionprinciplesof the Recommended
  Dietary AllowancesandtheDietary Guidelines for
  Americansin menus.                                                   3.65 f .57                 261k1.13

  Analyzesnutritionalvalueof schoolmeals.                              3.35 f .71                 l&4*1.16

  Evaluatesconsumex             and
                     preferences acceptability,
  c-t              and
        research, industrytrendsto provide
  informationfor rnau planning.                                        3.35 f .75                 1.89kl.11

          nutrientcontentof foods andbeverages
  Evaluates
  SOld.                                                                 3.19k -77                 1.65il.13

  Facilitatesplanningof menusfor childrenwith
  specialneeds       on
                based written ordersfrom a
  physician.                                                            2.97 f -99                1.41*124

  Establishesaprocesstoensurestudentandparent
  involvementin menuplanning.                                           2.91 f .82                1.24* 74

  NUTRITION EDUCATION

                            materialsto students,
  Providesnutrition education
             food             and
  teachg !Ttafl, se&e employee!s,
  idexedd members thecommunity.
                of                                                      2.92f .I9                 123* .I35

  Dkseminaks infixmation aboutnutritious
  andeconomicalmenuitemsandsnacks.                                      2.81 f -84                 1.13k.85

         nutritioneducation
  Presents                programs.                                     2.80 f .84                 .86k .63

  W variesii-an 281-307
  bCompekncies  listed in descending                       rating
                                     orderbasedon importance
  ‘Importancescale:1, not importantto 4, very important
             scale:0, neverto 4, daily


           NATIONAL,    FOOD    SERWCX      MANAGEMENT     INSTITUTE
Page24                                                                           Knowledge, and Skills
                                                          Directors’ Competencies,                                    ::..
                                                                                                                      .x
                                                                                                                       3
                                                                                                                       .-___J
Table3. cod.


                                                                          IIIlpOltaIl~=                 Frequslcyd

                                                                          <--------                De
                                                                                           meanf Se ----------->


               that     the
Hasprocedures assure useof the school
food serviceprogramasa laboratoryfor nutrition
education.                                                                2.79i 34                       l-19& .97

                                    school
borporates nutrition in comprehensive
healthprogram.                                                            2.75f 39                       .67* .81

           in
Participates nutrition educationactivities
andprogramswithin the community.                                          2.73f .86                      .80* .59

                                to
Works with cticulum specialists assure
                            are
nutrition educationstrategies integrated
in theK- 12 cticula                                                       2.67 f .90                     .76& .82

              the
Coordinates schoolmenuanddeliveryof
                            curriculaand
mealswith nutrition education
activitiesin the classroom.                                               2.66i .80

Helps teachingMuse nutrition education
curriculaandmaterialsin the classroom.                                    2.64 f 24                      .77* .73

                    to
Providesleadership review, develop,andselect
appropriate                  materials.
           nutrition education                                            2.62i -86                      .83i -87

Evaluatese&ctiveness of nutrition education
materialson changingstudentbehavior.                                      2.58f .85                      .64* 64

Plans   nutrition educationcurriculafor shdents.                          2.57   l   .a6                 .70*   .77

Involvesskhoolfood se&e programmanagers
assupportpersonneliuclassroomnutrition
educationactivities.                                                      2.53f .89                      .73* .74

Works with instructionalstafR0 rate the
             of
effectiveness nutrition education curricula
andmaterials.                                                             2.47f .&I                      so* .57




          N:l’l’IONNL    FOOD    SERVICE     MANAGEMENT   INSTITUTE
-.                                                                                                       Page 25
     i,                          Knowledge, and Skills
          Directors’ Competencies,
          Table 4. Mean importance and frequency ratings by district school nutrition directors/superviso~ for
          competenciesrelated to human resourcemanagement.


                                                                               Importancec               Fresuslop

                                                                               <---------- mem f SeD. ---------->



          Listem to concems of schoolfood senk program
                  and
          personnel assists problemsolving.
                           in                                                  3.67 f .52                279*1.32

                 to
          Responds employeeconflict.                                           3.67 f 52                 258*1.46

                                  and
          Follows legalrequirements regulationswhenmaking
          personnel-related
                          decisions.                                           3.65 f 54                 238* 1.42

                       with
          Communicates schooladministration    aboutneeds
                            of
          andaccomplishments district schoolfood
          serviceprogram.                                                      3.60 f .55                 l.%=k1.15

          interviewsandselectsfood servicepersonnel.                           3.57 f -62                 1.26* -82

          Conducts meetingswith staffto facilitate program
          objectives.     _                                                    3.44 f .65                 1.72* .84

          Reviewsjob performance all food serviceemployees.
                               of                                              3.41 it .65                121 f -79

          Adhexes labor contracts.
                to                                                             3.40 f .88                 247k 1.64

          Establishes                  and
                     stafling guidelines work scheduling
                    for
          prcxzdures eachunit/costcenter.                                      3.39 l   .70               15&l.%

                   personnel
          Implements       policies andprocedures.                             3.38 f .66                 l.Sxkk1.30

          Establishes
                    pt2rfbmce standards.                                       3.31 f -67                 lB1.03

          Establishes       for
                    standards training.                                        3.31 f .69                 12s   x7

                                for
          Detemines trainingneeds schoolfood service
          programpersonnel.                                                    3.30 f .66                 1.23* .79

                          to              personnel
          Developsa system maintainaccurate
          dataandrecords.                                                       3.29 f -77                1.57~127

                      a
          Implements systematic    trainingprogramto ensure
          thatstaffaretrained.                                                  3.28 f .66                1.19* .79
          Wvtiesh281-307
          Tompetencieslisted in descending                          rating
                                              orderbasedon importance
          %nportance   scale:1, not importantto 4, very important
          dFresuency  scale:0, neverto 4, daily


                   NATIONAL FOOD SERVICE MA!!AGEMENT INSTITUTE
    Page 26                                                                      Knowledge, and Skills
                                                          Directors’ Competencies,                             .. .
                                                                                                               3 _’
    Table4. cont’d.


    Campetencyb                                                           Illlportancec            Fm
,
                                                                          <------     mm f SeDe-------->
               evaluationcriteria to food m-vice
    Communicates
    personnel.                                                            3.27i .72                   f
                                                                                                   1.21 .83

    Providesorientationfor disbrictfood service
    personnel.                                                            3.25f .79                1.20* 23

              procedures implementemployee
    Establishes          to                  contract
    agreements includingdisciplineandgrievm~
    procedures.                                                           3.25f 26                 lzQ1.17

                           and
    Reviewsjob descriptions job specifications
                                             for
    food servicepersonnel.                                                3.23i -69                l-19& -68

                                          for
    Developsevaluationcriteria andschedules school
    food serviceprogrampersonnel.                                         3.23f .74                1.09* .68

                  a
    Recommends salaryplan that recognizes     education
                         level of responsibility,
    (training),experience,
    andcertification.                                                     3.20f .85                .84* .73

                                   to
    Implementsa plan& train managers train their
    empw=-                                                                3.20i -83                l-02* -85

    Communicates                                    of
                    evaluationresultsto the personnel
    the individual schoolfood serviceunit.                                3.20f .77                1.13* .76

    Maintainsanemployeerecognitionandaward
    Pw=l-                                                                 3.02f -89                Jo* -91

                                 programfor food
    Developsa pexfbmanceenhancement
    serviceemployexS.                                                     2.89f 24                 .86* 236

                  to             an
    Disseminates all employees organizational
    chartthat clearly defks r&tionships
                                      of
    staffpositions.                                                       2.80f .93                .%* .82


    PROFESSIONAL       DEVELOPMENT

                in
    Participates continuingeducationactivities such
    as semhars,workshops,proftional cmfcrences,and
    enrollsinuniversitycourses.                                           3.41f .67                    -61
                                                                                                   1.2%~

    Networkswith otherfood service
    profkssionals.                                                        3.27f .75                1.7ZH.12
                                                                                                               LJ


                    INAL FOOD SERVICE MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE
             N.4’1’1(
    Directors Competencies,Knowledge, and Skills                                                       Page 27
    Table4. wnt’d.


    Campetencyb                                                             II!lpOIbI&                 FlX!QXS#
/
                                                                            <--------     mm & S. De-------    >


    Conducts                           for
             professionalgrowthprograms the district’s
    schoolnutrition program personnel.                                      3.15 i .80                  1.08=k.79

    Assumes an active role in professional
    organizations.                                                          3.14 3: .86                 1.44*1.0!3

    Readscwent trade,technical,andprofessional
    journals and applies appropriate new information in
    the district programs.                                                  3.10 f .74                  1.82* 97

                   membership professional
    Promotesemployee         in
    organizations.                                                          2.81 i -88                  l-20-1:-92

    Maintainsa referezxelibrary for schoolnutrition
    ProgramStaffI                                                           2.73 i -88                  1311124

    Maintainsa five-yearplan for coutinuingself-
                 and
    deweloPment _+cation.                                                   2.66 f -92                  .80* .87

    Writes articles and reports for professional
    journals.                                                               2.01 f .89                  .33* .55




            NATIONAL         FOOD   SERVICE        MANAGEMENT   INSTITUTE
                                                                  .


 Page28                                                   Directors’ Competencies,Knowledge, and Skills
 Tabk 5. Mean importance and frequency ratings by district school nutrition directors/supervisor                   for
 compete&es related to operations management.


/ competeng                                                               Importancec                      FIUJlX!&

                                                                          G-------        mm   f S. D. -------->



 PROCUREMENT
        .
           the
 Deterrmnes type andquantityof food aud
 suppliestobepurchasedbasedonstudentneeds
 andresourtxsavailable.                                                   3.74=t .52                      2.91=kl.o0

 Maintains a system for proper storage and
 distributionof food andsuppliesthroughout
 the district.                                                            3.72 f .57                      3.10kl.16

         that
 Ensures food, supplies,andequipment
 are purchased to meetspecifications.                                     3.t%* .57                       2.57*1.14

                     systemconsistent
 Maintainsa purchasing              with
 USDA andstatepurchasingguidelines.                                       3.68 h -55                      26311.13
                                                                                                                         :: -3)
                                                                                                                                  ?
           a
 Establishes purchasingsystemto secure  food
 andsuppliesusedby district food serviceunits.                            3.62 f .70                      2.5x 1.19

           new
 Evaluates andexistingproductsfor value,
 quality,andacceptance.                                                   3.62 f .60                      218Al.16

 Evaluatesprice bids andselects/rec~mmends
 vendorsfor purchasing food andsupplies.                                  3.62*      64                    19721.16

 l%tablishesprocedm for perpetualand/or
 physicalinventor of food and supplies.                                   3.61 f .59                      226Al.11

                    for
 Establish& standards inventorycontrol
           the
 throughout district.                                                     3.61 f -60                      2.21*1.10

                              to
 Developsreceivingprocedures assure  that
                                 are
 qualityandquantityspecifications met.                                    3.55 f .63                      2.50~123

 Reviews delivery schedules to ensure appropriate time,
                      and
 temperatuxmaintenance, useof labor, making
 changeswhenneeded.                                                       3.45 f 20                       246*136


 ‘N varies hm 28 l-307
 bean petencics                   orderbasedon importance
               listed in descending                     rating
 Tmpodancescale:1, not importantto 4, very important
         scale:0, neverto 4, daily


            N:1I’IONAL FOOD SERVICE MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE
    Directors’ Competencies,
                           Knowledge, and Skills                                                          Page29

    Table5. cont’d.


    COlIlpettZll~                                                              Importancec                FlXjWX$
,
                                                                               <------               D.
                                                                                             meanf Se ----------->


                                           with
    Developsspecifktions for foodsconsistent
                         for
    the Dietary Guidelines AmericansandChild
    Nutrition labeling.                                                        3.45 f -72                  167*1.17

    UsesfWxxstingtechniquesto determine
    purchasingneeds.                                                           3.44 i -75                 237il.16

    Developsspccifkationsfor suppliesandequipment
    purchased usein schoolfood serviceprograms.
            for                                                                3-42f .68                   1.45* -91

                           systemappropriate
    Developsa transportation                for
    thefood productionandserviceneedsof the
    district.                                                                  3.42* 2%                   2tw1.46

                    for
    Developsa system individual schoolsto
    orderneededproducts.                                                       3.41 i -85                 224kl27

                     for
    Developsprccedures issuingproducts.                                        3.35 f -81                  222hl35

    Establishes standards for fat and sodium content
    of foods.                                                                  3.33 f -74                  1.66*1.17

    Involvesstudents,staff, andadministrators
    in the evaluation products.
                    of                                                         3.24 f .78

    Selectstransportequipment vehicles.
                            and                                                2.84* 1.10

    FOOD PRODUCTION
    Evaluates
            food quality                                                       3.83 f .42                  33B1.11

    Establishes proced~    to ensure appropriate temperatures of
    foodsduringpreparation,             and
                          transportation, service.                             3.76* SO                    2%*134

    Establishes
              procedures portion control.
                       for                                                     3.72 f -54                  294*133

    Delegatesauthorityandresponsibilityfor foodproduction
    andserviceto unit managers as&ants.
                             and                                               3.68 f .54                  3.4xk1.03

    Establishes           to                 maximum
                procedures provide andpreserve
    nutritionalvalueof food                                                    3.60* -58                   2.65*137




              NATIONAL      FOOD    SERVICE     MANAGEMENT         INSTITUTE
    Page 30                                                                             Knowledge, and Skills
                                                                 Directors’ Competencies,                                  3
                                                                                                                         ,_.-I
    Table5. umt’d.


    comp&ell~                                                                    hnportancec               FIECpiS$
/
                                                                                 <------      mea f S.Da-------->


                             to        the
    Works with unit managers evaluate food production
    systemandfood quality, andrevisesthe systemasneeded
    to improveoperations.                                                        3.58f -60                 225Al.25

                      for      to     food
    ?evelops procedures managers assess acceptability.                           3.51f -65                 261hl.42

                            to        productionneeds.
    Usesforecastingtechniques detexmine                                          3.47 f -67                32*131

    Asesses productionefkiency.                                                  3.47f .61                 229i1.32

              work standards numberof mealsper
    Establishes            for
    labor hour.                                                                  3.43f .70                  1.91*1.21

              a         for             of
    Establishes procedure standardization recipes.                               3.42f -68                  1.93a.27

    Assesses equipment use for maximum productivity, energy
    conservation, and cost efliciency and recommends improveme&.s/                                                      ..T
                                                                                                                               i,
    replacements as qeded                                                        3.33f .69                  1.54*1.03        . i

    Dewelops ef3icknt work methods to complete tasks, based on
    time andmotionprinciples.                                                    3.30f -74                  1.95*131

    FACILITY LAYOUT AND DESIGN AND
    EQUIPMENT SELECIJION

               the        and
    Coordinates maintenance repair offood service
    equipment.                                                                   3.51 f .62                203*1.34

                           for
    Determinesspecifications food sexviceequipment.                              3.38 f .75                 1.09i .69

    Replacesequipmenton a schedule         with budget
                                  consistent
    andothertxYms&lts.                                                           3.34 f .75                 1.08k -59

    Assistsin planningthe physicalstructureandreviewsthe
    architecturaldesignof new andrenovated facilities to ensure
    efkient food productionandwork flow.                                         3.29f .86                  .85& .72

    Assistsinplanninganddesigningcustomersekceareasto
                                             fix
    maxim& the &ciency of serviceandaesthetics
    customers.                                                                   3.24f .85                  .98* 21

    JustSesrenovationof existingschoolfood servicefacilities
                  of
    andreplacement obsoleteequipment.                                            3.23 f -78                      .56
                                                                                                            1.08+=
                                                                                                                         J
                                                                                                                        1.


            N.4’I’IONAI. FOOD     SI-lRVICE   MANAGEMENT          IiSTITUTE
Directors’ Competencies,Knowledge, and Skills                                             Page 31

Table 5. co&.




Assistsin the selectionof materialsandfbishes usedin food
sewicefacilitks in the clistrict.                                           3.12* .92     .U* .76

SANTI’ATION AND SAFETY

                     of                   and
Facilitatesdevelopment sanitationprocedures cleaning
schedules.                                                                  3.72 f .53    267*136

Ensures proper storage and handling of chemicals and cleaning
!SUppliC!S.                                                                 3.69f .56     x3*135

Maintainsaneffectiveinsectandrodentcontrolsystem.                           3.69i   .61   234*1.18

          safetystandards rules.
Establishes             and                                                 3.69 f .57    264kl.43

Monitorsfood serviceunit compliancewith healthandsafety
r&s established by federal (OSHA), state, and local
agencies.          _                                                        3.62f 33      2.44*1.40

Considers                when orderingequipment.
        safetyrequirements                                                  3.61 f .59    1”51*1.11

          an
Establishes accidentreportingsystem.                                        3.58 f .63    246*1.51

Maintainsa systemof wastedisposal.                                          3.52 f -76    2!% 1.47

Providesfimt aid kits in all facilities.                                    3.49f -70     2.24k1.52

                          and      for
Developssafetyrequirements standards selection
anduseof materialsandequipment                                              3.47i -67      1.8Q133

Evaluates the use and care of equipment in the food
selviceuuits.                                                               3.45 f .61     1.99*129

             evacuation
Postsemergency        plans andexits in all
facilitks.                                                                  3.37f .82      1.58*1.44

Supervises maintenance and repair offire extinguisher
units andcleaningof ventilationhoads.                                       3.32 f .86     1.14* .91




         NATIONAL        POOD SERVICE MANAGEMENT                INSTITUTE
                                                           *

Page 32                                            Directors’ Competencies,Knowledge, and Skills
Table5. co&d.


campetencyb                                                        ImpoItancec




ENVIRONMENTALM4NAGEMENT

          procedunzs properdisposalof chemicals
Establishes       for
andcleaners.                                                       3.26 f .79           1.78k1.42

                  for
Est+ish= procedures properdisposalor recyclingof
      and
grease oil.                                                        3.151 -86            19211.46

Establishes                                   by
           policiesto reducesolid wastecrcatexi
foad serviceunits.                                                 3.09 f .79           1.52*136

Purcb     lxq&d paperproducts.

                 for
Maintainsa system recycling.                                       3.00* .86            1.57*1.65




        N.4’I’IONAL   FOOD SKRVICE MANAGEMENT      INSTITUTE
.                              Knowledge, and Skills
        Directors’ Competencies,                                                                                Page 33
    I
        Table 6. Mean importance and frequency ratings by district school nutrition directors/supervisors’ for
                   r&ted to program management.
        competencies




                                                                              < -------     mm   f   S. D.   --------->



        FINANCIAL    MANAGEMENT         AND RECORD KEEPING
        Operates
               programwithin budget.                                          3.80f -47                           28Ul.23

                  cont& in all costcategories
        Implemes~ts                         (e.g.labor,
        food,supply,operating).                                               3.79f .47                           2.81k1.19

        Establishes                   for
                   financialobjectives thefood service
        operation.                                                            3.72f .52                           212i124

                                     mealapplicationsand
        Sqxrvises fke andreduced-price
        veliticationprocess.                                                  3.72f -63                           2.47A1.47

                  a       to    food servicefiscal
        Establishes system assure
        accountability.                                                       3.70f -52                           225*126

                  the          of
        Supervises preparation accurate  recordsfor food,
                       andoverheadcosts.
        labor,operating,                                                      3.66f .57                            262h124

        Prepares
               department       budget.
                        operating                                             3.63 f 56                            1.29A.95

        Approvesinvoicesandstatements payment.
                                    for                                        3.62f A0                            2.65~1.04

               profit andlossstatements,
        Prepares                        balancesheets,
        andotherrequiredfinancialreports.                                      3.61f -68                           1.79*1.04

        Rezommends    pricesfor schoolfood serviceprogramand
        specialactivities.                                                     3.57 f .59                           15611.15

               capitalbudget.
        Prepares                                                               3.53f .78                            1.10* -85

        Demmines human, fiscal, and technical resources
        needed meetfoodservice
             to              goals.                                            3.50f .63                            1.8w1.19

        Assesesdistrict food serviceandindividualfood
                                         in
        serviceunitsfinancialperCormance relationto budget.                    3.46f -75                            1.75* 98
              .
                                                  the
        Detemma inventoryturnoverratesandcalculates
        valueof district andschoolinventories.                                  3.46f -69                           1.78* I38

         W variesfi-om28l-307
         %ompekncieslistedin &sending orderbasedon importance  rating
         tiportance scale:1, not importantto 4, very important
         Secpency scale:0, new to 4, daily



                NATIONAL       FOOD SERVICE MA!NAGEMENT        INSTITUTE
Page 34                                                                       Knowledge, and Skills
                                                       Directors’ Competencies,                                            .---
                                                                                                                             --I
Table6. cont’d



                                                                       < --------   me=   f   S. D.   ------->




Prepares   budgetsin cooperationwith district
officials.                                                             3.39f .76                           1.09* $56

                  of           payroll.
Directs preparation departmental                                       3.35f .84                           1.97*1.14

Promoteslegislationto assuremaximumstate and federal
l-WeINleS.                                                             3.19* -88                           1.03h -91

uses data to forecast trends.                                          3.17 f -80                          1.57i1.10


PROGRAM         ACCOUNTARlLlTY
Assews program        with
              compliance federa, state,md
local regulations.                                                    3.80f A4                            272i131

Revisesschoolfood sexvice                based
                         programoperations
           in
on changes federal,state,and/orlocal                                                                                       .?
regulations.                                                          3.76i .50                           2W131        :        )
                                                                                                                            ..w J


bfbrms administrative s&Sand schoolfood service!
                  of
programpersonnel federal,state,andlocal
government  regulationsthat atkct program
operations.                                                           3.69 * Sl                           201*u9

           changes schoolfood service
Communicates     to
personnel.                                                            3.63f -55                           216*131

             with              and
Cooperates federalagencies personnel
             far
responsible the admi&&on andreview of
district food serviceprograms.                                        3.63f -58                           216*131

Works with the stafFofstateandfedera agencies
respokble for schoolfood serviceprograms to
benefitthe district’sfood service
programs.                                                             3.53f .62

Communicates  programinformationandstatisticsto
the administrative&Sand Board of Education
members.                                                              3.48f .66                           1.54* .95

Communicates   policy changes       to
                             needed maintainor
improve Child Nutrition Programsto local, state,
orf*al              or
         personnel agencies   concerned  with
schoolnutrition programs.                                             3.44i .68                           1.41k1.03
                                                                                                                       Ld i


             N.4’l’i( )NAL FOOD SERVICE MANAGEMENT     INSTITUTE
Directors’ Competencies,
                       Knowledge, and Skills                                      Page35


                                                                   Irnp0rtance=



Developsstanda& andevaluationprocedures all  for
programareasincludingnutritional integrity,financial
management, studentsew&s.
           and                                                     3.38 f .73     1.55*1.20

Establishes codeof ethicsfor the schoolfood
           a
serviceprogram.                                                    3.20 i .81     13111.12

                    for
Developsstrategies involvementof schoolfood
servicestaffin legislativeactivitks.                               2.79 f .88     .8&t .82


GENERAL MANAGEMENT
Establishes          and
           procedures forms to maintainaccurate
andappropriate recordsto comply with stateand
federalregulations.                                                3.78 f A4      264h1.34

Analyzesthe efktiveness and&ciency of the
schoolfood serviceprogramoperation.                                3.72 f -50     25Oi1.22

                 for
Providesleadership the district schoolfood
semiceprogram.                                                     3.68 f .58     326kl24

Maintains e&ctive communication     with individuals
involved in district andindividual schoolfood
serviceprogramoperation.                                           3.67 f 55      3.1W1.18

Establishes                       for
             policies andprocedures schooland
district food serviceoperations.                                   3.60 f -57     lBk1-25

Establishesdistrict schoolfood serviceprogram
goalsthat supportthe philosophyandpoliciesof
the Board of Education.                                            3.47 f 54       1.6W121

                                          in
Involves schoolfood serviceprogrampersonnel
assekg the needfor programchanges.                                 3.43 f .63      1.%11.19

Developsshort-andlong-termgoalsfor the district
schoolfood serviceprogram.                                          3.36 f -71     1.42* 94

 Implementsa quality assuran~quality improvement
 Program,                                                           3.32 f .70     1.94*132

 Facilitatespositioningof the food smvice
 programasan integralpart of the education
 system.                                                            3.24 f .78     1.86M24



         NATIONAL       FOOD SERVICE MANAGEMENT        INSTITUTE
Page 36                                                                      Knowledge, and Skills
                                                      Directors’ Competencies,




              and
Plansstrategies time linesfor achieving
lids-                                                                 3.21 f -77           1.51il.03

Evaluates  individual schoolfood serviceoperations
in relationto establishedgoals.                                       3.20 f .74              1.06
                                                                                          1.64&

Developsprogressreportson programstatus,
               and
accomplishments, needs.                                               3.17 f .72           1.56* 94

Developson outreachplan to assure     to
                                 access food
serviceprogram.                                                       3.14& .79            MQ1.36

Establishes         for
           mechanisms interdepartmental
coordination.                                                         2.97 f 34            156*1.12

           with specialeducation developing
Participates                      in           the
individualeducationplan (IEP) for childrenwith
special needs.                                                        2.89 f -95           137*134
                                                                                                       ..”--a 3
MARKETING                                                                                                 __ /
                                                                                                            ._
         teamworkamongfaodserviceata@,
Encourages                           teachers,
school-         9andcommuni~.                                         3.61 f .58          2.52*137

Communicates effectivelywith schoolfood service
programpersonnel,                  students,
                 district personnel,
parentsandthe community.                                              3.48 f .62          213kl32

Providesinformationto en&rage andsecuresupport
                               and
from schoolboard,administration, facultyfor
schoolfood serviceprograms.                                           3.37 f .65           1.44* 92

                                          on
hstmets schoolnutrition programpersonnel how
to tielop andmaintainpositive working relationships
                      district staff, and
with.stuckas, teachers,
       .
atlmmewrs.                                                            3.18* .79            151*1.15
Works with the schooldistrict public relationsstaff
to infarm othersaboutthe schoolfoodservice
progr-*                                                               3.18 f -74           LSUl.13

Implementsa district food se&e mark&g planwith
speciiicplansfor eachschool.                                          3.06 f .80           135*1.04
   .   .
                   with the media,community,
Mamtamscommunication
audalliedpups                                                         3.06f .73               f
                                                                                           1.51 97



           N:4l’IONAL   FOOD SERVICE MANAGEMENT        INSTITUTE
Directors’ Competencies,
                       Knowledge, and Skills                                                      Page 37

Table6. cont’d.




                                                               <-------     mea   f   Se D.   ---------   -->


Providesfood senke for specialschooland
community related-activities.                                  3.04*.84                             1.62*1.17

Evaluatesoutcome marketingefforts.
                of                                             2.93 f .81                           122* .93

          specialactivitiesfar cooperative
Coordinates                              efforts
betweenschoolandcommunity.                                     2.82 f .88                           l-11* -87

                                     materials
Developsandprovides“point-of-purchase”
at appropriate
             gradelevels.                                      2.76 f .95                           1.2S1.22
                materialsto sharewith the
Maintainsresource
community.                                                     2.77 f 35                            127Al.02
Servesasafood serviceandnutritionresource
personto the community.                                        2.75 f .92                           1.16*1.13
Evaluates communitysupportfor food Venice
ac&ities.                                                      2.72 f .I38                           .93* .83




        NATIONAL     FOOD SERVICE MANAGEMENT       INSTITUTE
Page 38                                                                           Knowledge, and Skills
                                                           Directors’ Competencies,                                ,:,=-
                                                                                                                   :-I
Table 7. Mean importance and frequency ratings by district school nutritiin         diirshperviso~           for
competencicsrelated to service management.




                                                                           < _-___-- -- mm & S. D. ----------->


SERVICE

                for               and
Developsstandards prompk courteous, efficient
servi*.                                                                    3.75i -51                 I 293&W

Evaluates&iciency       of serving area.                                   3.68h.53                    278kl33

Establishes quality standards in the presentation,
merchandizing, taste, and sex-vie of food.                                 3.73*.51                    29B1.29

Evaluatesservingmethods to assure students are served
quickly.                                                                   3.79i -45                   293hl32

         solutionsto problems with the service of
Recommends
food.                                                                      3.66kt.52                   272k1.34     -
                                                                                                                   ,, ,’
                                                                                                                       !
Communicates
           sexyicestandards schoolfood service
                          of                                                                                        .”
program.                                                                   3.60i.58                    246k133

Reviewscustomer meal evaluations and makes changes in
food productionand service as necessary.                                   3.51f .65                   208*130

xdenees standards customersatisfactian.
                for                                                        3.49*.66                    22kt1.36

Facilitaks providingfood andnutrition se&es          to
childrenwithspecialneeds.                                                  3.42h.73                    213kl.44

‘N variesfiam 281-307
               listed
bCompetencies in descending                               rating
                                    orderbasedon importance
9npxtance scale:1, not important to 4, very important
dFresuency  scale:0, neverto 4, daily




           NA’I’IONAL       FOOD    SERVICE   MANAGEMENT    INSTITUTE
  Directors’ Competencies,Knowledge, and Skills                                             Page 39

  Table 8. Mean importance and frequency ratings by district school nutrition directorskupewiso~’ for
  competencics related to information management.




, Competenq+                                                          Jmpoltancec            FresllglLyd
                                                                              mean Da        >
                                                                      <___________f SW ___________


  COMPUTER APPLICATIONS

  Usescomputergenerated  reportsto aidin management
           and
  decisions, to control andforecasttrendsin food
  serviceoperations.                                                  3.19* .89              l.lW1.17

                                        regularly
  Updatesschoolfood serviceprogramsystems
  basedon technological
                      advances.                                       3.12& .86               1.1&1.17

                        to
  Usescomputersystems delxzrmine    nutritionalvalues
  of recipesandmenus,developproductionandwork
  schedules,maintainfinancial records,andother
  applications.                                                        3.07f .98              121.67

                  to
  Trainsmanagers usecomputersto generate
                                decision
  info~ation to improvemanagerial
  maw?-            -                                                   2.65 f 1.03            .71*1.03


  RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

           staE
  Encourages to shareprograminformationandinnovative
  ideas.                                                               3.52f .63              235kl.32

  Promotestheexpansion schoolfood serviceprograms.
                      of                                               3.37l .74              1.77*123

           programchanges
  Retcommends           basedon currentresearch.,                      3.21f -76              1~1.09

  Evaluatesinnovativeprogramsthat maybe useM to the
  distxictprogram.                                                     3.07f 334              127A 95

                                    in
  Conductsappliedfood serviceresearch program
  operation.                                                           2.61f -98              1.W 1.09


   bComp&zncicslisted in descending                       rating
                                    orderbasedon importance
   %7nptance scale:1, not importantto 4, very important
   9?ecpencyscale:0, neverto 4, daily




           NATIONAL     FOOD    SERVICE    MANAGEMENT     INSTITUTE
 able 9. Reliability estimates and comparison of scl~oolnutrition directors’hupervisors” competencyscoresfor functional areas.                        d
                                                                                                                                                      3

                                                            Importance                                            __..__. Freauency
                                            reliability       mean             characteristics      reliability          mean       characteristics
                                            estimate          score”       ,   indicating           estimate             score.     indicating
FunctionalAreasb                                              *SD              differencesd                              f SD       differe&sd

Service                                     .91           3.62 f .44                                      92        2.58* 1.01        A, B, C,D
SanitationandSafety                         -93           3.56 f .48                                      .89       2.20* .88         B, C,D
                  and
FinancialManagement
 RecordKeeping                              .91           3,55 f .41           A, B, C, E, I:             .86        1.98* .63

FoodProduction                              .92           3.54 f: .44          E                          .89       2.48* .84         A, 13,C, D

Procurement                                 .93           3.49 f -47           D                          .92       2.21f .70         A, B, C, D

ProgramAccountability                       .f39          3.49 f .43           c, E                       .84        1.71* .79        D

Nutrition andMenu Planning                  .82           3.37 f .47                                      .77        1.98f .67        A B, C, D

GeneralManagement                           .90           3.36 f -44           A, B, C, D, E              .90        1.99* .71

Personnel
        Management                          .95           3.32 f .49           A, 13,C, D, E               .88       1.46k 58

Facility Layoutand
 Design/Equipment                           .92           3.30 f -67           13,C, D, E                 .81        1.14& .56        B, C, 13

          and
Research Development                           .87        3.16k.63                E                        .80     1.59zt .85
’ N variesfrom 28 I-307
bFunctionalareaslistedin descending   order basedon importancescore,competencies     includedin eachfunctionalareaare in Tables3-8.
oImportancescale 1,not importantto 4, very important
dCharacteristics: A = regionof country               E = certificationstatusof director
                  B = # of schoolsin district        F = registered dietitianstatus of director
                  C = # of studentsin district       G = yearsof scl~ool serviceexpcriencc
                                                                          food
                  D = educational level of director       of director
l Frequency scale0, neverto 4, daily
                                        ImDortance                                  . ._-.-    Freauencv __
                          reliability     mean        characteristics    &ability             mean            characteristics
                          estimate        score0      indicating         estimate             score’          indicating
FunctionalAreasb                          &SD         differencesd                            &SD             differences“


EnvironmentalManagement   .88            3.11 f .69                      .83                  1.68& 1.05      D

Marketing                 .95            3.06 f .60   E                  .89                  1.47f .70       B,C, F

ComputerApplications      .86            3.01 f .82   B, C, C, E, F      .76                  1.25& 1.11      B,C, DJ, F

           Development
Professional              .91            2.93 f .61   A, B, C, D, E, F   .82                  1.23f .58       A, B, C, D, E, F

Nutrition Education       .96            2.68 f .67   E                  .92                  .84 f S2        E

				
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