Road to Revolution
Part 2 – after the Boston
here of the Boston
Massacre. It was
used as propaganda
(something used to
help or harm a cause
or individual) to
demand the removal
of British troops
Due to the increasing
tension in the city,
from Boston to Fort
William on Castle Island.
The British solders
involved in the Boston
Massacre were also
brought to trial.
Captain Preston's Account
Captain Preston claimed he ordered his men to
load their weapons.
Captain Preston claimed he heard the crowd
Captain Preston claimed they were attacked by
heavy clubs and snowballs.
Captain Preston claimed a soldier was hit by a
stick and then fired.
Captain Preston claimed the other soldiers
fired in response to the colonist attack.
Captain Preston claimed he reprimanded his men
for firing into the crowd without orders.
Eyewitness Statements in Support of Captain Preston's Statement
Witnesses including Peter Cunningham claimed they heard Captain Preston order his men to load
Witnesses including Richard Palmes claimed they asked Captain Preston if he intended to fire
and he said no.
Witnesses including William Wyatt claimed the crowd was calling for the soldiers to fire.
Witnesses including James Woodall claimed they saw a stick thrown and hit a soldier, which
prompted him to fire, quickly followed by several other soldiers.
Witnesses including Peter Cunningham claimed an officer other than Preston was behind the men
and that he ordered the soldiers to fire.
Witnesses including William Sawyer claimed the crowd threw snowballs at the soldiers.
Witnesses including Matthew Murray claimed they did not hear Captain Preston order his men to
William Wyatt claimed that Captain Preston reprimanded his men for firing into the crowd.
Edward Hill claimed that Captain Preston made a soldier put away his weapon instead of allowing
him to continue to shoot.
Eyewitness Statements Opposed to Captain Preston's
Witnesses including Daniel Calef claimed that Captain Preston
ordered his men to fire.
Henry Knox claimed the soldiers were hitting and pushing with their
Joseph Petty claimed he did not see any sticks thrown at the
soldiers until after the firing.
Robert Goddard claimed he heard Captain Preston curse his men
for not firing when ordered.
Several soldiers including Hugh White claimed they heard the order
to fire and believed they were obeying his commands
1772: COMMITTEES OF CORRESPONDENCE
Things quieted down for a few years. In 1770 In order to keep contact
most of the hated taxes were ended. Parliament, between the colonies,
the British congress, and the King felt that leaders started groups
collecting the taxes was too much trouble. But called the committees of
what had happened in Boston was only a sample correspondence. They
of what was to come. kept in touch by writing
letters. In these days
before telephone, radio,
and television, this was
the best way to get news
from one colony to
another. Many leaders
such as Samuel Adams,
Thomas Jefferson and
Patrick Henry were
members of these
1773: TEA ACT… MORE TROUBLE
The TEA Act that gave a monopoly on tea sales to the East India
Company. In other words, American colonists could buy no tea
unless it came from that company. Why? Well, the East Indian
Company wasn't doing so well, and the British wanted to give it
some more business. The Tea Act lowered the price on this East
India tea so much that it was way below tea from other suppliers.
But the American colonists saw this law as yet another means of
"taxation without representation" because it meant that they
couldn't buy tea from anyone else (including other colonial
merchants) without spending a lot more money.
Their response was to refuse to
unload the tea from the ships. This
was the situation in Boston that led
to the Boston Tea Party.
1773………… TIME FOR A PARTY
Sam Adams staged a spectacular
drama. On the evening of December
16, 1773, three companies of fifty men
each, masquerading as Mohawk
Indians, passed through a tremendous
crowd of spectators, went aboard the
three ships, broke open the tea
chests, and heaved them into the
harbor. As the electrifying news of
the Boston "tea party" spread, other
seaports followed the example and
staged similar acts of resistance of
The citizens boarded the Beaver, the Eleanor and the
Dartmouth, and dumped forty-five tons of tea into the
342 chests of tea, valued at £18,000
1774: AN UPSET KING: COERCIVE ACTS
The reaction in Britain was
one of anger and a feeling
that Massachusetts must be
punished, as an example to
the other colonies. The
government rushed a series of
pieces of legislation through
parliament: In Britain they
were known as the Coercive
Acts but the American
colonists labeled them "the
To stop the rebellious spirit that was spreading among the colonists, that
had lead to the Boston Tea Party, Parliament passed these four acts to
reestablish English authority..
1. The port of Boston was closed until the tea was paid back.
2. More soldiers were sent to put down disturbances.
3. British officials accused of crimes were sent to England for trial.
4. No town meetings could be held without the permission of the governor.
1774: TO MAKE MATTERS WORSE… QUEBEC
1. Quebec was given control over the Ohio Valley.
2. Catholics were given religious freedom.
3. Only French-Canadians could trade for furs in the
1774: FIRST CONTINENTAL CONGRESS
TIME TO MAKE A STATEMENT, TIME TO COME
The representatives gathered to
discuss their response to the
British "Intolerable Acts." They
met to discuss their relationship
with Britain, and how to assert
their rights with the British
government. They wanted to
appear as united colonies in their
reply to Britain.
The purpose of the First Continental Congress was not to seek independence
Theme of the First Continental Congress (Source: Library of Congress) The
congress had three objectives: to compose a statement of colonial rights,
to identify British parliaments violation of those rights, and to provide a
plan that would convince Britain to restore those rights.
Twelve of the 13 colonies sent delegates. Georgia did not.
The colonial congress met in Philadelphia. They made the
1. Parliament could not tax them without their consent.
2. The Coercive (Intolerable) Acts were not going to be obeyed
3. They would not import goods from England after Dec. , 1774.
4. They would not export goods to England after Sept. 1775.
5. Colonies would collect arms and ammunition.
1775 ...ACTS OF PARLIAMENT…
England takes a strong stand!
1. New England was prohibited from all trade except with England and the British
2. Colonies could not import any arms or ammunition.
A larger number of colonists became outraged. Talk of
1775: Shots are fired, blood is spilled…………
BATTLES OF LEXINGTON AND CONCORD
The British move on Concord..
They meet resistance at
Fighting begins on April 19, 1775
British casualties: 73 killed, 174 wounded
American casualties: 49 killed, 39 wounded
JUNE 17, 1775… The fighting renewed.
BATTLE OF BREED’S HILL (BUNKER HILL)
Thousands of British troops move
against the rebels to move them off
the hill. They burn Charles town.
Putnam stood his ground…………………… and the enemy
“Don’t fire until you see the white’s of their eyes!”
~ Legend has it, it was here at this battle, that General Prescott,
knowing his troops had limited ammunition and knowing they needed to
hold Breed’s hill, uttered this famous phrase.
The British made several
attempts to reach the top.
The colonists, now rebels, held
their ground… they were not
afraid of the most powerful
army in the world.
British senior officers discounted the ability of the American
troops to resist a frontal attack and overestimated the ability of
their own troops to make one.
The British had attacked two times and were driven back by the
colonials. On the third charge, the British didn’t know the
Americans were virtually out of ammunition. The Americans held as
long as possible, but were pulled back in retreat by Prescott.
June 17th 1775
1776: After fourteen months of meetings,
the colonial congress declared independence
from Great Britain.
1776: COMMON SENSE is published by Thomas Paine.
"These are the times that try men's souls: The summer
soldier and the sunshine patriot will, in this crisis, shrink
from the service of his country; but he that stands it
Now, deserves the love and thanks of man and
woman. Tyranny, like hell, is not easily conquered; yet
we have this consolation with us, that the harder the
conflict the more glorius the triumph."