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Staten Island West Shore Land Use and Transportation Study Existing Conditions Report Land Use & Transportation Prepared for New York City Economic Development Corporation New York City Department of City Planning Submitted by Consultant Team PPSA ▪ ERA ▪ SMWM HALCROW ▪ ASGEC ▪ ZETLIN ▪ HPI October 2008 Staten Island West Shore Existing Conditions Report II WEST SHORE STRATEGIC VISION EXISTING CONDITIONS REPORT FOR LAND USE AND TRANSPORATION TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1 2. LAND USE EXITING CONDITIONS 3 2.A. Land Uses in the West Shore Study Area 3 2.A.1. Description of the Study Area 3 2.A.2. Overview of Historic Uses in Study Area 8 2.A.3. Overview of Area Wide Land Uses 10 2.A.4. Summary of Area Wide Zoning 14 2.A.4.a. Manufacturing Districts 14 2.A.4.b. Residential Districts 14 2.A.4.c. Commercial Districts 17 2.A.4.d. South Richmond Special District 17 2.A.4.e. Rezonings 17 2.A.5. Summary of Shoreline Conditions 18 2.A.6. Summary of Area Wide Open Space 24 2.B. Zone I: Howland Hook, Port Ivory, Arlington Existing Land Use/ Constraints and 26 Opportunities 2.B.1. Existing Land Use Analysis 26 2.B.2. Vacant Land Analysis 30 2.B.3. Newly Developed Properties & Rezonings 32 2.B.4. Property Ownership Analysis 34 2.B.5. Underutilized Sites Analysis 36 2.B.6. Environmental Constraints 38 2.B.7. Areas for Discussion 40 2.C. Zone II: Blooomfield/Teleport Existing Land Use/ Constraints and Opportunities 42 2.C.1. Existing Land Use Analysis 42 2.C.2. Vacant Land Analysis 46 2.C.3. Newly Developed Properties & Rezonings 48 2.C.4. Property Ownership Analysis 50 2.C.5. Underutilized Sites Analysis 52 2.C.6. Environmental Constraints 54 2.C.7. Areas for Discussion 56 2.D. Zone III: Travis/ Fresh Kills Park, Land Use/ Constraints and Opportunities 58 2.D.1. Existing Land Use Analysis 58 2.D.2. Vacant Land Analysis 62 2.D.3. Newly Developed Properties & Rezonings 64 2.D.4. Property Ownership Analysis 66 2.D.5. Underutilized Sites Analysis 68 2.D.6. Environmental Constraints 70 2.D.7. Areas for Discussion 72 III Staten Island West Shore Existing Conditions Report 2.E. Zone IV: Charleston/ Tottenville Land Use/ Constraints and Opportunities 74 2.E.1. Existing Land Use Analysis 74 2.E.2. Vacant Land Analysis 78 2.E.3. Newly Developed Properties & Rezonings 80 2.E.4. Property Ownership Analysis 82 2.E.5. Underutilized Sites Analysis 84 2.E.6. Environmental Constraints 86 2.E.7. Areas for Discussion 88 3. TRANSPORTATION EXISTING CONDITIONS 3.A. Study Area Travel Patterns 90 3.A.1. Auto Ownership 90 3.A.2. Journey-to-Work Commuter Patterns 90 3.B. Study Area Roadway Network 92 3.B.1. Key Vehicular Corridors 94 3.B.1.a. Staten Island Expressway (I-278) 94 3.B.1.b. West Shore Expressway (NY 440) 94 3.B.1.c. Korean War Veterans Parkway 94 3.B.1.d. Arthur Kill Road 96 3.B.1.e. Victory Boulevard 96 3.B.1.f. Richmond Avenue 97 3.B.1.g. Travis Avenue 97 3.B.1.h. South Avenue 97 3.B.1.i. Forest Avenue 97 3.B.1.j. Truck Routes 98 3.B.2. Roadway Traffic Congestion 100 3.B.3. Roadway Traffic Safety 104 3.B.4. Transit Services 106 3.B.4.a. Local/Limited Bus Service 106 3.B.4.b. Express Bus Service 106 3.B.4.c. Staten Island Rapid Transit Line 108 3.B.4.d. Ferry 108 3.B.4.e. Planned Transit Projects and Trend 108 3.B.4.f. Park-and-Ride Lots 108 3.B.5. Pedestrian and Bicycle 110 3.B.6. Planned and Programmed Transportation Improvements 112 3.B.6.a. Public Transit 112 3.B.6.b. Roadway Safety and Traffic Mobility 112 IV V Staten Island West Shore Existing Conditions Report Index of Maps Map 1 Project Area and Regional Context 3 Map 2 Study Area Zones 4 Map 3 Study Area Aerial 5 Map 4 Development Chronology 9 Map 5 Area Wide Land Use 13 Map 6 Area Wide Zoning 15 Map 7 Shoreline Condition Observation Points 19 Map 8 Open Space / Wetland and Natural Resources 25 Map 9 Aerial Map Arlington-Port Ivory Zone 27 Map 10 Land Use Map, Arlington-Port Ivory Zone 29 Map 11 Vacant Land Analysis, Arlington-Port Ivory Zone 31 Map 12 Proposed Projects, Arlington-Port Ivory Zone 33 Map 13 Ownership Analysis, Arlington-Port Ivory Zone 35 Map 14 Underutilized Land Analysis, Arlington- Port Ivory Zone 37 Map 15 Environmental Constraints, Arlington-Port Ivory Zone 39 Map 16 Areas of Opportunity, Arlington-Port Ivory Zone 41 Map 17 Aerial Map, Bloomfield-Teleport Zone 43 Map 18 Land Use Map, Bloomfield-Teleport Zone 45 Map 19 Vacant Land Analysis, Bloomfield-Teleport Zone 47 Map 20 Proposed Projects, Bloomfield-Teleport Zone 49 Map 21 Ownership Analysis, Bloomfield-Teleport Zone 51 Map 22 Underutilized Land Analysis, Bloomfield- Teleport Zone 53 Map 23 Environmental Constraints, Bloomfield- Teleport Zone 55 Map 24 Areas of Opportunity, Bloomfield- Teleport Zone 57 Map 25 Aerial Map, Travis-Fresh Kills Zone 59 Map 26 Land use Map, Travis-Fresh Kills Zone 61 Map 27 Vacant Land Analysis, Travis-Fresh Kills Zone 63 Map 28 Proposed Projects, Travis-Fresh Kills Zone 65 Map 29 Ownership Analysis, Travis-Fresh Kills Zone 67 Map 30 Underutilized Land Analysis, Travis-Fresh Kills Zone 69 Map 31 Environmental Constraints, Travis-Fresh Kills Area 71 Map 32 Areas of Opportunity, Travis – Fresh Kills Zone 73 Map 33 Aerial Map, Charleston-Tottenville Zone 75 Map 34 Land Use Map, Charleston-Tottenville Zone 77 Map 35 Vacant Land Analysis, Charleston-Tottenville Zone 79 Map 36 Proposed Projects, Charleston-Tottenville Zone 81 Map 37 Ownership Analysis, Charleston-Tottenville Zone 83 Map 38 Underutilized Land Analysis, Charleston-Tottenville Zone 87 Map 39 Environmental Constraints, Charleston – Tottenville Zone 89 Map 40 Areas of Opportunity, Charleston – Tottenville Zone 91 Map 41 Functional Classification of Roadways 93 Map 42 Average Daily Traffic Volumes 97 Map 43 Freight Transportation 99 Map 44 Congested Intersections, 2004 and 2014 101 Map 45 Congested Corridors,2005 and 2030, AM and PM 4Hr Peak Periods 103 Map 46 High Accident Locations 105 Map 47 Transit Access 107 Map 48 Bike Network 111 VI Map 49 Transportation, Projects – Planned and Underway 113 Map 50 Transportation, Existing Conditions and Issues 114 Index of Figures Figure 1 Analysis of Area Wide Land use 12 Figure 2 Study Area Zoning Analysis 16 Figure 3 Land Use Analysis, Arlington-Port Ivory Zone 29 Figure 4 Vacant Land Analysis ( by parcels), Arlington-Port Ivory Zone 31 Figure 5 Vacant Land Analysis (by area) Arlington-Port Ivory Zone 31 Figure 6 Property Ownership Analysis (by parcels), Arlington-Port Ivory Zone 35 Figure 7 Property Ownership Analysis (By area), Arlington-Port Ivory Zone 35 Figure 8 Underutilized Land Analysis (by parcels), Arlington-Port Ivory Zone 37 Figure 9 Underutilized Land Analysis (by area) Arlington-Port Ivory Zone 37 Figure 10 Land Use Analysis, Bloomfield-Teleport Zone 45 Figure 11 Vacant Land Analysis ( by parcels), Bloomfield-Teleport Zone 47 Figure 12 Vacant Land Analysis (by area) Bloomfield-Teleport Zone 47 Figure 13 Property Ownership Analysis (by parcels), Bloomfield-Teleport Zone 51 Figure 14 Property Ownership Analysis (By area), Bloomfield-Teleport Zone 51 Figure 15 Underutilized Land Analysis (by parcels), Bloomfield-Teleport Zone 53 Figure 16 Underutilized Land Analysis (by area) Bloomfield-Teleport Zone 53 Figure 17 Land Use Analysis, Travis-Fresh Kills Zone 61 Figure 18 Vacant Land Analysis ( by parcels), Travis-Fresh Kills Zone 63 Figure 19 Vacant Land Analysis (by area) Travis-Fresh Kills Zone 63 Figure 20 Property Ownership Analysis (by parcels), Travis-Fresh Kills Zone 67 Figure 21 Property Ownership Analysis (By area), Travis-Fresh Kills Zone 67 Figure 22 Underutilized Land Analysis (by parcels), Travis-Fresh Kills Zone 69 Figure 23 Underutilized Land Analysis (by area) Travis-Fresh Kills Zone 69 Figure 24 Land Use Analysis, Charleston-Tottenville Zone 77 Figure 25 Vacant Land Analysis ( by parcels), Charleston-Tottenville Zone 79 Figure 26 Vacant Land Analysis (by area) Charleston-Tottenville Zone 79 Figure 27 Property Ownership Analysis (by parcels), Charleston-Tottenville Zone 83 Figure 28 Property Ownership Analysis (By area), Charleston-Tottenville Zone 83 Figure 29 Underutilized Land Analysis (by parcels), Charleston-Tottenville Zone 85 Figure 30 Underutilized Land Analysis (by area) Charleston-Tottenville Zone 85 Figure 31 Vehicle Ownership by Zones 90 Figure 32 Place of Work by Residents, by Zones 91 Figure 33 Place of Residence for Workers, by Zones 91 Figure 34 Comparative Journey to Work Data for New York City Boroughs 91 Figure 35 Mode of Travel to Work for Residents, by Zones 92 Figure 36 Comparison of Commute Times from Different Zones 92 VII Staten Island West Shore Existing Conditions Report Index of Tables Table 1 Zoning Districts by Study Zone 16 Table 2 Details of Zoning Districts 16 Table 3 Proposed Developments, Arlington-Port Ivory Zone 33 Table 4 Vacant Land Analysis, Arlington-Port Ivory Zone 30 Table 5 Underutilized Land Analysis-Arlington-Port Ivory Zone 36 Table 6 Breakdown of Underutilized Parcels by Zoning Districts, Arlington-Port Ivory Zone 36 Table 7 Potential Development Sites, Arlington-Port Ivory Zone 41 Table 8 Vacant Land Analysis, Bloomfield – Teleport Zone 46 Table 9 Proposed Developments, Bloomfield – Teleport Zone 49 Table 10 Underutilized Land Analysis-Bloomfield-Teleport Zone 52 Table 11 Breakdown of Underutilized Parcels by Zoning Districts, Bloomfield – Teleport Zone 52 Table 12 Potential Development Sites, Bloomfield – Teleport Zone 57 Table 13 Vacant Land Analysis, Travis – Fresh Kills Zone 62 Table 14 Proposed Developments, Travis – Fresh Kills Zone 65 Table 15 Underutilized Land Analysis-Travis- Fresh Kills Zone 68 Table 16 Breakdown of Underutilized Parcels by Zoning Districts, Travis – Fresh Kills Zone 68 Table 17 Potential Development Sites, Travis-Fresh Kills Zone 73 Table 18 Vacant Land Analysis, Charleston – Tottenville Zone 80 Table 19 Proposed Developments, Charleston – Tottenville Zone 81 Table 20 Underutilized Land Analysis-Charleston-Tottenville Zone 84 Table 21 Breakdown of Underutilized Parcels by Zoning Districts, Charleston- Tottenville Zone 84 Table 22 Potential Development Sites, Charleston – Tottenville Zone 89 Table 23 Designated Truck Routes Within West Shore Study Area 98 Table 24 High Accident Intersections, By Total Accidents 104 Table 25 Bus Ridership Data 106 VIII 1: SUMMARY future scenarios for the West Shore, based on an assessment of baseline conditions and The West Shore Staten Island Land Use and market studies and extensive public outreach Transportation Study, referred to as the “West Shore efforts, including discussions with involved Strategic Vision,” was initiated by its co-sponsors, the agencies and numerous meetings with Study New York City Economic Development Corporation Area stakeholders. (NYCEDC) and the New York City Department • Recommended Scenario & Implementation of City Planning (NYCDCP). The purpose of this Plan – development of a recommended vision effort is to develop a planning framework for for the West Shore, based on a consensus future land use and infrastructure improvements building process that integrates the concerns along Staten Island’s West Shore. The study will and aspirations of the community of residents, seek to build a consensus among stakeholders, businesses, and employers with the various including community members, business owners agencies who plan and provide services for the and transportation agencies, incorporating market region. This planning framework will identify based research and variety of technical planning and implementation strategies to achieve the engineering studies to assess alternative land use recommended future for the area and priorities and infrastructure scenarios. Including extensive for future actions to get there. opportunities for public input and discussion, these efforst will provide: This Land Use and Transportation Existing Conditions Report, presents the results of an • A frame work for intergovernmental coordination assessment of existing land use and transportation and teamwork; conditions within the West Shore. To better address • A vision that has the support of a broad spectrum the various planning studies throughout this process, of the community; the overall Study Area was divided into the following • A process for integrating and phasing future land four study zones: uses with needed infrastructure; and • Recommendations that connect West Shore jobs • Zone I: Arlington - Port Ivory and neighborhoods to the rest of the borough • Zone II: Bloomfield - Teleport and provide solutions for borough-wide issues. • Zone III: Travis – Fresh Kills • Zone IV: Charleston - Tottenville The West Shore Strategic Vision involves four major • components This report briefly reviews the history of the West Shore, from its extensive pre-historic resources to • Existing Conditions Assessments -- detailed the major industrial activities throughout the 19th assessments of existing land use, transportation and 20th Centuries and the five decades of Fresh and infrastructure conditions within the West Kills landfill operations. Reviews of land use and Shore, as well as a comprehensive market zoning patterns show that: analysis of recent, ongoing and projected land use and economic development trends in the • while over 84% of the area is zoned for area. manufacturing, strongly reflecting its industrial • Baseline Conditions Assessment – a past, industrial uses currently occupy only 20% projection of likely future conditions in the of the area’s land area; and near future (approximately 10 years) in the • approximately 15% of the Study Area is zoned absence of any new proposed changes in land residential, but almost 90% of the area’s use regulations, infrastructure, transportation residentially zoned land is in the Travis area of networks, etc., beyond those already proposed Zone II. for the area and under existing socio-economic trends. Key land uses include (1) old-growth communities • Alternative Land Use Scenarios – alternative like Travis, Charleston and Tottenville; (2) the 1 Staten Island West Shore Existing Conditions Report important Howland Hook Terminal; (3) large-scale much of the traffic onto a limited number of north- retail areas in Charleston, along Forest Avenue in south of arterials. Any further developments in the Arlington and on Richmond Avenue; and (4) major West Shore will place demands on the existing open space and nature preserves, which soon will transportation network, and one of the main goals include the proposed 2,000-acre Fresh Kills Park to of this study is to balance future development with be developed over the next 30 years. the infrastructure needed to support it. The Study Team screened development patterns and land use characteristics throughout the Study Area to define the location and amount of viable vacant or underutilized land which could potentially be redeveloped as part of the long-term vision for the West Shore. This included assessments of each parcel’s size, existing development density, ownership patterns (public vs. private), and wetlands or other conditions that would limit its development potential, along with any recently proposed or planned developments in each of the four study zones. This process identified “Areas for Discussion” – i.e., sites with fewer barriers to development and where land use changes were more likely to occur. These results will help shape discussion in the Study’s upcoming Vision Workshops to be held in each of the four zones. In those workshops, the Study Team, local residents, businesses, interest groups, and representatives of involved agencies and elected officials will work together to identify alternative futures for these areas. The results of the parallel Market Analysis report recently completed by the Study Team will provide important information on recent development trends in the New York City region and on Staten Island. The final section of this Existing Conditions report reviews the existing transportation network within the Study Area, including roads and arterials, major highways and bridge connections, rail passenger and freight operations and bus transit services. In many ways the West Shore’s transportation network strongly links the area to the rest of the region by the major limited-access highways and associated bridge connections to New Jersey, along with extensive local and express bus routes and the MTA Staten Island Railway. However, the Fresh Kills landfill and the large areas of wetlands and other natural and park areas have limited east-west roadway connections and concentrated 2 2:LAND USE EXISTING CONDITIONS and rail lines to the region’s major rail and water- borne hubs in New Jersey. 2.A.1: West Shore of Staten Island in its Region- al Context 2.A.2: Description of the Study Area Map 1 shows the regional context of the Staten Is- The West Shore Study Area (“the Study Area”) is land West Shore Study Area. As the figure highlights, approximately 11 square miles (approximately Staten Island, but particularly the West Shore area, 7,000 acres) and is slightly less than one-fifth of is very well served by intra-borough and regional Staten Island’s total land area. For comparison, the highways, with three bridge connections to New total Study Area is about half the size of Manhattan. Jersey (Outerbridge Crossing and the Goethals and This initiative presents one of the most significant Bayonne Bridges) and a fourth connecting Staten planning efforts in New York City - an opportunity Island to the rest of New York City (the Verrazano- to create a strategy for one of the last remaining Narrows Bridge to Brooklyn). Newark Liberty In- working industrial waterfronts in the City. The Study ternational Airport, one of the region’s three major Area extends from Howland Hook Marine Terminal airports, is located in nearby New Jersey, while the to the north to Tottenville in the south, with the Ar- Howland Hook Containerport is the largest such fa- thur Kill forming its western boundary and segments cility in the City and directly connected by highway of South and Richmond Avenues, Arthur Kill Road Map 1-Project Area and Regional Context 3 Staten Island West Shore Existing Conditions Report Map 2-Study Area Zones 4 Map 3 -Study Area Aerial 5 Staten Island West Shore Existing Conditions Report and the West Shore Expressway forming its east- ern edge. With approximately 12 miles of shoreline, the Study Area is characterized by a wide variety of uses, with significant changes in land use, form and density over the past 30-40 years. The Study Area is strategically organized into four Zones; these zones are based on geography and predominant uses—Zones I through IV from north to south. (See Map 2) Zone I (Arlington - Port Ivory) is dominated by the presence of the Howland Hook Marine Terminal, which is operated by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANYNJ) and provides bulk and container storage, transfer and logistical services. The Goethals Bridge and its toll plaza and access roads and ramps form another major physical pres- ence. Its central and northern areas have many wetlands and marshes, most of which are located within designated park areas. Zone II (Bloomfield - Teleport) includes a substan- tial amount of office space, primarily in two facilities- Existing Manufacturing in West Shore the Staten Island Corporate Park and the Teleport. The western section of Zone II (west of the West Shore Expressway) is comprised of large tracts, many vacant, dominated by the former GATX site. Zone III (Travis – Fresh Kills) will be defined signif- icantly in the future by the Fresh Kills Park. The his- toric Travis residential community, the largest within the Study Area, is also located within Zone III, along with some major industrial uses at the western end of Victory Boulevard. Residential Neighborhood in Travis Zone IV (Charleston - Tottenville ) has a number of large industrial and institutional uses, including Port Mobil, a New York State Department of Cor- rectional Services prison, as well as the residential areas of Tottenville and Charleston. The eastern section of this zone is dominated by the Clay Pit Ponds State Park and further south by the recently developed at Bricktown I. Due to its industrial history, the infrastructure nec- essary to support residential and commercial uses was often never planned or built. However, several pockets of historically residential communities like Home Depot on Forest Avenue 6 Travis and Tottenville have held their own in recent years while residential areas in the equally historic Charleston/Kreisherville community have faced strong competition from expanding industrial and warehouse uses. The presence of large vacant lots and good highway access has also fostered the in- flux of distinct commercial uses, such as “Big Box” retail, including two Home Depots (there are three in Staten Island), and retail complexes with tenants such as Target and Costco establishing themselves and expanding. Overall, the Study Area is defined by three distinct features: Aerial View of Waterfront along Study Area • The Arthur Kill Shoreline and extensive interior streams, marshes and wetlands, • The area’s major highway infrastructure, includ- ing the West Shore Expressway, Richmond (Ko- rean War Veterans) Parkway, the Staten Island Expressway and the Goethals Bridge and Out- erbridge Crossing, and • The planned Fresh Kills Park. The West Shore Expressway, in particular, clearly separates the Study Area from the rest of Staten Island. The Study Area is bordered by primarily resi- dential neighborhoods to the east and south. The proposed Fresh Kills Park, and the interconnecting network of parks, wetlands and natural areas, will serve as a unifying feature linking the Study Area from north to south. View of West Shore Expressway, Separating Study Area from Resi- dential Neighborhoods to the east. Aerial View of the Fresh Kills area in the foreground. 7 Staten Island West Shore Existing Conditions Report 2.A3: Historic Presence of Industrial Uses in the port operation at the Howland Hook Marine Termi- Study Area nal, the accompanying improvements to Arlington Yards and the Travis Branch, and the reconstruction The first rail line in Staten Island, connecting Tot- of the Arthur Kill Railroad lift bridge that connects tenville in the southern end of the Study Area and these rail operations to New Jersey. NYCEDC, PA- Clifton, NJ, was built in 1860 as manufacturing as- NYNJ and other agencies are making efforts on a serted its pivotal role in Staten Island’s economy. number of fronts to build on these infrastructure in- Linoleum, masonry and Ivory Soap, to name a few, vestments and the availability of vacant land to cre- were all produced and transported from the West ate expanded opportunities for new and expanded Shore along the Arthur Kill and via rail and highway. industrial activity within the Study Area. Manufacturing declined during the Great Depres- sion, but then thrived through World War II. While . the following decades reflected the general decline of manufacturing in the region, much of the West Shore is still dominated by productive industrial ar- eas. Decline of Industry By 1948, many of the industrial operations in the Study Area had begun to decline, and the core area of the Study Area was designated for use as the Fresh Kills Landfill, which evolved into the largest waste disposal facility in the world. The need for bulk oil facilities also led to the creation of large oil tank farms along both sides of the Arthur Kill, in- cluding Port Mobil (now Kinder Morgan) in Zone III, which is still in use. By 1960, Proctor and Gamble’s Port Ivory, the Howland Hook Marine Terminal and several large petroleum storage operations were the only remaining large industrial operations in the Study Area. Limited road and pier access and overall national patterns (manufacturing shifting out of the Northeast) and international trends (manufacturing moving abroad to lower-cost locations) contributed Kreischer Mansion to the decline of the industrial use after World War II and especially over the past three decades. Finally, in 1991 Proctor and Gamble left its Port Ivory site. Since the decline of manufacturing and industry in New York City in the second half of the twentieth century, many efforts have been made to revitalize and reuse these large tracts of land, many of which are vacant, and in many ways represent the last frontiers of large tracts of developable land in New York City. (These vacant land areas are discussed in greater detail in the review of conditions within each of the Study Area’s four zones.) One of the primary efforts is the rejuvenation and expansion of New Multi-Family Construction 8 Map 4 -Built Year Map 9 Staten Island West Shore Existing Conditions Report 2.A.4: Overview of Area Wide Land Uses • The development of big-box retail operations expands shopping opportunities and a significant While much of the Study Area is characterized by number of jobs, but their large traffic needs can land in manufacturing zones that presently lies pose local problems; and vacant, there is a substantial amount of major • Residential and commercial/industrial uses are developments. Some major landmarks and points often directly adjacent to each other, creating of interest in the Study Area are: conflicts and future decisions about which uses will end up dominating in those areas. • The Goethals Gardens mobile home park, the Goethals Bridge and the Howland Hook Marine Opportunities: Terminal in Zone I; • The Teleport Office Park and the vacant former • The expansion of operations like the Howland GATX site in Zone II; Hook terminal, riding the continued and • The Travis community and the former Fresh projected surge in containerized freight traffic, Kills Landfill in Zone III; and would provide significant numbers of high- • Port Mobil/Kinder Morgan, Kreischerville, and paying jobs, with secondary economic benefits Clay Pit Pond Park in Zone IV. to the surrounding communities; • The evolution of Fresh Kills Park will provide substantial opportunities for other spin-off Historically single family detached housing has development and will enhance the value of dominated the limited residential areas in the West surrounding residential and commercial areas; Shore. Over the past two decades, however, higher • The historic charm of areas like Travis can density two-family, attached or semi-detached be built upon to create mixed-use residential housing has been common in the residential centers and ancillary retail or other uses that enhance of Travis, Charleston, and Tottenville. In general, non- the character of those areas while providing conforming uses in the Study Area consist of older expanding community assets. homes that pre-date the 1961 Zoning Resolution, • The 12-mile waterfront includes many areas for which created most of the zoning districts in the community access to the waterfront and possible area. There are isolated areas with housing within development of various water-dependent uses M3, M2, and M1 districts. (e.g., marinas, expanding maritime operations). Figure 1 shows the existing distribution of land uses within the Study Area. Residential uses occupy approximately 39% of Staten Island but only 3% of the Study Area, which is dominated by Open Space (40%) and vacant land (34%) as its two largest land uses. These specific land uses are concentrated in certain areas in the West Shore, creating interesting development patterns. The preponderance of these land uses poses some challenges as well as some opportunities for the Study Area; the following are a few examples: Challenges: • Certain large and important uses – large petroleum tank farms, the Howland Hook Terminal, the State prison – provide good employment but tend to limit what can be developed in their immediate area; 10 Land Uses in Arlington-Port Ivory Zone Land Uses in Bloomfield-Teleport Zone Land Uses in Travis Freshkills Zone Land Uses in Charleston-Tottenville Zone 11 Staten Island West Shore Existing Conditions Report SUMMARY OF AREA WIDE LAND USE Summary of Findings: Analysis of the Study Area (total area of approxi- mately 6,322 acres) reveals a dominance of two kinds of land-uses: Open Space at approximately 2,460 acres (inclusive of the proposed Fresh Kills • 2,460 Acres (approximately 40%) Park) accounts for approximately 40% of the total of the Study Area is Open Space area and vacant land totaling 2,140 acres accounts (Inclusive of the proposed Fresh for about 34%. These two major categories are fol- Kills Park) lowed by transportation/utility related land uses at • 2,140 Acres (approximately 34%) approximately 9% of the area and industrial land- of the Study Area is Vacant Land. uses at approximately 7%. Commercial land-us- • 17% of the land has transportation/ es account for approximately 4% of the area and utility related and industrial uses. residential (combination of one and two-family and • Residential uses account for only multi-family ) account for 3% of the total. 3% of the land use The dispersion of land uses throughout the Study Area is not uniform in nature, with most of the open space concentrated in Zone III, vacant land in Zone II, transportation and utility related land uses in Zone I, industrial uses in Zone IV and the bulk of the residential uses are in Zones III and IV. Figure 1- Analysis of Area Wide Land Use 12 Map 5 -Area Wide Land Use 13 Staten Island West Shore Existing Conditions Report 2.A.5: Zoning Area fall within the boundaries of the planned Fresh Kills Park and in other parks and natural areas (e.g., As shown in Map 6, the bulk of the Study Area, the Davis Nature Preserve), excluding those areas particularly in Zones I and II in the north, is zoned as future manufacturing sites. manufacturing. The remaining zoning is generally residential, with a couple of small heavy commercial In M2-1 districts (8% of zoned land), a maximum zones between Howland Hook and Arlington. Anal- FAR of 2.0 is permitted and a 20-foot rear yard is ysis of the zoning districts show the overwhelming required. Further, the sky exposure plane, which majority of the land within the Study Area is in man- starts at 60 feet above street level, may not be pen- ufacturing districts (84.1%). Residential districts etrated without NY City Planning Commission au- account for approximately 15.1% and commercial thorization. M2-1 districts are common along the zones a mere 0.78%. (A significant portion of the City’s older industrial waterfront areas in Brooklyn Study Area’s residential zoning area falls within the and Staten Island. The same sky exposure plane boundaries of the planned Fresh Kills Park. The limitation exists in M3-1 districts (accounting for eventual mapping of this park will preclude that 36% of the zoned area), as does the 2.0 FAR limit, area from future residential development.) Detailed but there are provisions for smoke stacks and other analysis reveals that M1-1, M3-1 and R3-2 are the performance structures. Generally, M3-1 districts top three zoning districts in terms of the area. Figure house power plants, solid waste transfer facilities, 2 and Table 1 provide the distribution of zoning dis- and fuel supply depots. These districts are com- tricts throughout the Study Area’s four zones. mon along the Arthur Kill in the Study Area in Zones II, III, and IV. 2.A.5.a: Manufacturing Districts In total, there are 4,859 acres zoned manufactur- Manufacturing zoning districts encompass a wide ing in the Study Area, or approximately 85% of the range of industrial and manufacturing activities 5,717 acres of manufacturing district area on the that serve a vital role in New York City’s economy. entire island. Of that, excluding Fresh Kills, 2,612 Mills, catering suppliers, warehouses and distribu- acres are vacant. tion centers, ferry and ship terminals, and municipal facilities, such as sewage treatment centers are all 2.A.5.b: Residential Districts generally found in Manufacturing Zones. The three subcategories, M1, M2, and M3 denote differences Island-wide, residential districts account for 75 per- in performance standards, with M1 being the most cent of the land area. However, within the Study stringently regulated and M3 permitting the most Area - residential accounts for approximately 18% potentially noxious uses. Special permitting allows of the total zoned land. The zones found in the certain retail uses, hotels and motels in M1 districts, Study Area -- R1-2, R3-2, R-3A and R3X -- are all but not in M2 or M3. Some community facility uses lower density districts with different bulk and density may also be found in M1 districts, but not M2 and limitations as well as parking regulations. Zone I has M3. no residential districts but borders on R3-2 and R5 districts within the adjacent Arlington neighborhood. Within M1, M2 and M3 zoning districts, there are Zone II similarly has no residential zoning but the sub-categories that restrict building size and lot adjacent Bulls Head neighborhood includes R3-1, coverage. M1-1 districts, which account for ap- R3-2 and R3X districts. Zone III has R3-2 and R3A proximately 40% of the Study Area’s zoned land zoning, and Zone 4 has R3X, R3-2, R3A, and R1-2. and exist in all four Zones, permit a maximum floor The following is a brief descriptions of the controls area ratio (FAR) of 1.0, a minimum 20-foot rear yard in these residential districts: and a building envelope that does not penetrate the sky exposure plane — which begins at 30 feet. • R1-2 is a single family residence district with re- As noted above for the area’s residential zoning, a quirements for 20 foot minimum yards, 60 foot substantial portion of the M1-1 districts in the Study minimum lot width and a sky exposure plane 14 Map 6 -Area Wide Zoning 15 Staten Island West Shore Existing Conditions Report Figure 2- Study Area Zoning Analysis Table 1- Zoning Districts by Study Zones Table 2- Details of Zoning Districts 16 that begins at 25 feet. There is a maximum FAR these regulations were enacted, all of Staten Island of 0.5 and 1 parking space per dwelling unit. was designated as the City’s first LDGMA. The goal • R3A districts feature modest single- and two- of the regulations is to reduce the density of new family detached homes on lots narrower than residential projects and enhance their site design other zoning districts. Here, the minimum re- through changes in yard, open space, off-street quired is 25 feet, a 21 foot sky exposure plane parking, private road design and other guidelines. height with a 35 foot maximum building height, 1 parking space per dwelling unit, and 2 modest 2.A.5.c: Commercial Districts side yards totaling 8 feet. A maximum FAR of 0.5 is permitted and a minimum front yard of 10 While commercial uses account for a relatively small feet is required. (4%) of the Study Area land use, commercial zoning • R3X districts are mapped generally in low den- districts account for an even smaller 1% of the Study sity neighborhoods, like many of those found in Area’s zoning. (Many commercial uses are, howev- Staten Island. Only one- and two-family homes er, also allowed in manufacturing districts.) There are permitted on lots that are at least 35 feet are small areas where commercial zoning has been wide. With the same FAR as the other districts mapped within Zones II and IV. In Zone II, C4-3 zon- above, there is a 21 foot sky exposure plane ing permits commercial FAR of 3.4 and residential height and the front yard must be at least 10 feet, FAR of 0.78-2.43. The uses in a C4-3 district are or as deep as the neighboring yard. Two side intended to serve a larger geographic area than just yards are required that total 10 feet in depth. the surrounding community and include theaters • R3-2 districts require one space per unit, a max- and specialty department stores (the West Shore imum FAR of 0.5, but allow for higher density Plaza is presently located in that area). In Zone IV, including two-family homes. In these districts, a C3A district along Ellis Street permits waterfront houses may be attached and are required to recreation activities, like boating and fishing, in ar- only have one eight foot side yard, not two, as eas generally near residential areas. C3A districts in R1-2. The lots may be narrower and have also permit residential development that adheres to smaller yards. The sky exposure plane starts at the R3A zoning district standards. There is also a 21 feet. C8-2 district (intended for heavy repair shops and automotive uses) located along Arthur Kill Road in In 2004 the City adopted Lower Density Growth the Charleston section of Zone IV. Management Text Amendments, which apply to any new residential districts (primarily relevant to 2.A.4.d: Special South Richmond Development R1 – R5 districts) within a designated “Lower Den- District (Staten Island) sity Growth Management Area” (LDGMA). When The Special South Richmond Development Dis- trict (SSRDD) was established in 1975 to guide development of predominantly vacant land in the southern half of Staten Island. The Special District maintains the densities established by the under- lying zones and ensures that new development is compatible with existing communities. To maintain the existing community character, the district man- dates tree preservation, planting requirements, controls on changes to the topography, height lim- its, and setback and curb cut restrictions along rail- roads and certain roads. It established Designated Open Space (DOS) areas to protect natural and open space areas within southwestern Staten Is- land. By restricting construction within those areas, 17 Staten Island West Shore Existing Conditions Report a network of such areas was effectively preserved. vey of the waterfront areas, followed by an in-depth To avoid penalizing the owners of such areas, they boat survey to gather a complete picture of current are permitted to transfer development rights from conditions and to examine future utilization potential the DOS to the balance of their property. Any pro- of the Staten Island Waterfront. Details of these are posed development on significantly vacant parcels stated below. within the SRRDD must also certify the availability of public school seats within the District prior to the Initial Upland Connectivity Survey issuance of building permits. An inland drive/walk-through survey of waterfront 2.A.5.e: Rezonings access along the Study Area boundary was initially undertaken by the Study Team in November 2007. There have been three notable rezonings in the re- This effort confirmed that this segment of the Stat- cent past that have affected the Study Area. The en Island waterfront has few connections to inland goal of each of these rezonings was to preserve the areas, and very limited transit options to these ar- older, low density quality of the existing residential eas from nearby communities or from other parts areas. of Staten Island. As discussed further in Section 3 (Transportation Existing Conditions), the major In 2003, several private rezoning applications sub- roads in the vicinity of the waterfront -- Arthur Kill mitted by the Borough President were approved. Road (in the southern half of the Study Area) and These included an approximately 181-block area in the West Shore Expressway – have few local road- the neighborhoods of Arlington, Port Richmond, and ways providing any type of waterfront connection. West Brighton in the northwestern section of Staten Past and present industrial and waste management Island. Previously, there were R4, R3-2, and R3-1 activities cut off large segments of the waterfront, zoning districts that were rezoned to lower-density and continue to limit their accessibility and use. In districts of R3A and R3X, which were more consis- many ways, public waterfront access has effectively tent with existing development patterns. been limited to portions of Zone IV in the residential and marina areas in Tottenville. At the same time, the City adopted zoning changes, also submitted by the Borough President, for por- While there are some areas with attractive views of tions of the communities of Travis, Bulls Head, New the waterfront and the Bayonne, Outerbridge and Springville, Heartland Village, and Willowbrook, in Goethals Bridges, these vistas are often seen by or near Zone III. In this rezoning, large R3-2 tracts looking through fencing surrounding present or were rezoned into three different zoning districts: former industrial and landfill properties or through R3X, R3A or R3-1. In 2005, by resolution of the City portions of heavily wooded or fenced-off land. Most Planning Commission, another two R3A areas were east-west roadways are limited to industrial uses that similarly rezoned within the Study Area. end in dead-ends with no sense of a complete net- work (e.g. Industrial Loop, Johnson Street, Chemi- 2.A.6: Sumamry of Shoreline Conditions cal Lane, Muldoon Avenue, Meredith and South Av- enue, etc.). While the Island of Meadows presents The Study Area includes approximately 12 miles views of waste transfer barges and the New York of shoreline along the Arthur Kill and the southern City Department of Sanitation (DSNY) waste trans- end of Newark Bay. Conditions along this shoreline fer facility, there are also some serene views of the range from well-preserved natural areas to active Fresh Kills Park land. marine/industrial and shipping activities, and much of it is effectively cut off from the remainder of the Historically the West Shore of Staten Island has Island, with very few points for convenient public ac- been dominated by industrial activity, including oil cess. refining and construction, with many areas used for the bulk storage of materials and heavy construc- The Study Team completed an initial land-side sur- tion equipment, such as cement mixers. The grad- 18 Map 7 - Shoreline Conditions Observation Points 19 Staten Island West Shore Existing Conditions Report ual evolution of land uses over the 19th and 20th Centuries, with an often vibrant industrial sector combined with scattered old-growth residential con- centrations, has left portions of the Study Area with a mix of uses that pose serious questions to City planners regarding the long-term use of these wa- terfront areas. Many of these uses are the type that cities have often relegated to out-of-the-way water- front sites – e.g., construction materials storage, large parking lots for buses and service vehicles, secondary warehouse operations, etc., with many of these uses not dependent upon or utilizing in any way their proximity to the waterfront. However, in the Study Area these heavy commercial or indus- trial uses are often located very close to small resi- Area of Recent Dredging of Arthur Kill near New York Container Termi- dential streets, schools and park areas, as well as nal at Howland Hook a number of historic cemeteries, with portions going back to the 18th Century, located on or near the wa- terfront in Zones IV. Overall, the 12-mile waterfront has numerous areas where public access to the wa- terfront could be established and waterfront-related amenities (e.g., esplanades, boardwalks) could be developed. Boat-Based Survey The boat-based survey of the waterfront, completed in December 2007, made waterfront observations along the full length of the Study Area’s shoreline (see Map 7). “Observation Point” reference num- bers in the following text refer to the numbered points shown in this figure from which the shore- line was observed. The northern end (Zone I) is dominated by the Howland Hook Marine Terminal Container Ship Off-Loading at Howland Hook Terminal presently operated by New York Container Termi- nals (NYCT) and located at the northwest corner of • six quayside gantry cranes; Staten Island next to the Goethals Bridge. Owned • four new post-Panamax cranes (able to service by New York City since its purchase from American the largest ships that will fit through the locks of Export Lines in 1973, for the past 23 years it has the Panama Canal) been leased from the City by the Port Authority of • 9 empty container handlers; New York and New Jersey (PANYNJ). This terminal • 63 yard tractors; primarily handles container traffic and is an increas- • 24 paperless computerized truck gates; ingly important part of the Port system of New York • 22 full container handlers; and New Jersey. • 42 stevedoring chassis; and • on-dock intermodal rail service to the Express With a footprint of 187-acres, the terminal can ser- Rail system. vice three vessels on its three berths totaling over 3,000 feet (1,200 feet at a depth of 45 feet and 1,800 Other structures include a 20,000 sq. ft. deep freeze feet at 43 feet). The terminal is equipped with: warehouse, 66,000 sq ft refrigerated warehouse 20 (notably for banana storage), 28,785 sq ft equip- ment maintenance and repair shop, a 39,000 sq ft main office building, and a 412,000 sq ft container freight station. Since 2004, NYCT has undergone approximately $32 million in upgrades and renovations. Recent developments include berth expansion, dredging, development of an on-dock rail system, improved security and gates, four Leibherr Cranes, and ex- Waterfront Structure for Sale panded warehouse capacity. The City of New York has placed significant emphasis on developing the on-dock Express Rail system for better mobility and reduced truck traffic. Future expansion plans have been proposed for the main terminal and the adja- cent Port Ivory parcel. As expected the shoreline conditions are main- tained with proper berthing and retaining wall con- struction. The needed dredging of the Arthur Kill in this area has been completed and planned expan- Dilapidated Piers and Exposed Shoreline Showing Typical Waterfront sions (Port Ivory) are expected to be in place soon. Condition seen the length of the Shoreline The growth and expansive future developments at and the adjacent DSNY and Con Edison facilities. In Howland Hook were clearly made possible by the the approximate vicinity of points 9 and 10 in Map reconstruction of the Arthur Kill rail lift bridge and 7, there are a series of roads (South and Meredith the Arlington Yards, as well as the re-establishing of Avenues and Victory Boulevard) that could be uti- the Travis freight line. lized more fully in the future to expand access to the waterfront in this portion of the Study Area. Moving southward, the waterfront along Zone II (Bloomfield-Teleport) is dominated by the former Point 11 marks the location of a structurally safe and GATX site and the Saw Mill Creek ecological areas. protected shoreline in the vicinity of the Con Edison The shoreline is heavily weathered and decayed, Power Station. Neighboring this on the south side with driftwood and old dilapidated pier structures is the Department of Sanitation waste transfer fa- that indicate that the area was once accessible cility at the end of Victory Boulevard. The facility’s by boat. Any future waterfront uses would require buildings extend to the shoreline, where barges pull detailed marine inspections and likely extensive into a covered waterfront structure and waste is off- shoreline/bulkhead rehabilitation, as these areas loaded for recycling. appear to be long-unused and very decayed. There is also evidence of oil tanker activity due to an ob- To the east and south of these areas is the former served working pier with oil supply pipes, although landfill that is the site of the proposed Fresh Kills this small facility could not handle the types of large Park. The proposed park’s shoreline is next to a oil barges serviced on the New Jersey side of the small island called “Island of Meadows.” The inlets channel. around the Island of Meadows are blocked off on one side with an in-water fence and the channel The Study Area’s central area (Zone III: Travis/ depth around the Island ranges from 12’ to 5’. This Fresh Kills), involves the longest stretch of shore- area could potentially provide ferry access to the line in the entire Study Area (between observation Fresh Kills Park after proper dredging and securing points 8 through 25 in Map 7). This shoreline area of the shoreline – a concept that has been identified is dominated by the proposed Fresh Kills parkland as part of the park’s overall Master Plan. 21 Staten Island West Shore Existing Conditions Report Potentail Waterfront Road Access Point- Zone III Typical Ship “Graveyard” Shoreline Conditions At the borderline of Zone III and IV, there is a signifi- cant ship “graveyard” where old and unused ships have been beached or grounded close to the shore- line over the years. Although often considered an unsightly view at first, from a marine point of view it was a very common practice, and if done properly can expand the shoreline’s marine habitat potential. In considering possible future actions in this “grave- yard” area, further investigation is required before considering the possible removal of the ships, barg- es and other abandoned marine equipment, or the cultivating it as a marine habitat. Due to the aquatic ecological potential of such areas, any plans for these areas are subject to regulatory review by NYS DEC and the Corp of Engineers as well as by the Coast Guard (for impacts on navigation). The coastal areas of the southernmost portion of the Study Area (Zone IV: Charleston/ Tottenville) have some shoreline residential development but are more dominated by the State prison, and the Port Mobile storage tanks connected by underwater pipeline to similar facilities on the New Jersey shore in the vicinity of points 31 through 36. Arthur Kill Power Generation Plant A working waterfront areas is located near obser- vation point 25 (at or near Chemical Lane) as well as further south (below the Outerbridge Crossing) at observation points 44-45 (Arthur Kill Road/Ellis Street), which includes a working waterfront area (some form of driftwood or broken-boat handling/ loading was observed) and an active marina. Other waterfront activity was observed north of the Port Mobile facility (at the end of Johnson Street and In- dustrial Loop), where a former waterfront warehouse and industrial building appeared to be vacant, but Visy Paper 22 Wood-Loading Operations at Arthur Kill Road/ Ellis Street Tottnville MTA Railway Station, Adjacent to Waterfront was adjacent to a secured shoreline and retaining wall, with extensive excavation or earth-moving ac- tivities being carried out at this location. At observation point 41, just before the Outerbridge crossing, the 190-unit Tides senior housing complex is visible. This development was required to provide a public waterfront esplanade as part of its approv- als from the City Planning Commission. Otherwise, the project has no docks or other waterfront facili- View of Tides Development from Shoreline ties and has a natural rip rap shoreline. A small boat club is also located just north of the Outerbridge Crossing. At point 48 (adjacent to Ellis Street) the MTA Staten Island Railway’s Tottenville Station (the last station on this line) is located at the end of Ellis Street di- rectly adjacent to the waterfront. The shoreline in this area, with a mixture of mud flats and rip rap, is not secured and extensive waterfront work would be needed to take advantage of this shoreline rail access. Just south of the Study Area, at the end of Bentley Vacant Warehouse Building (Johnson Street/ Industrial) Street, re-creation of the ferry service between Tot- tenville and Perth Amboy (within a ten-minute walk of the waterfront to the NJ Transit Perth Amboy Sta- tion) is often mentioned. The service has been gone for over 40 years and only the rotting wooden piles from the former ferry piers remain on the Staten Is- land side at the end of Bentley Street in Tottenville, near the SIR station. However, on the Perth Amboy side, the ferry slip piers have been rebuilt, the adja- cent waterfront has been re-activated with a marina and dinner cruise operations, and a replica of the original ferry station house has been constructed in recognition of the importance of this ferry, which be- Small Boat-club next to Outerbridge Crossing Piers 23 Staten Island West Shore Existing Conditions Report Open Space/ Wetlands/ Natural Resources Street) indicate the type of recreational opportuni- ties for residents that could be further capitalized on Given its extensive industrial history, the Study in the future. The remediation and redevelopment Area still possesses a surprising number of natu- of Fresh Kills and numerous industrial sites, such as ral and recreational resources, particularly within the Port Mobil oil tank farm, could diversify the land the planned Fresh Kills recreation area which ac- use activity along the waterfront. counts for roughly a third of the Study Area. The West Shore already has several park and natural Along the West Shore, the tidal wetlands of the Ar- areas that complement and extend the well-estab- thur Kill are critical areas that provide food and hab- lished Staten Island Greenbelt that runs through the itat for fish, birds, and other wildlife while filtering center of the island. For example, the William Davis harmful chemicals from the water, buffering inland Wildlife refuge, just east of Travis and north of the regions from storms, and controlling erosion. Up to planned Fresh Kills Park, already provides a large eighty percent of the island’s wetlands have been natural open space for area residents. lost to filling, dredging and other human influence. These wetlands have been the subject of much at- In the West Shore Study Area, open space is the tention and study by organizations such as the Trust predominant land use category, with a total area of for Public Land (TPL) and the Audubon Society. In approximately 2,460 acres (approximately 40% of recent years, TPL has protected 472 acres of wet- the Study Area). This includes the proposed 2,200- lands on Staten Island, including a recent 15-acre acre Fresh Kills Park, for which a Master Plan and tidal wetland site located at the intersection of the its associated environmental and land use reviews Arthur Kill and Neck Creek, near Meredith Avenue. are presently being completed. The park, which has a 30-year phased development schedule, including The Study Area has an extensive variety of wet- some near-term plans for park improvements within lands, both tidal and freshwater, that occupy ap- Travis and in other portions of the Study Area. proximately 1,150 acres of the area. When com- bined with the existing and planned open space, Other major open space areas within the Study these combined uses cover approximately 3,500 Area (all passive recreation/natural areas) include acres, which accounts for more than half the Study the City-owned 107-acre Mariner’s Marsh located Area. The tidal wetlands in the area include coastal in Zone I, the City-owned 111-acre Saw Mill Creek shoals, bars and mudflats, littoral zones, vegetat- Marsh located within Zone II and the 225-acre Clay ed coastal shoals, broad-leaf vegetation, intertidal Pits Pond State Park Reserve located within Zone marsh, fresh marsh, graminoid vegetation and high IV. While Clay Pits Pond is not part of the City’s marsh. This extensive coverage of natural resourc- Greenbelt, this state-run park complements the es within the Study Area, including both Prall’s Is- extensive Greenbelt system of parks. Additionally, land and the Island of Meadows directly off-shore, there are numerous parks in the Study Area with gives it an unique characteristic which needs to be baseball diamonds and other active recreational considered as the area develops in the future. amenities, with the largest concentration found in Zone III (such as the ball fields along Travis Avenue west of Victory Boulevard). One of the Study Area’s most important natural re- source is its waterfront. The Arthur Kill, which divides Staten Island and New Jersey, could potentially provide some recreational and expanded strategic commercial waterfront opportunities. Historically vital to the City’s industry, several marina areas in the southern portion of the Study Area (along Ellis 24 Map 8 -Open Space/ Wetland and Natural Areas 25 Staten Island West Shore Existing Conditions Report 2B: Zone I: Arlington - Port Ivory: Existing Land Use/ Constraints and Opportunities 2.B.1: Existing Land Use Analysis This is the northernmost of the four study zones, stretching over an area of approximately 900 acres and containing the most transportation infrastructure of any of the Study Area’s four zones. This zone is characterized by the shipping related uses within the Howland Hook Terminal on the west and residential uses to the east and southeast beyond the boundaries of this zone, with a buffer area consisting of parks, railroad and retail uses between the port and residential areas. The Arthur Kill and Kill Van Kull channels and the Goethals Bridge and Cranes at unloading berth at New York Container Terminal, Howland Staten Island Expressway form the northern and Hook southern borders, respectively. The main features of this zone are: • The Goethals Bridge, connecting commuters and truck freight traffic to New Jersey; • PANYNJ’s Howland Hook Marine Terminal, a key terminal and growing container facility; • The Arlington Rail Yards, which expands the container terminals’ capabilities with additional rail capacity and connections inclusive of the recently re-constructed rail lift bridge to New Jersey. PANYNJ also owns a significant portion of Port Ivory, the former Proctor & Gamble manufacturing facility, for future expansion and View of a section of Mariner’s Marsh, looking south. development; and • Significant open space resources, including the Mariner’s Marsh and the proposed park space at Arlington Marsh. Transportation Uses As discussed in Section 2.A.5 above, the Howland Hook Marine Terminal site can service three vessels on its three berths totaling 3,012 feet. Since 2004, the New York Container Terminal, the major user of the site, has undergone approximately $32 million in upgrades and renovations. The City is stressing continued development of the on-dock Express Rail system and reducing the impact of truck traffic on adjacent roadways and communities. The recently Home Depot on Forest Avenue completed dredging of the Arthur Kill and facility 26 Map 9 - Aerial Map, Arlington-Port Ivory Zone 27 Staten Island West Shore Existing Conditions Report corridor. Several restaurant/entertainment operations in the area include a Charlie Brown Steakhouse and Jonsey’s Tavern, a restaurant and nightclub, respectively. Several contractors have located their operations in Zone I and there is also a real estate company, Kirby International. Industrial/Manufacturing The zone also includes a portion of the historic Arlington neighborhood, even though it forms an extraneous rectangle outside the Study Area’s general border. This rectangular area, site of the former Bethlehem Steel operation and presently occupied by various construction-related uses, is zoned manufacturing and represents one of the Goethals Gardens, Mobile Home Park, located south of Goethals few significantly large commercial/industrial sites Bridge Approach. adjacent to the rail line. Because of its strategic expansions will allow this key facility to continue its location and likely potential for redevelopment, growth. it was added to the Study Area for review in conjunction with the rest of Zone 1. There are two Residential Uses active manufacturing sites, Coca Cola Bottling Company and Grandview Structural Steel as well There are very few residences within the boundaries as a recycling service. of Zone I, with the exception of the 9- acre Goethals Garden mobile home park (directly north of the Parks and Natural Areas Goethals Bridge toll plaza), where space for a mobile home can be rented for less than $ 500 per month, Zone 1 includes the 107.2 acre Mariner’s Marsh including water, garbage removal and taxes. Park, a large nature preserve that acts as a buffer between the industrial shores of northwest Staten Commercial Uses Island and the residential areas to the east. This natural area alone occupies four percent of the land In spite of the lack of a major residential population, area in this zone. this area benefits from its proximity to many large residential neighborhoods, such as Arlington and Detailed land use analysis reveals that the Mariner’s Harbor. With this strategic location and dominant land use (approximately 48%) in Zone I proximity to the Staten Island and West Shore is Transportation/ Utility, most of which is the New Expressways, big box retailers have used the area’s York Container Terminal. The second most dominant manufacturing zoning to expand their presence land use in this zone is vacant land which accounts in Staten Island and in New York City as a whole. for approximately 28% of the land. Other important One of the three Home Depots on Staten Island, land uses are industrial, at about 8%, and open for example, is located in Zone I on Forest Avenue. space, in the form of Mariner’s Marsh and Arlington Other commercial uses in the area include, but Marsh which accounts for about 14.5% of the area. not limited to, storage and movers, self-storage facilities, a night club on Holland Avenue, as well as restaurants, a multiplex movie theater, construction material stores, contractor companies, and truck repair service shops, mostly concentrated along the Forest Avenue and the Staten Island Expressway 28 Map 10- Land Use, Arlington-Port Ivory Zone Figure 3- Land Use Analysis, Arlington-Port Ivory Zone 29 Staten Island West Shore Existing Conditions Report 2.B.2: Vacant Land Use Analysis the 91 parcels under 1 acre represent 82% of the parcels but 19% of the acres, while the 4 parcels Vacant land is this analysis is defined as areas de- over 3 acres account for almost half of the total net void of any kind of development and not a desig- vacant acreage. Map 11 includes this same infor- nated open space or nature preserve, although is mation in graphic format as well as the approximate may be partially or wholly covered by natural fea- location of these vacant parcels. tures like wetlands or marshes. It is one of the most dominant land uses within the Study Area, account- ing for almost 28% of the land area, making it the second largest land use category in terms of land area. Though vacant land can provide an opportunity for new development, it is crucial to determine the actual usable land within these parcels. To do this, the vacant parcels was overlaid with mapped wet- land areas, both tidal and freshwater, as defined by NYS DEC, along with their respective development buffers of 100 feet and 150 feet. The “net” vacant parcel acreage included in the study’s land analy- sis represented the areas that remained after these wetlands and associated buffer areas had been re- moved. These remaining land areas were then sub- divided into three categories: • parcels less than 1 acre in area, • parcels between 1 and 3 acres in area, and • parcels more than 3 acres in area. Findings Applying this methodology to Zone I resulted in the following distribution of vacant land: Table 4- Vacant Land Analysis, Arlington-Port Ivory Zone As shown, removing wetland and buffer areas re- duced the number of vacant parcels from 122 to 111 and the total available vacant land from 215.7 acres to 91.34 acres. Of the 111 vacant parcels in Zone I, 30 Map 11- Vacant Land Analysis Arlington-Port Ivory Zone Figure 4- Vacant Land Analysis (by parcels), Arlington-Port Ivory Zone Figure 5- Vacant Land Analysis (by area), Arlington-Port Ivory Zone 31 Staten Island West Shore Existing Conditions Report 2.B.3: Newly Developed Properties/ Rezonings Proposed Developments is a generic term that re- fers to any kind of project, private or public, that is expected to occur in the future and is in some stage of development, from early planning stages to final execution. In Zone I the New York City Department of Sanita- tion (DSNY) is planning a parking facility on Block 1306, Lot 14 along Richmond Terrace, while the City’s Department of Parks and Recreation (NYCD- PR) is planning the designation and development of Arlington Marsh ( Block 1301, Lot 1), also along Richmond Terrace, as public open space. Arlington Marsh still retains a lot of the functions of a wetland and is an important connection between Mariners Marsh to the south and the waters of Kill Van Kull. Most of the area of the marsh will be placed un- der the stewardship of NYCDPR, and it is expected that the future programs will include environmental clean-up, protection and restoration of the marsh area and the wetlands. The Port Authority plans to expand the New York Container Terminal further north onto Parcel C of the Procter and Gamble Site. This new site will ac- commodate a new 1,200-foot berth with a storage area of approximately fifty acres. This berth and its 50-foot deep channel along the Kill Van Kull will work in conjunction with the existing 3,000-foot berth on the Arthur Kill. Recently NYCEDC has sought expressions of inter- est for the development of rail-dependant uses for all or any portion of an approximately 9-acre parcel of land located within the Arlington Railyards. This site will offer access to local and continental rail connection and highways and proximity to the New York Container Terminal located at Howland Hook. 32 Map 12- Proposed Projects, Arlington-Port Ivory Zone Table 3- Proposed Developments, Arlington Port-Ivory Zone 33 Staten Island West Shore Existing Conditions Report 2.B.4: Property Ownership Analysis Ownership analysis of the Study Area parcels was undertaken to provide data to better determine development potentials within the Study Area. The parcels were divided into seven ownership categories: • Private • Private (tax -exempt) • Public-Private • Port Authority of NY and NJ • Public, City Owned • Public, State Owned • No Data. This categorization was based on the name of the owner as provided by NYC Department of Finance. Due to a lack of data set a small percentage of the parcels were left unclassified and have been grouped under the category “no data”. Findings The following is the overall land use distribution by ownership: • The City of New York (NYC) owns 41 parcels, or approximately 14% of the parcels and 427 acres or 51% of the land within this zone, largely due to the ownership of the parcels in Howland Hook and the Mariner’s Marsh. • The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANYNJ) owns 11 parcels (4%) with 149 acres or 18% of the area. The above mentioned three constitute the top three categories of ownership in terms of number of parcels. • New York State (NYS) which owns 8 parcels (3% of the total ) and approximately 69 acres (8% of the total). • Private owners control 214 parcels (76% of the total) including 176 acres (21% of the total). As shown, in Zone I most of the parcels are privately owned while most of the land area (77%) is publicly owned (New York City and State and the Port Authority). 34 Map 13- Ownership Analysis, Arlington-Port Ivory Zone Figure 6- Ownership Analysis (by parcels), Arlington-Port Ivory Zone Figure 7- Ownership Analysis (by area), Arlington-Port Ivory Zone 35 Staten Island West Shore Existing Conditions Report 2.B.5: Underutilized Sites Analysis Findings Identifying underutilized parcels in the Study Area In Zone I (see Figure 8 and 9) there are 22 parcels gives an indication of those partially occupied totaling 375.38 acres with less than 50% of the areas most likely to be targeted for potential future allowable FAR. The following is the distribution of developments, either new uses or an expansion of these parcels by built FAR category: existing ones. As with vacant land, net underutilized area is defined as the area left over after subtracting any wetlands and their associated buffer areas from the actual lot area. This methodology removes those parcels with minimal developable area due to extensive coverage by wetlands – a common condition along the West Shore of Staten Island. Table 5- Analysis of Underutilized Parcels by Utilization Levels, Underutilized land has been defined as parcels Area and Number of Parcels- Arlington-Port Ivory Zone of land which (1) are at least 1 acre in area (after deducting wetlands and buffer area), and (2) have a built FAR ( Floor Area Ratio) -- the ratio of the The parcels were further analyzed in terms of amount of development on the parcel relative to the whether they were in residential or commercial/ maximum allowed under existing zoning -- which is industrial zoning districts. The results, shown in 50% or less than the allowable FAR. However, due to Table 6, indicate that of the 22 underutilized parcels, the nature of manufacturing uses on the West Shore, 19 parcels presently at 25% utilization or less are many parcels have unbuilt areas that are being within manufacturing districts, and include a total used for parking, storage and other ancillary uses area of 366.51 acres. There are no underutilized required by those industrial operations. Therefore, parcels in commercial or residential districts. This when analyzing parcels in manufacturing districts, indicates that almost all of the manufacturing–zoned the built FAR criterion has been reduced to 25%. sites are below the 25% being used as the cut-off For parcels in residential and commercial districts, for underutilization, indicating a greater potential for the 50% screening criteria for FAR was used. redevelopment of those sites. Underutilized parcels also do not include parcels categorized as open space or vacant land, as discussed in Section 2.B.2. Not including designated open space or vacant space ensures a clear distinction among sites which already have some development activity, those currently completely vacant, and those likely to be preserved Table 6- Breakdown of Underutilized Parcels by Zoning Districts, as open space. The underutilized land has been Arlington Port-Ivory Zone further categorized into five sections based on the percentage of the built FAR as compared to the allowed FAR: • 0% -- almost negligible built FAR, • more than 0% and up to 10%, • more than 10% and up to 25%, • more than 25% and up to 40%, and • more than 40% up to 50%. 36 Map 14- Underutilized Land Analysis, Arlington-Port Ivory Zone Figure 8- Underutilized Land Analysis (by parcels), Arlington-Port Figure 9- Underutilized Land Analysis (by area), Arlington-Port Ivory Ivory Zone Zone 37 Staten Island West Shore Existing Conditions Report 2.B.6: Environmental Constraints brownfields, thereby minimizing the use of public clean-up funds and reducing the development Zone I contains a number of natural features pressures on “greenfield” (uncontaminated) sites in the form of marshes and wetlands, both tidal All three sites are located within the former Procter and freshwater, spread throughout the Study and Gamble site and are identified as Port Ivory Site Area. These features form a natural constraint to (Former P&G) Site 1, Site2 and Site 3. (See Map development proposals and have to be accounted 13). No other superfund or remediation sites were for while proposing potential future developments . identified within Zone I. As a result of the historical manufacturing land uses in this area, there are also a number of environmentally contaminated sites that have been subjected to clean-up. These potentially degraded sites also act as environmental constraint towards future development proposals. Findings As shown in Map15, portions of the northern and the southern sections of Zone I lie within the 100 year flood zone, which is an additional environmental aspect that has to be considered. These flood risks raise the complexity and costs of development, especially residential, further reducing the probability of development in those areas. The natural features that lie within Zone I include the following : • Bridge Creek • Arlington Marsh • Mariner’s marsh • Old Place Creek • Goethals Bridge Pond • Cable Avenue Woods • Graniteville Swamp Virtually all of these areas are under public ownership. Records at the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) also identified three sites within this Zone which have been subjected to the NYS Voluntary Cleanup Program (VCP), which the State establishes to address environmental, legal and financial barriers that often hinder the redevelopment and reuse of contaminated properties. The program makes it easier financially for the private sector to cleanup 38 Map 15- Environmental Constraints, Arlington-Port Ivory Zone 39 Staten Island West Shore Existing Conditions Report 2.B.7: Areas for Discussion edge of the Staten Island Railroad right-of-way. Currently this site is zoned M1-1, is partially oc- The previous assessments in this section provide cupied by industrial uses and is under private information that is useful in identifying sites and as- ownership. semblages that may be suitable for new develop- • Site 2 (7.3 acres), a privately owned property lo- ment, new or expanded open space opportunities cated on Western Avenue, surrounded on three or for transportation investments. This information, sides by the New York Container Port. This site along with the results of the study team’s parallel is zoned M3-1 and current records shows that Market Analysis and input from Study Area stake- the site was used for industrial purposes in the holders collectively will help determine the most past. advantageous future scenarios for Staten Island’s • Site 3 (an assemblage of 172 parcels, with ap- West Shore. proximately 278 acres) is bound by the Stat- en Island Rail Road right-of-way to the north, Based on the identification of vacant and underuti- Western Avenue to the west, South Avenue to lized sites as discussed in the previous sections, the east and Goethals Road North to the south. focusing especially in larger contiguous parcels. As Dominant land uses of the parcels within this future land use scenarios are developed as part of assemblage include transportation and utility the study, these sites will be further analyzed for a and vacant land and the predominant zoning range of possible uses and then assessed against is M1-1 and M2-1. The site is characterized by such factors as: the presence of large parcels (area in excess of 10 acres) and a multitude of smaller parcels. A • Ownership (Public or private), substantial proportion (130 acres – 47% of total • Existing land use; existing tenant, of the site) is publicly owned (NYC and NYS). A • Existing zoning, substantial percentage of this site is designated • Waterfront location, wetlands or wetlands buffer, which must be con- • Access to transportation, sidered while developing any future scenarios. • Proximity to resource or amenities (i.e. local re- It should also be noted that the NYC EDC is tail or open space), presently seeking development interest to en- • Potential synergies/connections, courage rail-dependant uses on 9 acres within • Environmental conditions (comprised by wet- this site. lands and/or brownfields), • Political or community considerations, and The Study Team will continue to analyze these and • Access to infrastructure. other parcels within this zone in this manner, and develop alternative future scenarios for the Study This assessment and evaluation process will help Area in close consultation with the study’s Advisory focus future discussions around those areas with Committee and extensive public interaction through the greatest potential for positive long-term chang- a series of open houses and public visioning ses- es along the West shore. sions. Findings Map 16 shows the areas for discussion that emerged in Zone I after this analysis.The following are some of the initial sites that warranted further review by the study team and discussion with other agencies and community groups: • Site 1 (11.51 acres), comprises of 27 parcels of various sizes and is located along the northern 40 Map 16- Areas of Opportunity, Arlington-Port Ivory Zone Table 7- Potential Development Opportunities, Arlington Port-Ivory Zone 41 Staten Island West Shore Existing Conditions Report 2C: Zone II:Bloomfield/ Teleport: Existing Land Use/ Constraints and Opportunities 2.C.1: Existing Land Use Analysis Zone II is zoned mainly for manufacturing, though there are a variety of commercial uses within this area, including the borough’s largest concentration of high-end office space. It is dominated by one of the largest privately owned vacant parcels in the City, which has been the focus of considerable discussion within the West Shore community in recent years. The main features of this zone are: • the Staten Island Corporate Park Staten Island Corporate Park • the Teleport, • large tracts of privately owned vacant land, especially the former GATX site, • the West Shore Expressway and its interchange with the Staten Island Expressway and the Goethals Bridge, and • significant areas of wetlands, streams and nature preserves. Transportation Uses The most significant transportation facility in the area is the West Shore Expressway. Due to the presence of the former GATX site and numerous wetlands and natural areas, this zone has a very limited roadway network. Teleport Complex Residential Uses Other than several private homes along Decker Street in the southwest corner of the zone, there are no residential uses within this zone. The zone’s eastern side borders on the Bulls Head community. Commercial Uses Bloomfield is best known for its suburban type corporate office parks. The Corporate Park of Staten Island, developed through a public-private partnership with NYCEDC and located along South Avenue, offers approximately 200,000 sq. ft. of traditional office space and also includes two West Shore Plaza` hotels (the Hilton Garden Hotel and Hampton Inn). 42 Map 17- Aerial Map, Bloomfield-Teleport Zone 43 Staten Island West Shore Existing Conditions Report The Teleport, operated by the PANYNJ and also in Bloomfield, is a office facility that offers its multiple tenants high technology communications capabilities and a high level of security. There are four primary office buildings as well as several other developable sites. Tenants include Allstate Insurance, American Express, IDB Communications, Merrill Lynch Capital Markets, and other offices that generally function as back-office financial data procession and communication centers. Collectively, the Teleport and the Corporate Park of Staten Island represent a significant employment center with a large concentration of relatively high-paying jobs. Even though these office spaces offer quality employment centers, vacancy is high (approximately 31% in Spring 2008). It is presumed that these commercial Vanbro Corporation, a Construction Material Business properties are at a leasing disadvantage due to lack of convenient public transit connections and supporting food establishments. one of the largest vacant privately owned sites in New York City. The former GATX tank farm, now There is a broad array of other commercial uses owned by the International Speedway Corporation within the zone. Along Victory Boulevard, there is (ISC), is already cleared and partially remediated. an auto sales store, several delis, and contractors The recent proposal for a NASCAR racetrack and and building materials stores, while Gulf Avenue retail center was withdrawn, and no firm plans and South Avenue include recycling facilities, the have emerged for this 440-acre property (including Visiting Nurse Home Care service, and the Nitecap 240 acres of wetlands) Finally, benefiting from Adult Video Megastore. the remoteness of the West Shore, the Staten Island Sportsmen’s Club, between Edward Curry Industrial/Manufacturing and Bloomfield Avenues, is one of the few active shooting ranges in the City. The largest industrial-type use within the zone is the VanBro construction materials operation on Industry Road near the waterfront and several similar types of uses along Chelsea Road and Edward Curry Avenue. Park and Natural Areas There are a number of marshes and nature preserves along the shoreline of the Arthur Kill (including Prall’s Island), throughout and south of the GATX site, and along both sides of South Avenue (see discussion below). Zone II is primarily zoned M3-1 and M1-1, although the area includes only limited manufacturing and substantial amounts of corporate office space. Vacant Land (74%) and open space (14%) account for most of the land area in Zone II, which contains 44 Map 18- Land Use , Bloomfield- Teleport Zone Figure 10- Land Use Analysis, Bloomfield- Teleport Zone 45 Staten Island West Shore Existing Conditions Report 2.C.2: Vacant Land Use Analysis To establish the amount of available and developable vacant land, all vacant parcels (those with no development) was overlaid with mapped wetland areas, both tidal and freshwater, as defined by NYS DEC, along with their respective development buffers of 100 feet and 150 feet. The “net” vacant parcel acreage therefore represents the areas that remained after these wetlands and associated buffer areas had been removed. These remaining land areas were then subdivided into three categories: • parcels less than 1 acre in area, • parcels between 1 and 3 acres in area, and • parcels more than 3 acres in area. Findings Applying this methodology to Zone II resulted in the following distribution of vacant land: Table 8- Vacant Land Analysis, Bloomfield-Teleport Zone As shown, removing wetland and buffer areas reduced the number of vacant parcels from 123 to 77 and the total available vacant land from 1,222 acres to 582 acres. Of the 77 vacant parcels in Zone II, the 42 parcels under 1 acre represent 55% of the parcels but only 2% of the area, while the 20 parcels over 3 acres account for 94% of the total net vacant acreage. Map 19 includes this same information in graphic format as well as the approximate location of these vacant parcels. As is evident in Map 19, the presence of contiguous vacant land offers opportunities for potential large- scale development. 46 Map 19- Vacant Land Analysis , Bloomfield- Teleport Zone Figure 11- Vacant Land Analysis (by number of parcels), Bloomfield- Figure 12- Vacant Land Analysis (by area in acres), Bloomfield-Tele Teleport Zone port Zone 47 Staten Island West Shore Existing Conditions Report 2.C.3: Newly Developed Properties/ Rezonings Proposed projects in Zone II include the possible ex- pansion by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey of the Howland Hook Container Port along the shoreline, just south of the Goethals Bridge, and a possible MTA bus depot on Block 1801, Lot 150 and Lot 155 at the southern tip of the zone. 48 Map 20- Proposed Projects, Bloomfield- Teleport Zone Table 9- Proposed Projects- Bloomfield- Teleport Zone 49 Staten Island West Shore Existing Conditions Report 2.C.4: Property Ownership Analysis The parcels were divided into seven ownership categories, based on information from the NYC Department of Finance database: • Private • Private (tax -exempt) • Public-Private • Port Authority of NY and NJ • Public, City Owned • Public, State Owned • No Data (ownership not classified in the NYCDOF database) Findings Ownership analysis of the parcels within Zone II shows two prominent categories - privately owned land and land under the ownership of New York City, both in terms of the number of parcels and the total area of the parcels under each of the categories. • The zone has 119 parcels (49% of total) under private ownership, totaling approximately 837 acres (51% of the area). • New York City owns 74 parcels (30% of total) and including approximately 446 acres (27% of total area). • Tax exempt private land accounts for 21 parcels (9% of total) with a total area of 101 acres (6% of the total area). These areas are generally included in the office developments along South Avenue, developed under public-private partnerships. • 7 parcels (3% of parcels) are also owned by the PANYNJ, totaling approximately 85.5 acres (5% of total area) and 16 parcels (6% of total) totaling 58 acres (4% of acreage) are owned by New York State. Overall 36% of land in Zone II is publicly owned either by the New York City or State or by the PANYNJ. 50 Map 21- Ownership Analysis , Bloomfield- Teleport Zone Figure 13- Ownership Analysis (by parcels), Bloomfield-Teleport Zone Figure 14- Ownership Analysis (by area), Bloomfield-Teleport Zone 51 Staten Island West Shore Existing Conditions Report 2.C.5: Underutilized Sites Analysis These figures show that roughly half of the underutilized land is within parcels that are less Identifying underutilized parcels gives an indication than 25% utilized, with increased chance for future of those partially occupied areas most likely to be redevelopment, while the other half is within parcels targeted for potential future developments. As with that fall into the 25% to 50% categories, which vacant land, net underutilized area is defined as somewhat limits future development potential due the area left over after subtracting any wetlands to the greater amount of existing activity on those and their associated buffer areas from the actual sites. lot area. Net underutilized land is then defined as parcels of are at least 1 acre in area that have a The parcels were further analyzed in terms of built FAR which is 50% or less than the allowable whether they were in residential or commercial/ FAR. When analyzing parcels in manufacturing industrial zoning districts. The results, shown districts, the built FAR criterion has been reduced to in Table 11, indicate that of the 26 underutilized 25% to reflect the amount of unbuilt land on many parcels, 12 parcels presently at 25% utilization or manufacturing sites, while for parcels in residential less are within manufacturing districts, and include a and commercial districts, the 50% screening criteria total area of 65.54 acres. There are no underutilized for FAR was used. Underutilized parcels also do parcels in commercial or residential districts. This not include parcels categorized as open space or indicates that roughly half of the manufacturing– vacant land. zoned sites are below the 25% being used as the cut-off for underutilization, indicating a somewhat The underutilized land has been further categorized more limited potential for redevelopment of those into five sections based on the percentage of the sites than in other zones. built FAR as compared to the allowed FAR: • 0% -- almost negligible built FAR, • more than 0% and up to 10%, • more than 10% and up to 25%, • more than 25% and up to 40%, and • more than 40% up to 50%. Table 11 Breakdown of Underutilized Parcels by Zoning Districts, Findings Bloomfield- Teleport Zone In Zone II (see Figure 15 and 16) there are 26 parcels totaling 115 acres with less than 50% of the allowable FAR, approximately 7% of the zone’s total land area. The following is the distribution of these parcels by built FAR category: Table 10- Analysis of Underutilized Parcels by Utilization Levels, Area and Number of Parcels- Bloomfield- Teleport Zone 52 Map 22- Underutilized Land Analysis, Bloomfield- Teleport Zone Figure 15-Underutlilized Land Analysis (by parcels), Bloomfield- Figure 16- Underutlized Land Analysis (by area), Bloomfield-Teleport Teleport Zone Zone 53 Staten Island West Shore Existing Conditions Report 2.C.6: Environmental Constraints Even though Zone II has the highest amount of vacant land, a significant portion of that land is covered by wetlands and buffer areas (see Map 23), which effectively reduces the actual amount of land available for redevelopment. Also, a majority of the western section of Zone II lies within the 100 year flood plan, which poses a challenge for many types of development. Findings The natural features that lie within Zone II include the following: • Gulf Port Marsh and Uplands • Old Place Creek • Saw Mill Creek Marsh • Teleport Woods • Prall’s Island There are two sites – R. Baker & Sons Machinery Dismantlers and Teleport Staten Island – that have been identified as environmentally contaminated. Both of these sites have been included in the New York State Superfund Program. 54 Map 23- Environmental Constraints, Bloomfield- Teleport Zone 55 Staten Island West Shore Existing Conditions Report 2.C.7: Areas for Discussion ISC. Site 4 (See Map 24) which is an assem- blage of 75 parcels, most of which is in private The previous assessments in this section provide ownership. This assemblage, zoned M3-1, has information that is useful in identifying sites and a total area of approximately 857 acres (over assemblages that may be suitable for new devel- half of which is wetlands and buffer areas) and opment, for new or expanded open space oppor- presents by far the largest amount of contigu- tunities or for transportation investments. This infor- ous developable land within the Study Area. mation, along with the results of the study team’s The fact that most of the parcels within the as- parallel Market Analysis and input from Study Area semblage are jointly owned opens up potential stakeholders collectively will help determine the development opportunities. most advantageous future scenarios for Staten Is- • Site 5A is a combination of 23 parcels (zoned land’s West Shore. M1-1) totaling approximately 34 acres in area. The current land use for most of the parcels in After identifying vacant and underutilized sites as this area is either “vacant land” or industrial. Cur- discussed in the previous sections, the study fo- rently, some of the smaller parcels within site 5A cused on larger contiguous parcels in these catego- have low scale industrial operations, while oth- ries. As future land use scenarios are developed as ers like a site owned by Teleport has a “dish an- part of the study, these sites will be further analyzed tenna farm” (since removed). for a range of possible uses and then assessed • Site 6 comprises of 3 parcels, having an aggre- against such factors as: gate area of 16.13 acres. Two of the parcels are currently vacant where as the third one has in- • Ownership (Public or private), dustrial use on it. The vacant parcels are both • Existing land use; existing tenant, zoned M3-1 where as the one with the industrial • Existing zoning, use on it is zoned M2-1. • Waterfront location, • Site 7 which is located at the very southern tip of • Access to transportation, Zone II, abutting Meredith Avenue, is comprises • Proximity to resource or amenities (i.e. local re- of 4 parcels totaling 2.63 acres. All the four par- tail or open space), cels are zoned M3-1 and currently have trans- • Potential synergies/connections, portation/utility related or industrial land use on • Environmental conditions (comprised by wet- them. lands and/or brownfields), • Political or community considerations, and The Study Team will continue to analyze these and • Access to infrastructure. other parcels within this zone, and develop alter- native future scenarios for the Study Area in close This assessment and evaluation process will help consultation with the study’s Advisory Committee focus future discussions around those areas with and extensive public interaction through a series of the greatest potential for positive long-term chang- open houses and public visioning sessions. es along the West shore. Findings The following are some of the initial sites that war- ranted further review by the study team and discus- sion with other agencies and community groups: • Potential areas for future discussion in Zone II are dominated by the presence of vast tracts of vacant land west of the West Shore Express- way, including but not limited to land owner by 56 Map 24- Areas of Opportunity, Bloomfield- Teleport Zone Table 12- Potential Dvelopment Opportunities, Bloomfield- Teleport Zone 57 Staten Island West Shore Existing Conditions Report 2D: Zone III: Travis/ Fresh Kills Park Existing Land Use/ Constraints and Opportunities 2.D.1: Existing Land Use Analysis The largest of the four study zones, Zone III was long dominated by the presence of the Fresh Kills landfill and is posed to be equally dominated by the planned conversion of that area to a major park and natural area. Bordered on the west by Arthur Kill, the waters of Little Arthur Kill and Main and Richmond Creek reach into and divide the area, while the West Shore Expressway runs north-south roughly through its center. Richmond Avenue and Arthur Traditional Residences in Travis Kill Road form its eastern and southern boundar- ies, while Travis and South Avenue form is northern edge. Zone III is zoned mostly M1-1, but it also has the Study Area’s largest residential zones (in the Travis community). The main features of this zone are: • The Fresh Kills Park; • The residential neighborhood of Travis; • A major new truck-to-rail waste transfer station at the southern end of the recently improved Travis Rail branch; and • A waterfront with several major manufacturing and utility uses. Transportation Arthur Kill Power Generation Plant The two significant transportation facilities within flourished because of its proximity to the world’s first Zone II are the West Shore Expressway, which has linoleum plant. The site where the linoleum-making its longest segment within this zone, and the Travis process was refined sits in the north of this zone. Branch of the Staten Island Railway freight opera- Changed to Travis in the 1930s, the area is charac- tion, which was recently upgraded by NYCEDC to terized by older homes and maintains a rural qual- provide alternative freight access to this area and ity with many buildings still existing from before the make possible the City’s truck-to-rail waste transfer eighteenth century. There are also a few residences station. along the southern end of Victory Boulevard. Residential Uses Commercial Uses The historic Travis neighborhood was first the site There are a variety of commercial uses located of a Native American village and was later redevel- along Victory Boulevard, a mix of local retail and oped as a European settlement, and its ferry be- national chain stores and services. In Travis, small came an important connection to New Jersey during businesses, restaurants and churches line Victory the American Revolution. Known as Linoleumville Boulevard. To the north and south of Travis, the from the 1870s into the early 20th century, the area 58 Map 25- Aerial Map, Travis- Fresh Kills Zone 59 Staten Island West Shore Existing Conditions Report Boulevard takes on a different feel. There is a Fex- Ex/Kinko’s, a Mercury Lincoln car dealership to the north, several home improvement stores and ser- vices, pet grooming and kennel business, and delis, wine shops, and bars. There are a variety of restau- rants and food service establishments, like Da Noi Restaurant, Mother Mousse Bakery and Boulevard Bakery and Pizza, as well as residential services like several pet grooming and kennel operations and a veterinarian office. As is common in other com- mercial and manufacturing districts along the West Shore, Zone III has significant home improvement businesses and self-storage facilities. The Staten Island Mall and related big-box retail operations are located along the eastern side of Richmond Avenue Commercial Establishments on Victory Boulevard across the eastern border of Zone II, with plans in that area for a 30,000 square foot expansion of Costco and a 50,000 sq. ft. extension of the Staten Island Mall. Industrial/Manufacturing Uses Along the protected Arthur Kill shoreline at the southern terminus of Victory Boulevard is the Con Ed Arthur Kill Power Station and further south, the Department of Sanitation/Visy Paper Waster Trans- fer Facility. Visy Paper transports recyclables from Manhattan via barge using the Arthur Kill channel at Pier 99, and is the Borough’s second largest private business, employing many Staten Island residents. There are also some industrial-type uses associ- ated with the on-going maintenance operations of Waste Transfer Station the Department of Sanitation within portions of the former Fresh Kills landfill, taking advantage of the upgraded Travis rail branch and the excellent con- nections to the West Shore Expressway, as well as Four Star Trucking Corp., Solid Waste Technologies, Inc., and a wine making facility that offers classes. Parks and Natural Areas At over one third of the entire Study Area, the Fresh Kills Park site occupies most of Zone III. The pro- posed Fresh Kills Park extends to the Arthur Kill waterfront, and the potential for access via ferry to the Fresh Kills Park has been identified in the park’s Master Plan. The Fresh Kills landfill opened in 1948 and became the world’s largest solid waste disposal facility. While it received its last shipment of waste Visy Paper 60 Map 26- Land Use, Travis- Fresh Kills Zone Map 17- Land Use Analysis, Travis-Freshkills Zone 61 Staten Island West Shore Existing Conditions Report in March, 2001, it was reopened in September of 2.D.2: Vacant Land Use Analysis that year to handle materials from the World Trade Center site. To establish the amount of available and develop- able vacant land, all vacant parcels (those with no As a result of a multi-year master planning process, development) were overlaid with mapped wetland the City devised the current plan which, according areas, both tidal and freshwater, as defined by NYS to the New York City Parks Department, will create a DEC, along with their respective development buf- world-class park with an incredible variety of public fers of 100 feet and 150 feet. The “net” vacant spaces and facilities for social, cultural and physi- parcel acreage therefore represents the areas that cal activity, for learning and play. Fresh Kills Park remained after these wetlands and associated buf- will also support richly diverse habitats for wildlife, fer areas had been removed. These remaining land birds and plant communities, while providing ex- areas were then subdivided into three categories: traordinary natural settings for recreation. A network of paths, recreational waterways, and enhanced • parcels less than 1 acre in area, access to and from the West Shore Expressway • parcels between 1 and 3 acres in area, and through a system of park drives will help to create • parcels more than 3 acres in area. an animated, inter-connected parkland. Findings There are three phases that form the development framework for Fresh Kills; Applying this methodology to Zone III resulted in the following distribution of vacant land: • Phase 1 (first ten years) will focus on developing basic connections to the park, the park’s identity and basic programming around a limited area of the park. • Phase 2 (second ten years) will see the expan- sion of the park’s area and extension of its pro- grams and services as well as the development of non-profit and commercial ventures within the park. • Phase 3 (final ten years), will see completion of Table 13- Vacant Land Analysis, Travis- Fresh Kills Zone the project, with a connection to the Arthur Kill waterfront, the significant expansion of access to restored natural areas, and the continued emergence of new habitats. As shown, removing wetland and buffer areas re- Overall, about three-fifths of the land use in Zone III duced the number of vacant parcels from 109 to 91 is within the Fresh Kills Park. In its current state of and the total available vacant land from 151 acres transition from landfill operations, it is categorized to 80 acres. Of the 91 vacant parcels in Zone III, the by the City as a “transportation/utility” use. Howev- 75 parcels under 1 acre represent 82% of the par- er, given the advanced status of the proposed park cels but only 17% of the acres, while the 6 parcels plans, it is shown in this report as “open space/out- over 3 acres account for 59% of the total net vacant door recreation.” There is additional open space, acreage. Map 27 includes this same information in particularly the Davis Wildlife Refuge, a 814-acre graphic format as well as the approximate location salt marsh that sits between Zone II and III. This of these vacant parcels. As is evident in Map 27, area represents the diversity found in the ever- the presence of several areas of contiguous vacant shrinking salt marshes in New York City. land offers interesting opportunities for innovative infill-type development within an existing built en- vironment. 62 Map 27- Vacant Land Analysis, Travis- Fresh Kills Zone Figure 18- Vacant Land Analysis (by parcels), Travis- Fresh Kills Zone Figure 19- Vacant Land Analysis (by area), Travis-Fresh Kills Zone 63 Staten Island West Shore Existing Conditions Report 2.D.3: Newly Developed Properties/ Rezonings Proposed projects in Zone III include a mix of com- mercial, open space, residential and transportation related projects. Developments include hotels (Ex- press Inn, Courtyard, Comfort Inn) on Block 2645, Lot 1 and Lot 45 and Block 2644, Lot 1 and Lot 45 at the southern end of Travis, development of open space in the vicinity of the Visy Paper, a private pro- posal to rezone Block 2784, Lot 29 in Travis neigh- borhood from M1-1 to R3, and the development of the MTA/ NYPD Park-and-Ride located at the south- ern tip of the zone. The park-and-ride will probably span across study Zone III and Study Zone IV. 64 Map 28- Proposed Projects, Travis- Fresh Kills Zone Table 14- Proposed Developments, Travis-Freshkills Zone 65 Staten Island West Shore Existing Conditions Report 2.D.4: Property Ownership Analysis The parcels were divided into seven ownership categories, based on information from the NYC Department of Finance database: • Private • Private (tax -exempt) • Public-Private • Port Authority of NY and NJ • Public, City Owned • Public, State Owned • No Data (ownership not classified in the NYCDOF database) Findings Analysis of the parcels in Zone III shows the following: • Private owners hold most of the parcels (982, or 82% of the total) but the associated acreage (330) accounts for only 12 % of the land, reflecting the presence of numerous small lots in the residential neighborhoods of Travis. • The City’s 130 parcels (12% of the parcels) understandably account for 84% of the acreage, due to the large tracts of land in the Fresh Kills which are owned by the Department of Sanitation. 66 Map 29- Ownership Analysis, Travis- Fresh Kills Zone Figure 20- Ownership Analysis (by parcels), Travis- Fresh Kills Zone Figure 21- Ownership Analysis (by area), Travis-Fresh Kills Zone 67 Staten Island West Shore Existing Conditions Report 2.D.5: Underutilized Sites Analysis 25% utilized, increasing the chance for individual parcels or groups of parcels to be redeveloped at Identifying underutilized parcels gives an indication some time in the future. of those partially occupied areas most likely to be targeted for potential future developments. As with The parcels were further analyzed in terms of vacant land, net underutilized area is defined as whether they were in residential or commercial/ the area left over after subtracting any wetlands industrial zoning districts. The results, shown in Table and their associated buffer areas from the actual 16, indicate that of the 16 underutilized parcels, 13 lot area. Net underutilized land is then defined as parcels presently at 25% utilization or less are within parcels of are at least 1 acre in area that have a manufacturing districts, and include a total area of built FAR which is 50% or less than the allowable 138 acres, while there is 1 residentially owned parcel FAR. When analyzing parcels in manufacturing (1.3 acres) and 2 commercially zoned parcels (11.23 districts, the built FAR criterion has been reduced to acres). The presence of underutilized commercial 25% to reflect the amount of unbuilt land on many and residential parcels – a relatively unique situation manufacturing sites, while for parcels in residential within the Study Area – along with the normal range and commercial districts, the 50% screening criteria of manufacturing-zoned sites, indicates a somewhat for FAR was used. Underutilized parcels also do broader range of redevelopment opportunities in not include parcels categorized as open space or this zone, especially with virtually all of these sites vacant land. below 25% utilization. The underutilized land has been further categorized into five sections based on the percentage of the built FAR as compared to the allowed FAR: • 0% -- almost negligible built FAR, • more than 0% and up to 10%, • more than 10% and up to 25%, Table 16- Breakdown of Underutilized Parcels by Zoning Districts, • more than 25% and up to 40%, and Travis-Fresh Kills Zone • more than 40% up to 50%. Findings In Zone III (see Figures 22 and 23) there are 17 parcels totaling 151.45 acres with less than 50% of the allowable FAR, approximately 6% of the zone’s total land area. The following is the distribution of these parcels by built FAR category: Table 15- Breakdown of Underutilized Parcels by Utilization Levels, Area and Number of Parcels- Travis Fresh Kills Zone These figures show that virtually all of the underutilized land is within parcels that are less than 68 Map 30- Underutilized Land Analysis, Travis- Fresh Kills Zone Figure 22- Underutilized Land Analysis (by parcels), Travis- Fresh Kills Figure 23- Underutilized Land Analysis (by area), Travis-Fresh Kills Zone Zone 69 Staten Island West Shore Existing Conditions Report 2.D.6: Environmental Constraints Zone III’s long shoreline and extensive stream and wetland areas (see Map 31) effectively reduce the actual amount of land available for redevelopment, although most of these areas are within the Fresh Kills Park or other preservers. Also, major portions of the western section of Zone III lie within the 100 year flood plan, which poses a challenge for many types of development. Findings The natural stream and wetland features within Zone III are concentrated within its northern section (north of Fresh Kills Main Creek) and at the southern portion of Richmond Creek within this zone. Other rime features in this zone are the Neck Creek Marshes, which continue from the northern edge of this section down to the waterfront area adjoining Little Fresh Kill, and the Isle of Meadows west of the Study Area.(See Map 31). There are also three contaminated sites located within the northern section of the zone. Two sites, Positive Chemical and Con Ed’s Arthur Kills Station, are both within the State Superfund Program, and the third, Visy Paper, site is part of the NY State’s Voluntary Cleanup Program. 70 Map 31- Environmental Constraints, Travis- Fresh Kills Zone 71 Staten Island West Shore Existing Conditions Report 2.D.7: Areas for Discussion • Site 5B (See Map 32), located within the bound- aries of Zone III, is actually a part of an assem- The previous assessments in this section provide blage of parcels which are included in site 5A information that is useful in identifying sites and in Zone II. Site 5B by itself is approximately 5.5 assemblages that may be suitable for new devel- acres of underutilized land, currently in private opment, for new or expanded open space oppor- ownership of UPS Inc. Along with the parcels in- tunities or for transportation investments. This infor- cluded in site 5A, the total area of this assembly mation, along with the results of the study team’s of land is approximately 40 acres. parallel Market Analysis and input from Study Area • Site 8, located on the south side of Meredith Av- stakeholders collectively will help determine the enue, opposite Site 7, consists of 5 parcels with most advantageous future scenarios for Staten Is- a total area of 1.34 acres. Current land uses in- land’s West Shore. clude single family residences, vacant land and parking facility. After identifying vacant and underutilized sites as • Site 9 consists of an assembly of four parcels discussed in the previous sections, the study fo- on Meredith avenue with a total area of approxi- cused on larger contiguous parcels in these catego- mately 34 acres. These parcels are all zoned ries. As future land use scenarios are developed as M3-1, but two have industrial facilities on them, part of the study, these sites will be further analyzed and the other two are vacant. Three of the par- for a range of possible uses and then assessed cels are in private ownership and the fourth is against such factors as: owned by the Trust for Public Land. • The largest Area for Discussion site in Zone III • Ownership (Public or private), is Site 10 which consists of 57 parcels of ap- • Existing land use; existing tenant, proximately 107 acres. This site includes a few • Existing zoning, large sized parcels (in excess of 10 acres), a • Waterfront location, few medium sized parcels (between 1 and 3 • Access to transportation, acres ), the rest comprises of smaller parcels. • Proximity to resource or amenities (i.e. local re- The bigger parcels are either categorized as va- tail or open space), cant or have transportation/ utility related land use. Within the boundaries of Victory Boulevard, • Potential synergies/connections, Wakefield Avenue, Baron Avenue and Shenan- • Environmental conditions (comprised by wet- doah Avenue, there are small lot industrial and lands and/or brownfields), commercial uses. Sandwiched within these in- • Political or community considerations, and dustrial and commercial uses are a few single • Access to infrastructure. family residential uses. Most of the land (ap- proximately 65%) in this area is publicly owned This assessment and evaluation process will help by the City of New York. focus future discussions around those areas with • Site 11 consists of 2 parcels of approximately the greatest potential for positive long-term chang- 5.5 acres at the intersection of Victory Boule- es along the West shore. vard and West Shore Expressway East Service Road/ Glen Street. City records show that one Findings of the parcels is used for commercial, while the other is vacant. However, aerial views of this site Due to the presence of the proposed Fresh Kills show the vacant lot to be currently used as a Park in the southern section of Zone III, most of the parking facility, probably to support the commer- development opportunities in this zone are located cial use across the street Beresford Avenue. in the northern section. The following are some of the initial sites that warranted further review by the The Study Team will continue to analyze these and study team and discussion with other agencies and other parcels within this zone in this manner, as it community groups: develops alternative future scenarios for the Study Area. 72 Map 32- Areas of Opportunity, Travis- Fresh Kills Zone Table 17- Potential Development Opportunities, Travis-Freshkills Zone 73 Staten Island West Shore Existing Conditions Report 2E: Zone IV: Charleston-Tottenville: Existing Land Use/ Constraints and Opportunities 2.E.1: Existing Land Use Analysis This approximately 1,500 acre zone includes a number of the Study Area’s old growth neighbor- hoods, a long history of industrial activity, and at its southern end the Study Area’s only rail passenger service. Zone IV is composed mostly of M1-1, M2-1 and M3-1 zoned lots with small pockets of resi- dential (R3-2) and commercial (C8-2) lots, and like many areas along the West Shore it includes signifi- cant amounts of vacant land and public open space. The waterfront is also dotted with vacant lots and vacant structures such as old warehouses and for- Arthur Kills Correctional Facility mer industrial buildings with inactive smoke stacks. Much of the shoreline is secured with a bulkhead although many such sections have deteriorated and piers have collapsed. Zone IV has the most diverse land use of the Study Area’s four zones and also the most housing and services for area residents. While vacant land is still the largest land use category, there are similarly sized industrial, open space and residential por- tions of the area and significant commercial, utility and public facility uses that are similar in cumulative area to each other. New residential developments are generally either larger homes on or near the waterfront or attached or semi-attached two-family homes on smaller lots. Tottenville was first inhabited by Native Americans Defunct LNG Tanks and eventually became a European settlement based upon the ferry that transported people from New York to Philadelphia. With the deep waters of the Arthur Kill well-suited to fishing and water transport, the area flourished as a stop for boats on their way to Manhattan. The Staten Island Railroad connected Tottenville to Saint George in the 1860s. Later, in the last decade of the nineteenth century, the Atlantic Terra Cotta Company built a factory on the Arthur Kill, and became one of the largest employers on the island until the 1930s. Boatyards also played an important role in Tottenville’s devel- opment until the beginning of the twentieth century, when steel replaced wood as the primary material for boat manufacture. The Staten Island Railway Port Mobil, Oil Tank Farm 74 Map 33- Aerial Map, Charleston-Tottenville Zone 75 Staten Island West Shore Existing Conditions Report line comes right up to the shore in Tottenville, open- ing up the possibility of transit-supported waterfront development in this area. The main features of this zone are: • The Outerbridge Crossing and its connections to the West Shore Expressway and Richmond Parkway. • Port Mobil, an oil tank farm and a working oil storage facility. • The Clay Pit Ponds State Park. • Bricktown Center, a retail establishment located near the southern part of the zone. • Charleston and Tottenville residential neighbor- Marina in Tottenville hoods and the maritime uses along Ellis Street in Tottenville. • The Staten Island Railroad Transportation Uses Zone IV is probably the best served by a variety of transportation facilities, including the Outerbridge Crossing to New Jersey, the West Shore Express- way and Richmond Parkway connecting to points to the north and east, and the Staten Island Railroad, providing regular passenger rail service, including express service to the Staten Island Ferry. Charles- ton is also the proposed site of a new 300-bus MTA Bus Depot, which will contribute to improved ex- press bus service from Staten Island. Staten Island Gun Club Residential Uses mately 108 additional senior housing units have Although the bulk of Tottenville is outside of the been proposed on Androvette Street in Charleston. Study Area, it is a well anchored suburban commu- As shown in Map 34, there are other small pockets nity with old and new homes and is worth mention- of residential growth along Sharrotts Road on both ing due to its influence on future planning decisions. sides of Arthur Kill Road, and others between Tot- The residential population in this and other nearby tenville and the Outerbridge Crossing. Preliminary areas in southwestern Staten Island grew rapidly plans for the Bricktown II development planned for over the past two decades. Another historically im- the southern side of Edgewood Avenue also in- portant residential area, know both as Charleston cludes, among other potential uses, an unspecified and Kreischerville, has mainly single-family homes number of residential units. on a number of small streets that often have resi- dences juxtaposed next to more recently developed Commercial Uses commercial or light industrial or warehouse uses. A major new senior housing development – the Tides The zone includes a large big-box retail center (Brick- – transformed a major section of the zone’s water- town Center) just north of the Outerbridge Cross- front property, and just north of the Tides approxi- ing toll plazas with a Home Depot and the island’s 76 Map 34- Land Use, Charleston-Tottenville Zone Figure 24- Land Use Analysis, Charleston-Tottenville Zone 77 Staten Island West Shore Existing Conditions Report first Target store. The center takes full advantage Arthur Kill Road but never operated due to public of the access provided by the highways and bridge safety concerns. Other manufacturing and produc- connections in that area, and of the rapid residen- tion facilities include MDS Arch Metal and Glass. tial growth in southwestern Staten Island in recent Contractors and a variety of electrical, plumbing, years. Another recently development retail center, general, and landscape contractors. located across Veterans Road West from Bricktown Center I, added about 72,000 square feet. Finally, a Parks and Natural Areas development scheduled west of Arthur Kill Road at Richmond Valley Road, the Waterfront Commons, Other than Zone III, which includes the 2,200 acre would add 443,000 sq. ft. of outlet shopping and Fresh Kills Park, Zone IV includes the most open multiplex cinema to the area. space, in terms of total acreage (279 acres) and percent of total land area in the zone (18%), of any Overall, Zone IV has the majority of the Study Area’s of the other Study Area zones. The bulk of this is commercial establishments. For example, there are in the Clay Pit Pond Park, a 260-acre State-oper- many convenience retail and service outlets, like piz- ated facility that is primarily a nature preserve that zerias, bagel shops, delis and nail salons along with includes wetlands, ponds, sand barrens, spring-fed restaurants like Big Nose Kate’s Saloon, Killmey- streams and woodlands. It has a variety of educa- ers and the Old Bermuda Inn. Other retail/service tional programs available for school children and outlets include Pathmark, a large health club, and a other, along with picnic areas, hiking trails and five healthy mix of retail, banks, medical facilities, food miles of horseback riding paths. There is also a pri- service, auto repair and home improvement op- vate driving range along Arthur Kill Road just north erations. Some of the zone’s commercial uses are of the State correctional facility. those that require large lots but are suitable for areas near higher density residential areas, like Movies at 2.E.2: Vacant Land Analysis Staten Island 14, and E. Taglianetti Yacht Sales. The area also includes some of the most diverse As shown in Figure 24, over one-third of the zones uses, including several adult entertainment spots, land use is vacant land, with open space (primarily a chamber music society, a tractor repair operation, Clay Pit Pond Park) and industrial and manufactur- a dance school, and Michael Angelo’s Unique Mir- ing uses both accounting for 18% of the total. The rors. residential sector’s 8% share of total land area is well above the equivalent share in the other three Industrial/Manufacturing zones, reflecting the presence of several older resi- dential areas and the recent substantial residential More so than for much of the Study Area, Zone IV growth along Arthur Kill Road. includes active working waterfront uses, including the Tottenville Marina and Simple Seafoods on El- To establish the amount of available and develop- lis Street, a waterfront lumber loading facility, and able vacant land, all vacant parcels (those with no the Port Mobil facility. The zone includes the least development) were overlaid with mapped wetland amount of land area categorized as manufacturing areas, both tidal and freshwater, as defined by NYS and industrial land use, although there is a consid- DEC, along with their respective development buf- erable amount of active industrial uses. The largest fers of 100 feet and 150 feet. The “net” vacant of these industrial uses is Port Mobil, a large oil tank parcel acreage therefore represents the areas that facility, directly west of the State-owned and oper- remained after these wetlands and associated buf- ated Clay Pit Ponds Park. This 260-acre nature pre- fer areas had been removed. These remaining land serve provides this study zone’s largest recreation areas were then subdivided into three categories: spot. The waterfront in this northern portion of Zone IV includes the State’s medium-security Arthur Kill • parcels less than 1 acre in area, Correctional Facility, the Industrial Loop properties, • parcels between 1 and 3 acres in area, and warehouse and light-industrial operations, and the • parcels more than 3 acres in area. massive Liquefied Natural Gas tanks built along 78 Map 35- Vacant Land Analysis, Charleston-Tottenville Zone Figure 25- Vacant Land Analysis (by number of parcels), Charleston- Figure 26- Vacant Land Analysis (by area, in acres), Charleston- Tottenville Zone Tottenville Zone 79 Staten Island West Shore Existing Conditions Report Findings 2.E.3: Newly Developed Properties/ Rezonings Applying this methodology to Zone IV resulted in The major proposals in Zone IV include the Water- the following distribution of vacant land: front Commons, a proposed 443,000 sq. ft. com- mercial development along the waterfront just south of the Outerbridge Crossing, the 135-unit Kreisch- erville Senior Housing Facility, a 300- bus depot for MTA along Arthur Kill Road near Kreischer Street, and a Loew’s building supply on Arthur Kill Road near the existing Pathmark store. There are prelimi- nary plans for a Bricktown II development along the southern side of Edgewood Avenue, including an unspecified mixture of residential, commercial and Table 18- Vacant Land Analysis, Charleston-Tottenvillet Zone recreational uses, as well as a new public school. Finally, at the southern portion of the zone a new Staten Island Railroad train station, with a park- and-ride lot for 150 cars, has been proposed. This As shown, removing wetland and buffer areas re- roughly 7.4-acre facility, located on Block 8020, duced the number of vacant parcels from 355 to 334 Lots 6, 80 and 86, would located roughly between, and the total available vacant land from 463 acres to and would replace the existing Nassau and Atlantic 389 acres. Of the 91 vacant parcels in Zone III, the stations. 265 parcels under 1 acre represent 79% of the par- cels but only 18% of the acres, while the 31 parcels over 3 acres account for 66 of the total net vacant acreage. Map 35 includes this same information in graphic format as well as the approximate location of these vacant parcels. As is evident in Map 35, there are several areas of large vacant parcels or groups of smaller contiguous parcels, often next to relatively stable exiting uses, offering considerable potential for innovative development within an exist- ing built environment. 80 Map 36- Proposed Projects, Charleston-Tottenville Zone Table 19- Proposed Developments, Charleston-Tottenville Zone 81 Staten Island West Shore Existing Conditions Report 2.E.4: Property Ownership Analysis The parcels were divided into seven ownership categories, based on information from the NYC Department of Finance database: • Private • Private (tax -exempt) • Public-Private • Port Authority of NY and NJ • Public, City Owned • Public, State Owned • No Data (ownership not classified in the NYCDOF database) Findings Analysis of the parcels in Zone IV shows the following: • Private owners hold most of the parcels (763, or 68% of the total) and the associated 928 acres in those parcels accounts for 65% of the zone’s land area. • New York State’s 184 parcels (16% of the total) account for 20% of the land. • New York City’s 117 parcels (11% of the parcels) account for 12% of the acreage. The 462 acres of publicly owned land is approximately 32% of Zone IV. 82 Map 37- Ownership Analysis, Charleston-Tottenville Zone Figure 27- Property Ownership Analysis (by parcels), Charleston- Figure 28- Property Ownership Analysis (by area), Charleston-Totten- Tottenville Zone ville Zone 83 Staten Island West Shore Existing Conditions Report 2.E.5: Underutilized Sites Analysis Zone IV. The figures in the table above show that virtually all of the underutilized land is within parcels Identifying underutilized parcels gives an indication that are less than 25% utilized, increasing the of those partially occupied areas most likely to be chance for individual parcels or groups of parcels to targeted for potential future developments. As with be redeveloped at some time in the future. vacant land, net underutilized area is defined as the area left over after subtracting any wetlands The parcels were further analyzed in terms of and their associated buffer areas from the actual whether they were in residential or commercial/ lot area. Net underutilized land is then defined as industrial zoning districts. The results, shown parcels of are at least 1 acre in area that have a in Table 21, indicate that of the 51 underutilized built FAR which is 50% or less than the allowable parcels, 43 parcels presently at 25% utilization FAR. When analyzing parcels in manufacturing or less are within manufacturing districts, and districts, the built FAR criterion has been reduced to include a total area of 365.88 acres, while there 25% to reflect the amount of unbuilt land on many are 3 residentially owned parcel (26.83 acres) manufacturing sites, while for parcels in residential and 1 commercially zoned parcel (4.06 acres). and commercial districts, the 50% screening criteria The presence of underutilized commercial and for FAR was used. Underutilized parcels also do residential parcels, along with the normal range of not include parcels categorized as open space or manufacturing-zoned sites, indicates a somewhat vacant land. broader range of redevelopment opportunities in this zone, especially with virtually all of these sites The underutilized land has been further categorized below 25% utilization. into five sections based on the percentage of the built FAR as compared to the allowed FAR: • 0% -- almost negligible built FAR, • more than 0% and up to 10%, • more than 10% and up to 25%, • more than 25% and up to 40%, and • more than 40% up to 50%. Table 21- Breakdown of Underutilized Parcels by Zoning Districts, Charleston-Tottenville Zone Findings In Zone IV (see Figures 22 and 23) there are 51 parcels totaling 419.84 acres with less than 50% of the allowable FAR, approximately 6% of the zone’s total land area. The following is the distribution of these parcels by built FAR category: Table 20- Breakdown of Underutilized Parcels by Utilization Levels, Area and Number of Parcels- Charleston-Tottenville Zone The 420 acres on these underutilized parcels accounts for 29% of the total area (1,429 acres) in 84 Map 38- Underutilized Land Analysis, Charleston-Tottenville Zone Figure 29- Underutilized Land Analysis (by parcels), Charleston- Figure 30- Underutilized Land Analysis (by area), Charleston-Totten Tottenville Zone ville Zone 85 Staten Island West Shore Existing Conditions Report 2.E.6: Environmental Constraints Zone IV is the section of the Study Area with the least amount of wetland and 100-year Flood Plain coverage (see Map 39). The natural features within this zone include the following: • Blazing Star • Sutton Woods • Port Mobil Swamp Forest and Tidal Flats • Sharrotts Road Shorelands • Engelwood Boundary Tract • Kreischer’s Cove • Charleston Woods/ Kreisler Hill • Outerbridge Shorelands There are also two contaminated sites - Nassau Recycling (part of the NYS Superfund Program) and Nassau Metals (part of the NYS Voluntary Cleanup Program) 86 Map 39- Environmental Constraints, Charleston-Tottenville Zone 87 Staten Island West Shore Existing Conditions Report 2.E.7: Areas for Discussion Zoning District.(SRD). • Like Site 12, Site 13 is also a group of parcels The previous assessments in this section provide located between Arthur Kill Road and the information that is useful in identifying sites waterfront. Site 13 consists of 72 parcels with a and assemblages that may be suitable for new total of approximately 92 acres. All the parcels development, new or expanded open space are under private ownership and primarily consist opportunities or for transportation investments. of a few big parcels of vacant land to the south This information, along with the results of the study and the smaller lots abutting Industrial Loop. The team’s parallel Market Analysis and input from Study smaller lots are primarily industrial in nature, Area stakeholders, collectively will help determine along with a few vacant parcels and a parking- the most advantageous future scenarios for Staten related facility. All parcels within the site are Island’s West Shore. zoned M3-1 and fall within the boundaries of the South Richmond Special Zoning District (SRD). After identifying vacant and underutilized sites as dis- • Site 14 consists of 60 parcels (all but one under cussed in the previous sections, the study focused private ownership) and totaling approximately on larger contiguous parcels in these categories. As 95 acres in area. Most of the land (70 acres) is future land use scenarios are developed as part of vacant and the rest of it has industrial uses. Most the study, these sites will be further analyzed for a of the parcels are in a M1-1 zoning district, while range of possible uses and then assessed against the others are zoned M3-1. Also, 48 out of the 60 such factors as: parcels are located within the boundaries of the SRD. • Ownership (Public or private), • Site 15, which is located on Arthur Kill Road across • Existing land use; existing tenant, from Site 14, consists of 114 parcels totaling • Existing zoning, approximately 63 acres. The site includes a few • Waterfront location, large vacant lots (5 parcels totaling 30 acres) and • Access to transportation, a multitude of smaller lots whose current land • Proximity to resource or amenities (i.e. local retail use is either residential, industrial or vacant land. or open space), All the parcels are under private ownership and • Potential synergies/connections, a majority of the parcels are zoned M1-1 except • Environmental conditions (comprised by wetlands 10 parcels in R3X and 3 parcels in R3-2. Of the and/or brownfields), 114 parcels, 108 are within the boundaries of the • Political or community considerations, and SRD. • Access to infrastructure. • Sites 16 to Sites 22 are all smaller assemblages of land, most of the them vacant by current records, This assessment and evaluation process will help interspersed with industrial or commercial uses. focus future discussions around those areas with There are a total of 72 parcels within these seven the greatest potential for positive long-term changes sites with a total area of 134 acres. Sites 17, 18, along the West shore. 19 and 20 each has at least one vacant parcel which is more than 7.5 acres in area. The five Findings largest of these seven parcels are currently vacant and account for 41% (55.2 acres) of the site’s • Site 12 (See Map 40) is an assemblage of 27 combined area. Most of the 72 parcels within the parcels (approximately 138 total acres) located seven sites are under private ownership and with between Arthur Kill Road and the waterfront the exception of five parcels all of them are in on the northern section of this zone. Almost all the SRD. the parcels are under private ownership and their predominant land use is industrial and The Study Team will continue to analyze these transportation/utility related business. All the and other parcels within this zone, as it develops parcels in this site are either zoned M3-1 or alternative future scenarios for the Study Area. M2-1 and are within the South Richmond Special 88 Map 40- Areas of Opportunity, Charleston-Tottenville Zone Table 22- Potential Development Opportunities, Charleston-Tottenville Zone 89 Staten Island West Shore Existing Conditions Report 3:TRANSPORTATION EXISTING of them work within the other boroughs. Although CONDITIONS very close to the West Shore, a relatively small per- centage (4% -10%) works in New Jersey. Close 3.A: Study Area to two-thirds of those who work in the West Shore are Staten Island residents(Figures 32 and 33). Pie Staten Island is the borough of New York City with charts show where residents of each zone work, development patterns and a transportation network and where those working in each zone live. Any- closer to New Jersey than to the rest of New York where from 60% to 70% of workers in each of the City. The private auto and its overall travel and com- zones live on Staten Island, and 12% to 17% live muting patterns in Staten Island reflect these land in New Jersey, which understandably represent the use patterns, and the borough stand out as very two largest segments. (See Figures 32 and 33) different than the City Average. Almost three-fourths of all Staten Island commut- 3.A.1: Automobile Ownership ers travel by car – more than double the Citywide average of 34%. Transit usage is much lower than Auto ownership for West Shore residents in 2000 the citywide figures -- roughly 20% of Staten Island is shown in Figure 31, based on US Census data. commuters use transit compared to 54% Citywide. Broken down by zone, vehicle ownership rates are In determining what mode a commuter uses, if mul- generally consistent across all four zones, with tiple modes are used for a trip (e.g., a person takes about 80% - 90% of households having one or a bus to the Staten Island Ferry and then uses the more vehicles. Approximately 23% of households subway in Manhattan), the Census methodology in Zone I have no vehicle compared to less than counts the last leg of a trip (subway in this instance) 10% in all other zones. Throughout the four zones, as the mode of travel. Overall, approximately 75% of West Shore residents drive to work – slightly higher than the borough-wide average. (See Fig- ure 35, Mode-of-Travel to Work) Overall public transportation usage among West Shore residents (21%) closely matches the borough-wide 20% lev- el. Public transportation takes a greater share in Zone I (40%) than in the other zones, which are still dominated by automobile travel. Analysis of census data shows that commute times for Staten Island have risen over the past few de- cades to some of the longest in the country. Aver- age commute times were 26 minutes in 1980, 39 minutes in 1990, and 44 minutes in 2000, for the is- Figure 31: Vehicle Ownership by Zones land as a whole. For commuters living in the Study Area, average travel time to work was actually from 70 to 80% of all households have either one or higher. The average commute time for residents of two vehicles available Zone I was 57 minutes, while the figures for Zones II/III and Zone IV were 48 and 47 minutes, respec- 3.A.2: Journey-to-Work Commuter Patterns tively (US Census 2000). Zone I commutes were noted to be typically longer as a higher percentage U.S. Census “Journey-to-work” data on commuting of the residents worked in Manhattan as compared patterns in the Study Area indicate that a significant to the other three zones. percentage of the West Shore’s residents work on Staten Island (from 35% to 55% across the four These average commute times do not reveal what zones) or in Manhattan (20% - 40%), and the rest proportion of residents have so-called “extreme” 90 Figure 33: Place of Residence for Workers, by Zones Figure 34: Comparative Journey to Work Data for New York City Figure 32: Place of Work for Residents, by Zones Boroughs 91 Staten Island West Shore Existing Conditions Report commutes of 90 minutes or more. Therefore, travel time to work is shown in categories ranging from less than 5 minutes to more than 90 minutes. Nota- bly, commute times for Study Area residents tend to be either short or long, with few of “medium length.” Approximately 75% of all commutes are either less than 25 minutes or greater than 45 minutes. Figure 36, Comparison of Commuter Times, shows that this commute times pattern is generally consis- tent across zones. One exception to this is Zone I, which has a much larger percentage of commutes of 90 minutes or more: 28% as compared to ap- proximately 16% for all other zones. 3.B: Study Area Road Network The roadway network within the Study Area con- sists of routes owned and maintained by either New York City or New York State. Regardless of jurisdiction, all roadways are classified according to a federal system called “functional classification,” reflecting the character of roadway service they provide. Roads such as highways and arterials are devoted almost exclusively to mobility (e.g. uninter- rupted flow), while local neighborhood streets are devoted almost exclusively to access to local areas and properties. The four roadway classifications are Principal Arterials, Minor Arterials, Collector Roads, and Local Roads. See Map 41-Functional Classification of Roadways. 3.B.1: Key Vehicular Corridors Major east-west corridors in the Study Area include the Staten Island Expressway and the Korean War Veterans (Richmond) Parkway, both classified as Figure 35: Mode-of-Travel to Work for Residents, by Zones Principal Arterials, and Arthur Kill Road and Tra- vis Avenue, which are classified as Minor Arterials. The east-west corridors provide access among lo- cations within the Study Area, and all except Travis Avenue also provide access to locations outside of it. Major north-south corridors include the West Shore Expressway and Richmond Avenue, both of which are classified as Principal Arterials, providing some intra-area connections but also providing lo- cal residents and businesses with access to loca- Figure 36: Comparison of Commute Times from different Zones tions outside of it. In addition, South Avenue and Victory Boulevard traverse the northern half of the 92 Map 41- Functional Classification of Roadways 93 Staten Island West Shore Existing Conditions Report Study Area diagonally but primarily serve the north- south direction. Outside the Study Area, South Av- enue continues to the north whereas Victory Bou- levard continues to the east. Finally, Forest Avenue provides a connection between Zone I and areas to the east along the North Shore of Staten Island. The road network within the Study Area connects to three major bridges, two of which fall within the Study Area. The Goethals Bridge and the Outerbridge Crossing (both operated by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey – PANYNJ) connect Staten Is- land to New Jersey, where as the Verrazano-Nar- rows Bridge (operated by MTA Bridges and Tunnels – MTA B&T) connects Staten Island to Brooklyn. All West Shore Expressway (with service roads), Looking South, Adja- three bridges have one-way inbound (eastbound) cent to Staten Island Corporate Park tolls, with the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge being the only MTA B&T crossing with one-way tolls. Studies by the New York Metropolitan Transportation Council (NYMTC) show that the Outerbridge Cross- ing is deemed to be extremely congested (i.e., with a volume-to-capacity ratio > 1) during both the morn- ing and the evening four-hour peak period, while the Verrazano-Narrows bridge is deemed extremely congested during the morning peak hours only. Korean War Veteran Highway between Interchange with West Shore Expressway and Outerbridge Crossing The following are descriptions of the major vehicular corridors along Staten Island’s west shore (see Map 41- Functional Classification of Roadways and Map •West Shore Expressway (NY 440) 42- Average Daily Traffic Volumes): Traveling through or on the borders of all four Study Area zones, NY 440 is a discontinuous route through •Staten Island Expressway (I-278) Staten Island. Within the Study Area, it is comprised Dividing Zones I and II, the section of I-278 within of two separate roadway segments. The first seg- the borough is known as the Staten Island Express- ment traverses north to south through the Study Area way (SIE). It traverses east to west along the North from the SIE on the north end to Korean War Vet- Shore of Staten Island, carrying this critical interstate erans (Richmond) Parkway on the south end. This link from the Goethals Bridge to the Verrazano-Nar- segment is known as the West Shore Expressway rows Bridge and from there into Brooklyn, Queens or Pearl Harbor Memorial Expressway. This section and the Bronx. Within Staten Island, I-278 ranges includes two continuous travel lanes in each direc- from two lanes in each direction on the Goethals tion separated by a landscaped median and shoul- Bridge to a considerably wider cross-sections to the ders. Service roads exist in some locations but are east, varying from four to eight travel lanes, shoul- not continuous. This Principal Arterial is maintained ders, and paved or landscaped median. There are by the State and is categorized as a freeway. toll plazas at both ends for those using the Goethals Bridge to New Jersey or the Verrazano-Narrows •Korean War Veterans Parkway Bridge to Brooklyn. I-278 is categorized as a divided The second segment of NY 440, extending east- urban freeway throughout Staten Island, with ser- to-west through the center of Zone IV between the vice roads in some locations but not continuously on Outerbridge Crossing and the interchange with either side. West Shore Expressway, is known as the Korean 94 Map 42- Average Daily Traffic Volumes 95 Staten Island West Shore Existing Conditions Report War Veterans Parkway (also frequently referred to by its former name -- Richmond Parkway). This highway segment generally has two travel lanes in each direction, separated by a concrete median on the Outerbridge Crossing or by a grass medi- an. Within the Study Area, the roadway widens to accommodate a toll plaza for eastbound traffic on the east side of the bridge, with entrances and ex- its at various locations, and shoulders (except on the bridge). This State-maintained roadway with a functional classification of Principal Arterial is a fully access-controlled freeway. •Arthur Kill Road Connecting Zones III and IV, the southern end of Arthur Kill Road meanders through the coastal neighborhoods of Tottenville and Charleston along Arthur Kill Road at Annadale Road the southwestern shore of the Study Area. Forming the southern boundary of Zone III, it extends east- ward and northeastward to its northern terminus in Historic Richmondtown. Under the jurisdiction of the City, Arthur Kill Road has a functional classifica- tion of Minor Arterial within the Study Area. A cross section of Arthur Kill Road reveals one travel lane in each direction with occasional but discontinuous shoulders. The roadway widens to accommodate turn lanes at some intersections. Throughout the majority of its length there is no median, although there are occasional locations with a landscaped or striped median, or with turning lanes. Parking is generally not permitted, although in the more densely developed areas in its western portion, a lane of on-street parking is permitted along the Victory Boulevard at West Shore Expressway, Looking East shoulders. •Victory Boulevard In 1816 the first ‘highway’ was built in Staten Island and called the Richmond Turnpike, an island-long thoroughfare that linked ferry service from Manhat- tan at Tompinksville to ferry service to New Jersey at Travis. Later the Richmond Turnpike became Victory Boulevard. Crossing Zones II and III, Victory Boulevard traverses approximately north to south from its origin on the Western Shore to its northeast extension beyond the Study Area. Under the juris- diction of the City, it has a functional classification of Principal Arterial. With a cross section similar to Arthur Kill Road, Victory Boulevard has one travel lane in each direction with shoulders. In general Victory Boulevard (Independence Way) in Travis 96 there is no median except at locations of widening to accommodate turn lanes at intersections. Park- ing is permitted on the shoulder at some locations. Widening of the road also occurs at some locations to accommodate parking and, where space per- mits, wider than standard lanes. Victory Boulevard passes through and acts as the “Main Street” of the historic Travis community in Zone III. •Richmond Avenue Richmond Avenue is a major north-south thorough- fare along the eastern border of Fresh Kills Park. Under the jurisdiction of the City, it has a functional classification of Principal Arterial. Richmond Av- enue is a divided roadway with a center median. At major intersections the median accommodates Richmond Avenue between Staten Island Mall and Fresh Kills Park turn lanes. A cross section reveals four travel lanes in each direction and shoulders that can accom- modate parking. The roadway narrows to three travel lanes in each direction just north of Korean War Veterans Parkway. With the park on the west side and access to commercial properties along the east side, the character of the corridor is primarily commercial, including major retail concentrations like the Staten Island Mall. •Travis Avenue Dividing Zones II and III, Travis Avenue extends east to west from South Avenue to Richmond Ave- nue. Under the jurisdiction of the City, it has a func- tional classification of Minor Arterial with one lane in each direction with no median. Along the majority of its length there are no shoulders, but toward its western end there is space for wider than standard lanes and there is room for shoulders and some Forest Avenue/ South Avenue in Arlington (Zone I) Looking West parking at its eastern end. at intersections. Parking is generally not permitted. •South Avenue In densely developed areas on the western portion Crossing portions of Zones I, II and III, South Av- of its length, however, a lane of on-street parking is enue traverses approximately north to south from permitted along the shoulders. its southern origin at Meredith Avenue to its north- ern terminus at Richmond Terrace in the northeast •Forest Avenue corner of the Study Area. Under the jurisdiction of With its western terminus in Zone I of the Study the City, it has a functional classification of Minor Area, Forest Avenue is a major east-west roadway Arterial. West of its interchange with NY 440, it is an along the North Shore. Starting on the west at the undivided roadway with one travel lane in each di- interchange of I-278 and NY 440 next to the Go- rection without shoulders. East of NY 440 it has two ethals Bridge toll plaza, it travels through the North travel lanes in each direction, with shoulders, plus a Shore neighborhoods to its terminus at Victory Bou- center median with landscaping and turning lanes levard near Silver Lake Park. Under the jurisdiction 97 Staten Island West Shore Existing Conditions Report of the City, it has a functional classification of Prin- large-dimension trucks with 53 foot trailers are not cipal Arterial. Forest Avenue is primarily an undi- allowed within New York City limits. The City further vided roadway within the Study Area; a center me- established its own set of truck routes for all sizes dian is provided only to accommodate turn lanes at and types of truck. intersections. Its cross section includes two travel lanes in each direction and shoulders that can ac- According to the Traffic Rules set forth by the City, commodate parking. With a number of moderate to TRUCK ROUTES the New York City Department of Transportation large commercial properties abutting the roadway designates a network of truck routes throughout Zone I, the character York State law, the is York all the boroughs. (See designates certain roads as within According to Federal and New of the corridor Newpri- State Department of TransportationMap 43-Freight Transporta- tion.) a designated two classes of roadway to marily routes for large-dimension vehicles (tractor-trailers). However, except for There areroute across the Bronx and Queenssegments commercial within the Study Area. -- with 53 foot trailers are not allowed Local Truck allow access to Nassau and Suffolk counties, large-dimension trucksThrough Truck Routes and within New YorkRoutes. City limits. The City further established its own set of truck routes for all sizes and types of truck. 3.B.2: Truck Routes Commercial vehicles with two axles and six tires, or three or more axles, are required to follow the According to the Traffic Rules set forth by the City, the New York City Department of Transportation designates a network Federal and New York State law, Freight truck route There are two classes of roadway segments According toroutes throughout all the boroughs. (See Map X,the Transportation.)network. The Through Truck Routes are of truck -- Through Department Local Truck Routes. Commercial intended for all and six tires, or three or more axles, New York StateTruck Routes and of Transportation des- vehicles with two axlestruck trips that have neither an ori- ignates certain roads as routes for network. The Through Truck Routes are intended for all truck trips thatborough. The Local are required to follow the truck route large-dimension gin nor a destination within the have neither an origin nor a destination within the borough. except Truck Truck intended are truck trips for all truck trips with vehicles like tractor-trailers. However, The Local for Routes are Routes for all intendedwith an origin and/or destination within the borough. For local and Queens a designated route across the Bronxloadings or deliveries off of this system, trucks are required to take the most direct an origin and/or destination within the borough. route to their within the study area: to allow access destination. The following table lists the truck routes For local loadings or deliveries off of this system, to Nassau and Suffolk counties, DESIGNATED ROUTES FOR TRUCK TRAFFIC ALONG THE WEST SHORE OF STATEN ISLAND ROUTE TYPE EXTENTS Staten Island Expressway (I-278) Through entire length within study area West Shore Expressway (NY 440) Through entire length within study area Korean War Veterans Pkwy. (NY 440) Through entire length within study area Amboy Rd. Local entire length within study area Arden Ave. Local entire length within study area Arthur Kill Road Local entire length within study area Bloomfield Ave. Local entire length within study area Bloomingdale Rd. Local entire length within study area Boscombe Ave. Local Page Ave. to Weiner St. Chelsea Rd. Local Meredith Ave. to Bloomfield Ave. E. Glen Street Local entire length within study area Edward Curry Ave. Local Chelsea Rd. to South Ave. Englewood Ave. Local Veterans Road E. to Veterans Road W. Forest Avenue Local entire length within study area Goethals Road N. Local entire length within study area Gulf Ave. Local entire length within study area Huguenot Ave. Local entire length within study area N. Bridge St. Local Veterans Road W. to Arthur Kill Rd. Richmond Avenue Local entire length within study area Rossville Ave. Local entire length within study area Sharotts Rd. Local Veterans Road E. to Veterans Road W. South Avenue Local entire length within study area South Bridge St. Local Arthur Kill Road to Page Ave. Travis Avenue Local entire length within study area Veterans Road W. Local Arden Ave. to Bloomingdale Rd., Sharotts Rd. to Arthur Kill Rd. Victory Boulevard Local West Shore Expressway to study area boundary Western Ave. Local Forest Avenue to Richmond Terrace Source: New York City DOT (2007) Table 23 -Designated Truck Routes Within West Shore Study Area 5 98 Map 43 - Freight Transportation 99 Staten Island West Shore Existing Conditions Report trucks are required to take the most direct route to • South Avenue and Forest Avenue their destination. The following table lists the truck routes within the Study Area: For its future (2014) scenario, West Shore Manu- facturing Zones Study identified nine additional in- tersections that would experience further conges- 3.B.3: Roadway Traffic Congestion tion as part of its assumed development scenario. These intersections, which are also shown in the The Study Area has a relatively limited and often Map 44-Congested Intersections, include the fol- discontinuous roadway system, often making it dif- lowing: ficult and time-consuming to travel within the Study Area and to connect to other areas of Staten Island. • Arthur Kill Road and Huguenot Avenue With traffic concentrated into a limited number of • Richmond Avenue and Forest Hill Road key corridors, high volumes results in recurring traf- • Victory Boulevard and WSE SB Ramp fic congestion that further decreases mobility. Con- • Victory Boulevard and Travis Avenue gestion occurs not only during peak commuting pe- • South Avenue and Chelsea Road riods on weekdays, but also on weekends due to • South Avenue and Travis Avenue the area’s strong dependence on car travel. Exten- • South Avenue and Glen Street sive analysis of traffic conditions within the Study • Forest Avenue and Gulf Avenue Area has been done in several studies. The follow- • Arden Avenue and Service Road West ing is a review of those portions of these studies addressing existing congestion in the Study Area Charleston Transportation Study as well as projected levels within approximately 10- 20 years. An analysis of traffic conditions in the autumn of 2002 was conducted at 27 selected intersections as West Shore Manufacturing Zone Study part of the Charleston Transportation Study (NYC DCP), which overlaps much of Zone IV of the Study An analysis of traffic conditions in the summer of Area. These intersections were analyzed using the 2004 was conducted at 24 selected intersections Highway Capacity Manual 2000 level of service as part of the West Shore Manufacturing Zones procedures noted above. There were nine congest- Study (NYC DCP), assessing conditions in an area ed intersections identified in that study which are which overlaps most of Zones I, II and III. The loca- in the West Shore Study Area. Those found to be tions of these intersections are shown in the Map most congested include the following: 44 -Congested Intersections. These intersections were analyzed to determine their “level of service,” • Bloomingdale Road and Veterans Road West an “A” through “F” grading of the quality of traffic • Arthur Kill Road and Bloomingdale Road flow based on calculations of traffic delay following • Arthur Kill Road and Veterans Road West procedures outlined in the Highway Capacity Man- • Arthur Kill Road and North Bridge Street ual 2000. Conditions were analyzed for Existing • Arthur Kill Road and Richmond Valley Road (2004) and future (2014) scenarios. The most con- gested intersections identified in that study which NYMTC Congestion Management System Status are in the West Shore Study Area are highlighted in Report the Map 44-Congested Intersections and include the following: Finally the Congestion Management System Sta- tus Report prepared by the New York Metropolitan • Arthur Kill Road and Arden Avenue Transportation Council (NYMTC) identifies freeway • Arthur Kill Road and Drumgoole Road West or expressway segments as “Priority Congestion • Richmond Avenue and Draper Place Locations” based on the ratio of traffic volume ex- • Richmond Avenue and Drumgoole Road West perienced to actual capacity. Based on projected • Richmond Avenue and Richmond Hill Road population and employment growth within Staten 100 Map 44- Congested Intersections, 2004 and 2014 101 Staten Island West Shore Existing Conditions Report island and throughout the New York City region, estimates are also made of likely congestion levels in 2030 on these same roadways. As shown in the Map 45-Congested Corridors within the Study Area the following highway/arterial segments were iden- tified as either close to capacity (volume-to-capac- ity (v/c ratio of 0.8-1.0) or “Extremely Congested” (v/c ratio> 1.0 in 2005: AM Peak Period: • Outerbridge Crossing Eastbound to West Shore Expressway interchange/ Bloomingdale Road. • Portion of the West Shore Expressway (NY 400) Northbound and Southbound (vicinity of Arthur Kill Road and Victory Boulevard interchanges • Segments of Richmond Avenue near and north of Staten Island Mall • Staten Island Expressway-”SIE”:(I-278) East- bound, east of interchange with West Shore Expressway PM Peak Period: • Travis Avenue-Richmond Avenue to Victory Boulevard • West Shore Expressway at interchanges with the SIE, Arthur Kill Road, Bloomingdale Road and Victory Boulevard. As shown in the Map 45-Congested Corridors, the location and extent of projected congestion in the Study Area in 2030 is approximately the same as those shown in 2005. The major difference is a somewhat longer congested segment of the West Shore Expressway in the AM Peak. These projec- tions reflect both projected growth in traffic and the implementation of likely planned improvements in the Study Area. 102 Map 45 - Congested Corridors,2005 and 2030, AM and PM 4Hr Peak Periods (Source: NYMTC) 103 Staten Island West Shore Existing Conditions Report 3.B.3: Roadway Traffic Safety are as follows: the section in question must have: The Map 46-Accident Locations shows data per- • experienced an accident rate greater than or taining to traffic safety along roadways in the Study equal to a specified threshold, for similar facility Area. Data are based on all reported traffic acci- types, and dents, including those involving pedestrians and • an accident rate which exceeds a specified sta- tistical confidence level. The most Area, these The Staten Island Transportation Task Force shown several perceived congested corridors. Within the Studyrecent HAL bicyclists. Accident-prone locations are identified for portions of and Kill Road, Victory Boulevard, Richmond Avenue and Forest Avenue. included majorsegments Arthurfor intersections. As both roadway data are for the year 2006 based on data from the Accident Location Map makes clear, Richmond the prior two or three-year period. Avenue has the greatest number of traffic safety 4. ROADWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY concerns for roadways in the Study Area. Five out High accident intersections are shown as points on the ten highest accident Map X, Accident Location) the map. The highest accident intersections were of The Accident Location Map (seeintersections (ranked shows data pertaining to traffic safety along roadways in the frequency) are along on all reported traffic accidents, identified and then ranked based on crash frequen- by Study Area. Data are basedRichmond Avenue. South including those involving pedestrians and bicyclists. Accident- prone and Arthur Kill Road follow closely behind Avenue locations are shown for both roadway segments and for intersections. ten are shown on the Map 46- Accident cy. The top in number of traffic safety concerns. The majority Locations and listed in the table below. It is important High accident locations intersections are along the to note that ranking hazardous intersections been of the highest accident(HALs) as designated by the New York State Department of Transportation (NYSDOT) haveby fre- Area routes under quency can be biased towards Shore Expressway). identified along the two Studythe Study Area. State jurisdiction -- I-278 (SIE) and NY 440 (West locations that have a most developed portions of high patterns that accidents poor roadway geometry are NYSDOT monitors accident data to identify unusually high accident number of may indicate simply because theyor deficiencies. NYSDOT’s designated by other highway locations (HALs) as annual list of HALs identifies roadway segments with accident rates above specified High accident on high volume roadways. This type of ranking may thecriteria for similar roadways across the State, indicating that some factor besides pure chance may be behind the accidents in New York State Department of Transportation miss some low- volume intersections that have a (NYSDOT) have been identified along the two Study disproportionately high those locations. The criteria for selection are as follows: the section in question must have: accident rate (accidents per o experienced an accident rate greater than Area routes under State jurisdiction -- I-278 (SIE) or equal to a specified threshold,for similar facility types, and total vehicle miles of travel)*. o an Shore rate which exceeds a specified and NY 440 (West accident Expressway). NYSDOT statistical confidence level. The most recent HAL data are for Additionally, period. monitors accidentthe year 2006 based on data from the prior two or three-yearsome intersections that are not listed in data to identify unusually high accident patterns that may indicate poor roadway the table below were identified as hazardous inter- High accident intersections are shown as points on the map. The highest accident intersections were identified and then geometry or other highway deficiencies. NYSDOT’s sections in NYCDCP’s West Shore Manufacturing ranked based on crash frequency (i.e. the total number of crashes). The top ten are shown on the map and listed in the table annual list of HALs identifies roadway segments Zones Study. Although based on earlier data, these below. It is important to note that ranking hazardous intersections by frequency can be biased towards locations that have a with accident rates above specified criteria for simi- are worthy of note as intersections with unsafe con- high number of accidents simply because they are on high volume roadways. This type of ranking may miss some low- lar roadways across the State, indicating that some ditions. They include the following: volume intersections that have a disproportionately high accident rate (accidents per total vehicle miles of travel). Data are factor besides pure chance may be behind the ac- • Arthur Kill Road at Veterans Road West based on accident summary reports obtained from the NYSDOT Safety Information Management System for a three-year cidents in those locations. The criteria for selection • Arthur Kill Road at Drumgoole Road West period spanning July 1, 2004 to June 30, 2007. • Richmond Avenue at Forest Hill Road HIGH ACCIDENT INTERSECTIONS, BY TOTAL ACCIDENTS Total Rank Major Street Minor Street Accidents 1 Richmond Avenue Draper Place 50 2 Richmond Avenue Richmond Hill Road 46 3 South Avenue Forest Avenue 41 4 Richmond Avenue Arthur Kill Road 33 5 Richmond Avenue Platinum Avenue 32 6 Arthur Kill Road Arden Avenue 21 7 South Avenue Goethals Road North 19 8 Victory Boulevard Travis Avenue 14 9 Richmond Avenue Nome Avenue 13 10 South Avenue Travis Avenue 12 Table 24 -High Accident Intersections by Total Accidents Additionally, some intersections that are not listed in the table above were identified as hazardous intersections in NYCDCP’s West Shore Manufacturing Zones Study. Although based on earlier data, these are worthy of note as *Data are based on accident summary reports obtained from the NYSDOT Safety Information Management System for a three-year period spanning unsafe intersections with 2007. conditions. They include the following: July 1, 2004 to June 30, o Arthur Kill Road at Veterans Road West o Arthur Kill Road at Drumgoole Road West o Richmond Avenue at Forest Hill Road 104 As the Accident Location Map makes clear, Richmond Avenue has the greatest number of traffic safety concerns for roadways in the Study Area. Five out of the ten highest accident intersections (ranked by frequency) are along Richmond Map 46- High Accident Locations 105 Staten Island West Shore Existing Conditions Report 3.B.4: Transit Services • Zones I-II: X11, X12/42, X15, X31 Transit services on the west shore of Staten Island • Zone III: X1, X2, X5, X6, X7, X8 (operating out consist primarily of local, limited-stop and express of the Eltingville Transit Center in the southeast bus routes. Most of the local/limited bus routes con- corner of Zone III nect the Study Area to the Saint George Ferry Ter- • Zone IV: X17, X19, X22, X23, X24 and AE7 minal, with a few of the routes connecting to other major trip generators. Information discussed below Except for the X23 and AE7 routes, which are oper- is shown graphically in Map 47-Transit Connec- ated by Atlantic Express, all other routes are oper- tions. ated by MTA NYCT. While some routes (e.g., X22, X23, X24, and X30) go via the Goethals Bridge, 3.B.4.a: Local/ Limited Bus Service the NJ Turnpike and Lincoln Tunnel to access their destinations in Midtown Manhattan, the other routes There are 11 local bus routes that serve the Study utilize the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge, the Gowanus Area, all operated by the Metropolitan Transporta- Expressway and the Brooklyn Battery Tunnel to ac- tion Authority (MTA) through New York City Tran- cess Lower Manhattan. The schedules on most ex- sit (NYCT). These routes provide local circulation press routes are geared towards people commuting within Staten Island, with most routes connecting to Manhattan from Staten Island, with Manhattan- the Study Area with the Saint George Ferry Terminal bound service on many routes only offered in the for connections to the ferry to Manhattan. Connec- morning peak commuting times, and return service tions are also provided to Bay Ridge Brooklyn, as from Manhattan only operating during the PM peak well as other parts of Staten Island. Most of the local commuting times. However, in addition to these bus routes operate seven days a week, with a few commuting time services, the X1 and X17 also pro- routes providing service 24 hours a day. the local vide midday, evening, and Saturday service, as well bus routes in the Study Area include S40, S44, S46, as reverse commute services. The X1 also provides S48, S55, S56, S59, S61, S62, S74, and S79. service on Sundays. Limited stop service is provided during peak com- muting hours to supplement local bus service con- necting to the Saint George Ferry Terminal during the AM peak, and from the ferry terminal during the PM peak period. Limited stop bus routes operate along the same routing as local bus routes, but skip many of the local bus stops. There are a total of 8 limited stop bus routes, which mirror local routes in the Study Area. In some instances the limited stop bus routes replace local routes for portions of the route. One of the limited stop routes provides in- terstate connections by linking the Study Area with the Hudson-Bergen light rail in Bayonne, NJ. The limited stop bus routes include S84, S89, S90, S91, Table 25 -Bus Ridership Data S92, S94, S96, and S98. 3.B.4.b: Express Bus Service There are 16 express bus routes that connect the study area with Manhattan. The express bus routes that serve the Study Area, roughly divided by the zones that they serve, include: 106 Map 47- Transit Access 107 Staten Island West Shore Existing Conditions Report in late 2009 and the $149 million facility is being 3.B.5.c: Staten Island Rapid Transit Line funded through a variety of federal, state and lo- cal funds as part of the MTA Capital Plan. The MTA Staten Island Railway operates between • Atlantic/Nassau Station – this project will close Tottenville and the Saint George Ferry Terminal, and demolish the Atlantic and Nassau stations where connections to the ferry to Manhattan can be on the Staten Island Railway, both of which are made. There are a total of four SIR stations in the in poor condition, and construct a new station far southern portions of the Study Area -- Tottenville, between these two locations, including a park- Atlantic, Nassau, and Richmond Valley. These sta- ing facility for 200 vehicles.(See image of exist- tions are also the four southernmost stations on the ing Nassau Station on page 77). Construction is line. Average weekday ridership on the SIR in the expected to begin in August 2009 with a com- second quarter of 2008 was 16014. pletion date of August 2010. • Huguenot/Route 440- West Shore Park and 3.B.5.d: Ferry Ride – As discussed below, portions of Hugue- not Avenue and Arthur Kill Road at the West There are currently no ferry boat services operat- Shore Expressway already operate as a de-fac- ing to the West Shore area. Local/limited bus and to park and ride. The formal park-and-ride being Staten Island Railway transit services provide con- built at this location by NYSDOT in conjunction nections from the Study Area to the Staten Island with a NYPD police sub-station, will allow this Ferry at Saint George. There have been numerous important intermodal transfer to occur in a safe plans and proposals to provide ferry services to the and efficient manner. West Shore, including services planned in connec- tion with the redevelopment of Fresh Kills Landfill, 3.B.5.f: Park-and-Ride Lots and proposals made in connection with preliminary plans for the Waterfront Commons project near Within the Study Area, there is one park-and-ride the intersection of Arthur Kill and Richmond Valley area located at the interchange of the West Shore Roads. NYCEDC is also conducting a feasibility Expressway and Arthur Kill Road/ Huguenot Ave- study of a proposal of ferry service from the South nue, where passengers park their cars along road- Shore of Staten Island to two Manhattan piers, one way shoulders near the point where express bus in Lower Manhattan and one in Midtown. lines serving the surrounding communities enter the West Shore Expressway. A bus stop on a grass 3.B.5.e: Planned Transit Projects and Trends strip along the northbound entrance ramp serves as the pick-up point, with cars parking along both In addition to these existing transit services, there sides of both the northbound off-ramp and Arthur are a number of planned projects that will impact Kill Road (see image of adjoining page). There are transit services in the Study Area. These include currently plans to build a formal park-and-ride fa- the planned construction of a new MTA NYCT bus cility at this location, in conjunction with a police storage and maintenance facility, a new park- and- sub-station. The location serves Atlantic Express ride facility and a plan for a new station that would and MTA NYCT Express Bus routes X19, X22, X23, combine and replace two existing stations on the X24, and AE7, and MTA NYCT Local/Limited Bus Staten Island Railway. route S74/84. (See Map 47-Public Transit) • Charleston Bus Depot – the Charleston Bus De- There are two Park-and-Ride facilities outside but pot will provide a third MTA NYCT bus storage adjacent to the Study Area. One is the MTA’s Elt- and maintenance facility on Staten Island. This ingville Transit Center, located at the southeast cor- will allow NYCT to alleviate overcrowding at the ner of Arthur Kill Road and Richmond Avenue at the other two depots, and to expand local and ex- southeast corner of Zone III. This facility has con- press bus services in southern communities in venient access to and from the Korean War Veter- Staten Island. The bus depot is expected to open ans Parkway. Based on observed illegal parking at 108 this facility, demand for this lot currently exceeds the capacity at this facility. The location serves MTA NYCT Express Bus routes X1, X4, X5, X6, X7, X8, X15, X17, and X31, and MTA NYCT Local/Limited Bus routes S55, S56, S59, S74/84, S79, and S89. Another facility is NYSDOT’s Pleasant Plains Park- and-Ride, located at the southern terminus of West Shore Expressway (NY 440). The location serves Atlantic Express Bus route AE7. Other Park-and-Ride locations of note, but also out- side of the Study Area, include one next to the Hu- guenot Station at Huguenot Avenue and Drumgoole Road East and an informal one next to NY 440 at Morningstar Road and Walker Street. Additionally, field observations along Arthur Kill Road and its ad- joining side streets indicate that informal on-street SIR Nassau Station- Looking South park-and-ride activity is generally occurring in areas that have express bus service. Informal Park and Ride Area at Arthur Kill Road/ West Shore Express- way 109 Staten Island West Shore Existing Conditions Report 3.B.5: Pedestrian and Bicycles Due to the historical development of Staten Island’s West Shore to serve local industry, most of the ma- jor roadways were not designed with pedestrians in mind. The pedestrian network along the roads in the Study Area is generally limited, because most road- way have no or discontinuous sidewalks. Although major intersections accommodate pedestrians, many intersections lack crosswalks or pedestrian signals. There are few provisions for bicycles along road- ways on the West Shore of Staten Island. Within the Study Area, there is currently only one type of bicycle route: designated off-roads bike paths. There is only one designated bicycle path within the Study Area, an off-road Greenway between Arthur Kill Road, Englewood Avenue, and Veterans Road in the southwest corner of the Study Area. There are no on-road bicycle lanes within the Study Area. However, several on-road bicycle routes and off- road bicycle paths are planned for the area. (See Map 48-Bike Network.) In the past it has been advocated to convert the abandoned SIRR line into a bicycling trail which would function as a link in the East Coast Greenway and also as commuter and cultural route in Staten Island. Activation of the rail line to support DSNY facility has probably reduced the viability of such a greenway. 110 Map 48 - Bike Network 111 Staten Island West Shore Existing Conditions Report • Proposed roadway access improvements in Howland Hook area Additionally, several specific recommendations 3.B.6: Planned and Programmed for the local roadway network are put forth in two Transportation Improvements companion studies which together overlap most of Zones I through IV of the Study Area. Beyond ongoing maintenance and equipment up- grades, a number of major improvements to the The Charleston Transportation Study (NYCDCP, transportation infrastructure in the Study Area are 2003), which overlaps Zone IV, contains recom- planned or proposed for implementation. Some of mendations for vehicle and pedestrian safety, ve- these are planning or feasibility studies for projects hicle mobility, parking, and freight traffic. Due to the that would take 10-15 years to implement, while elapsed time since the study, some recommenda- others are in more advanced stages of planning and tions have already been implemented. Recommen- design or already under construction. The following dations pertinent to this study include the following: list includes these initiatives: • Operational and safety improvements for the most congested intersections (listed in the above 3.B.7a: Public Transit section Roadway Traffic Congestion), through upgrades to intersection geometry, changes in • Combine Staten Island Railway’s Atlantic and existing signalized controls or consideration of Nassau stations into Arthur Kill Road station. signalizing presently unsignalized locations. (MTA) • Provision of sidewalks along eleven streets • Huguenot Avenue Park and Ride facility (NYS- within Zone IV, and in all new developments. DOT). • Prohibiting parking along Arthur Kill Road be- • Proposed Charleston Annex bus depot.(MTA) tween Sharrotts Road and Kreischer Street, • S89 Service to Bayonne (Hudson-Bergen LRT and improved parking regulations along Carlin connection) – Implemented in Summer 2007. Street. • Restoration of North Shore rail right-of-way • Improved truck route signage along Arthur Kill (North Shore Land Use Study). Road and other roads in the Charleston/ Port • Passenger light rail service (West Shore Light Mobil area.The West Shore Rail Feasibility Study).Staten Island Express Bus Network Study. The West Shore Manufacturing Zones Study (NY- CDCP, 2007) which overlaps Zones I-III, contains 3.B.7b: Roadway Safety and Traffic Mobility both short and long term recommendations: • Increased crossing capacity on Goethals Bridge Task Force Short-Term Recommendations • Improvements at NY 440 and Korean War Vet- erans Parkway interchange • Operational improvements for all 15 congest- • Improved access and egress at NY 440 and ed intersections (as discussed above section I-278 interchange Roadway Traffic Congestion section), through • Safety and operational improvements along Ar- either signal timing modifications or geometric thur Kill Road corridor changes. • Allowance of right-turn-on-red at various signal- • Operational improvements for all 13 high ac- ized intersections cident intersections (listed in the above sec- • Improvements at Goethals Road North and tion Roadway Traffic Safety), through the same Western Avenue intersection types of signal or roadway geometric changes. • Roadway connections between NY 440 and • Pavement and sidewalk improvements at in- Richmond Avenue through Fresh Kills Park tersections along designated truck routes, spe- • Proposed ferry service between Fresh Kills Park cifically larger corner radii for curbs to provide and Manhattan more maneuvering space for turning trucks at 112 those locations. Task Force Long Term Recommendations • Expanding and extending the roadway system, including the following: • Construct roads proposed though Fresh Kills ParkConstruct mapped but unbuilt Kent Street to connect Sharrotts Road and Englewood Avenue • Construct Englewood Avenue to its full mapped length and width • Widen Arthur Kill Road • Creating transit-oriented mixed-use real estate developments around transit stations. Arthur Kill Road and Victory Boulevard interchanges. Map 49- Planned and Ongoing Transportation Projects in Study Area 113 Staten Island West Shore Existing Conditions Report Map 50- Existing Transportation Related Issues and Conditions gan operations in the early 18th Century. 114 115
"Staten Island West Shore Study"