APC h 3 Study Guide by HrIzv0f4


									Name: ______________________________________ Date: _______________ Block: ____
                              A&P Ch. 3 Study Guide – Cells
Overview: To study anatomy it is essential to understand the basic structure and function of the
cell, the main parts of the cell and the organelles. It is important to understand how the cell
obtains nutrients and reproduces through the process of mitosis. (You may need a biology book)
1. What are the 3 components to the cell theory?



2. Name as many different types or categories of cells as you can:

3. Complete the following chart on cell organelles & related vocabulary:
   Cell Part/Vocab Word                           Definition/Function(s)






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  Nuclear Membrane

    Nuclear Pore





Plasma (Cell) Membrane


Endoplasmic Reticulum
  (rough & smooth)



   Golgi Apparatus

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      Pinocytic vesicle




4. What is ATP and describe its role in the body:

5. What effect(s) does aging have on our cells (p. 41)?

6. Circle/highlight the correct word in each of the following statements.
      a. The process of cell division for somatic cells is called (mitosis, meiosis).

      b. In the resting phase of cell division, an exact duplicate of each nuclear chromosome is

          made; this activity is called (replication, reproduction).

      c. During prophase, two pairs of (centrioles, chromatins) go to opposite ends of the cell.
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      d. In (telophase, metaphase), the chromosomes migrate to the opposite poles of the cell.

      e. Cells produce proteins, such as albumin or globulin that are essential to life through a

         process called protein (synthesis, replication).

7. Organelles perform specific functions within the cell. Next to the following statements, write
   the letter of the organelle involved in that function from the list provided. A word may be
   used more than once.

      a. Centrosome                     d. golgi apparatus                g. peroxisomes
      b. Cytoskeleton                   e. lysosome                       h. ribosomes
      c. endoplasmic reticulum          f. mitochondria

      1) _____ Attached to the walls of the endoplasmic reticulum
      2) _____ Detoxifies harmful substances
      3) _____ The center for cellular digestion
      4) _____ Forms internal framework
      5) _____ Manufactures CHO and packages secretions
      6) _____ Site for protein synthesis
      7) _____ Transport of substances through the cytoplasm
      8) _____ Site of cellular respiration and energy production
      9) _____ Enzymes oxidize cell substances
      10) _____ "Suicide bags"
      11) _____ Role in cholesterol synthesis and fat metabolism
      12) _____ Found in cells that need the most energy
      13) _____ Abundant in gastric glands
      14) _____ Plays an important role in mitosis

8. The clear liquid fluid that fills the spaces around the chromatin and the nucleoli is:
       a. cytoplasm                                          c. nuclear membrane
       b. nucleoplasm                                        d. fatty substance
9. Water is essential for all cellular life, as water make up:
       a. 50% to 70% of cytoplasm                            c. 70% to 80% of cytoplasm
       b. 60% to 70% of cytoplasm                            d. 70% to 90% of cytoplasm
10. In the nucleus of the cell, the DNA and protein are arranged in a loose state called:
       a. chromosomes                                        c. centriole
       b. chromatin                                          d. centrosome
11. An organelle with a smooth and rough side is the:
       a. mitochondria                                       c. endoplasmic reticulum
       b. golgi apparatus                                    d. pinocytic vesicle

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12. All of the following types of cells undergo mitosis except:
        a. neurons of the nervous system
        b. goblet cells of the digestive system
        c. epithelial cells of the respiratory system
        d. epithelial cells of the reproductive system
13. The diffusion rate of molecules for a gas is:
        a. slower than liquids                              c. slower than solids
        b. quicker than liquids                             d. quicker than liquids and solids
14. Most intravenous fluids ordered by physicians are:
        a. hypertonic solutions                             c. hypotonic solutions
        b. isotonic solutions                               d. glucose and water solutions
15. The type of fluid ordered by the physician for a person with dehydration would be:
        a. hypertonic solution                              c. hypotonic solution
        b. isotonic solution                                d. glucose and water solution
16. Indicate whether the underlined word or phrase makes the statement true or false. If the
    statement is false, correct it:
        a. _____ Active transport that moves material across a cell membrane does not require


      b. _____ Osmosis is the diffusion of water through the cell membrane from an area

         of higher concentration of the solution to an area lower concentration of the solution.

      c. _____ If a solution has the same number of sodium particles as the solute, the solution

         is said to be hypertonic.

      d. _____ In the process of filtration, the blood pressure forces the blood through


      e. _____ In the process of phagocytosis, the substances engulfed by the cell membrane

         are in solution.

      f. _____ Nerve cells are specialized to respond to stimuli.

      g. _____ Heart muscle cells continue to divide when they reach maturity.

      h. _____ A wart is a type of benign tumor.

      i. _____ A papilloma is a type of malignant tumor.

17. In the classroom Rebecca dropped her purse and her bottle of nail polish fell out and broke.

   The smell of nail polish permeated through the classroom. This is an example of the process

   of ____________________.

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18. Courtney has an infection in her right ear. Her white blood cells will help control the infection

   by eating up the harmful bacteria. This process is known as ____________________.

19. Our body cells do not all reproduce at the same rate. How frequently do our intestinal, skin,
    muscle, and nerve cells reproduce?

20. List some of the early signs of cancer.

21. Name the tests used to diagnose cancer.

22. Discuss some of the treatment modalities for cancer.

23. List some of the major problems involved with cancer treatment.

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24. Match the activity with the word or phrase from the following list. An answer may be used
    more than once.
      a. active transport                                 d. osmosis
      b. diffusion                                        e. phagocytosis
      c. filtration                                       f. pinocytosis

      1) _____ The aroma of coffee percolating
      2) _____ Blood passing through the kidney
      3) _____ Cell drinking
      4) _____ Exchange of oxygen from the blood to extracellular fluid
      5) _____ cell eating
      6) _____ Putting sugar into a cup of tea
      7) _____ Diffusion of water through a selective semipermeable membrane
      8) _____ Process requires the energy of ATP
      9) _____ Process by which white blood cells destroy bacteria
      10) _____ Red blood cells placed in fresh seawater establish equilibrium

25. Match the following terms with the correct statement.
      a. cytoskeleton                                 f.    cancer
      b. nucleolus                                    g.    chromatid
      c. ATP                                          h.    nucleus
      d. metaphase                                    i.    metastases
      e. peroxisome                                   j.    organelles

      1) _____ contains DNA and protein
      2) _____ structure to help cells function
      3) _____ enzyme that detoxifies harmful substances
      4) _____ needed for active transport
      5) _____ a strain of replicated chromosome
      6) _____ malignant cells that move rapidly
      7) _____ the nuclear membrane disappears
      8) _____ malignant cells
      9) _____ contains ribosomes
      10) _____ internal framework of the cell

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26. Label each of the following images & descriptions with the type of solution it is showing:

27. Label each stage of mitosis with the correct term and number them in the sequence they
   occur. It may help you to label some of the distinguishing structures:

28. Do cells of the body have identical substances in their cytoplasm? Explain.

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29. Match each of the cell structures with their letter on the diagram of the typical animal cell:

      1)   _____ cilia/microvilli                       10) _____ centriole
      2)   _____ cytoskeleton                           11) _____ golgi apparatus
      3)   _____ nucleus                                12) _____ ribosomes (free)
      4)   _____ nuclear membrane/pores                 13) _____ nucleolus
      5)   _____ vacuole                                14) _____ cytoplasm
      6)   _____ plasma membrane                        15) _____ rough endoplasmic reticulum
      7)   _____ nucleoplasm                            16) _____ smooth endoplasmic reticulum
      8)   _____ mitochondria                           17) _____ chromatin
      9)   _____ lysosome

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