Instructional Design Using Gagne�s Events of Instruction

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					 Instructional Design Using
Gagne’s Events of Instruction




         By Bob Perkins
       College of Charleston
                          Objective

                 The objectives of this lesson
 The purpose of this lesson is to focus on instructional design as it applies
to CAI. There are many instructional design theories, but we are going to
take one instructional design theory, Robert Gagne's Events of Instruction,
and show you how it can be incorporated into a hypermedia lesson that you
are creating. Gagne's theory is also appropriate for all means of instruction,
not just CAI.
 In creating educational software, as with putting together any type of lesson,
certain things help to make the learning of the objective of the lesson more likely
to be accomplished.
    In creating educational software (Computer-Aided Instruction or CAI), there
are three main areas of concern:
                 1. content
                 2. instructional design
                 3. computer programming
 In creating educational software, as with putting together any type of lesson,
certain things help to make the learning of the objective of the lesson more likely
to be accomplished.
    In creating educational software (Computer-Aided Instruction or CAI), there
are three main areas of concern:
                 1. content
                 2. instructional design
                 3. computer programming
Content
           Content refers to the
          subject matter, or
          information that is taught in
          the lesson. No matter what
          the media used to teach,
          certain material must be
          learned to meet the
          objectives.
                                                Instructional Design
 Instructional design is based on learning
theory. It is not specific to computer-aided
instruction, but can be used with all forms
of teaching. Instructional design includes
how information is to be presented to
students including learning styles,
sequencing material, etc. as well as the
layout and design of educational materials.
    There are certain things (events) that if
they happen, learning is more likely to
occur. Some general examples are making
sure the reading level of the lesson is at a
level the students understand, or using
auditory, visual, and kinesthetic methods to
teach so that all learning styles can be
tapped.
Computer Programming
       In the case of Computer Aided
      Instruction (CAI), the lesson must
      also become a computer program.
      This can be done by using
      programming languages such as
      BASIC or Pascal, or by using an
      authoring system or hypermedia
      program such as HyperCard,
      HyperStudio or PowerPoint.
   The purpose of this lesson is to focus on instructional design as it applies
                                    to CAI.

   There are many instructional design theories, but we are going to take one
instructional design theory, Robert Gagne's Events of Instruction, and show you
how it can be incorporated into a hypermedia lesson that you are creating.
Gagne's theory is also appropriate for all means of instruction, not just CAI.
    Gagne included two parts to each Event of Instruction. The first is INTERNAL
LEARNING PROCESS, or theoretically, what should be going on inside the
student's head. The second part is EXTERNAL INSTRUCTIONAL EVENTS, or the
practical application of this event within a lesson, what the teacher should make
sure happens for the lesson to be learned.
   You will see arrows at the bottom of this (and most) screens. By clicking on the
arrow pointing left, you can go to the previous screen. The right arrow takes you to
the next screen.
                                Each new Event of Instruction will be presented
                               on a slide similar to this. It will consist of the
                               INTERNAL LEARNING PROCESS, which is
                               theoretical. It will also have the name of the
    INTERNAL LEARNING PROCESSand in bold (e.g. Alerting). You
                               Event underlined
   Alerting the learner to receive stimulation.
                               will need to know the name.
                                   This will be followed by EXTERNAL
                               INSTRUCTIONAL EVENTS. These are practical
                               ways of applying the Events to Computer-Aided
EXTERNAL INSTRUCTIONAL EVENTS  Instruction.
Gaining attention and keeping it.
                                   As teachers students lessons,
Use methods to attract and hold the attention of creating through it is the
                               EXTERNAL INSTRUCTIONAL EVENTS that you
motivating presentation of material.
                               will focus on.
    Each new Event of Instruction will be followed by a slide similar to this.
It will show examples of how that particular Event of Instruction might
appear in a lesson using the EXTERNAL INSTRUCTIONAL EVENTS.
   The Explanation Window on the bottom of these slides will point out
how the slide meets that Event.




Explanation Window
Main Menu
      Alerting
    Expectancy
     Retrieval
Selective Perception
 Semantic Encoding
    Responding
   Reinforcement
  Cueing Retrieval
   Generalization

      MENU
                        Alerting

    INTERNAL LEARNING PROCESS
   Alerting the learner to receive stimulation.




EXTERNAL INSTRUCTIONAL EVENTS
Gaining attention and keeping it.
  Use methods to attract and hold the attention of students through
motivating presentation of material.




                               MENU
                                                                        Click on the speaker to start,
                                                                              Pres ESC to stop




F-22 climbs during first flight, available at http://www.af.mil/photos/Oct1997/f22first4.html
 Explanation Window
First, you must gain the attention of the student.
Sound, graphics of appealing objects, and catchy titles work.
.




                                                 MENU
                                                                     Click on the speaker to start,
                                                                           Pres ESC to stop



Explanation Window

   Maintaining the attention of the student also must be done. Sound and relevant graphics may be
used, but be careful not to put in useless material that would be distracting.
   Sound consumes much memory and graphics or sounds that do not help teach can take student's
attention away from the lesson.




                                              MENU
Explanation Window
Color definitely is appealing, and in some cases such as when you are teaching the colors, necessary.
Do not, however, put too many different colors on one screen, it will distract students
.




                                               MENU
MENU
       Press to Return




MENU
       Press to Return




MENU
       Press to Return




MENU
                    The previous slides (there were
                    actually four) were from a lesson called
                                    Earth Activities
                                    By Suzanne
                                    Keith


Explanation Window
Animation has a place in computerized lessons as demonstrated in the previous slide(s). However, if
it is not teaching the lesson, it may distract students. Don't put in unnecessary animation.




                                               MENU
                                   Other suggestions:
                                   Use things that are already interesting to the students:
                                   1. Sports as a setting or for
                                      characters
                                   2. TV characters
                                   3. Use adventure as a setting
                                   4. Music
                                   5. Humor




Explanation Window
Because the setting or the characters that you use in your lesson are interesting to the students, they
may help to maintain student interest in the lesson. They can either teach or be used for reinforcing
correct answers. Graphics must be present




                                                 MENU
                  Expectancy

    INTERNAL LEARNING PROCESS
    Acquiring an expectancy of the results of learning.




EXTERNAL INSTRUCTIONAL EVENTS
Inform the learner of lesson objectives. By letting students know
what they will be learning (the objective of the lesson), they will focus
on those parts of the presentation that are related to the objective of
the lesson.




                                 MENU
                          The objectives of this lesson
    The purpose of this lesson is to focus on instructional design as it applies
   to CAI. There are many instructional design theories, but we are going to
   take one instructional design theory, Robert Gagne's Events of Instruction,
   and show you how it can be incorporated into a hypermedia lesson that you
   are creating. Gagne's theory is also appropriate for all means of instruction,
   not just CAI.




Explanation Window
 This information appeared earlier in this lesson to let you know why you were being taught this
information. This is the objective of this lesson, to teach instructional design. Tell students what they
will learn so that they look for the information related to the objectives.




                                                  MENU
                       Retrieval

    INTERNAL LEARNING PROCESS
    Retrieval of items in long term memory.




EXTERNAL INSTRUCTIONAL EVENTS
Stimulate recall of prerequisite knowledge.
Students may need to be reminded or have access to information
that they have already been taught but that they have forgotten that
will be necessary to accomplish the objective in the new lesson.




                                MENU
                        Remember:


                        +Words +                  Button              + HyperMedia




Explanation Window
 Previously in class, I had taught you that minimally, hypermedia lessons consisted of graphics, text,
and buttons. I am reminding you of this previously taught, but prerequisite knowledge for you to use in
combination with this new knowledge (instructional design theory) to create CAI.




                                                MENU
                               256
                               x32                                 Times Tables




Explanation Window
Give students access to prerequisite information they may need. This card is teaching multiple digit
multiplication, but students will need basic times table knowledge to continue. If they forgot a
particular fact, HELP!!! is there.




                                                MENU
       Selective Perception

    INTERNAL LEARNING PROCESS
    Selective perception of the patterns that enter into
   learning.



EXTERNAL INSTRUCTIONAL EVENTS
Present stimuli with distinctive features.
Those parts of the lesson presentation that are of particular
importance such as main ideas or things that students absolutely
must know, should be presented in a way that sets them apart from
other things on the slide, or points them out.




                                MENU
                     Hypermedia at the very least consists of:

                            Text
                            Graphics
                            Buttons

Explanation Window
Students need to have important points, and especially any thing that they HAVE to know, set off by
using things like bold underlining or all CAPITALS.




                                               MENU
                  Hypermedia at the very least consists of:

                  Text
                  GRAHICS
                  Buttons

Explanation Window
Other methods could include highlighting, arrows, different fonts and colors or anything else that
distinguishes the important items.




                                               MENU
         Semantic Encoding

    INTERNAL LEARNING PROCESS
    Semantic Encoding of presented material to attain a form
   for long term storage and ready retrieval.



EXTERNAL INSTRUCTIONAL EVENTS
Provide learning guidance.
Students some times need Help or Suggestions on how to proceed
through a lesson, especially if many options are offered. By offering
suggestions, students can more likely make the correct choices.




                                MENU
                                                      5
                                                     x3
                                                                               Help



Explanation Window
 Help buttons are also a good way to give students access to review information they may need. This
card is drill and practice for single digit multiplication. If the student forgot a particular fact, the TIMES
TABLES are there to review. Not always will I want them to have access to the information, but while
they are learning, it may be part of the learning process to look up the facts.



                                                    MENU
        If your understand the concept of Semantic Encoding,
        Press the Next button, but if you are not sure,
        press the Review button.


           Review                                                         Next

Explanation Window
 Suggesting that students review if necessary, like the example above is doing, or offering a chance to
go backwards like the Left Arrow below has done in this presentation is a good idea. You may even
want to test to see if the student understands what you are teaching and have the lesson force them to
review if necessary.




                                                MENU
                      Responding

    INTERNAL LEARNING PROCESS
    Responding with a performance that verifies learning.



EXTERNAL INSTRUCTIONAL EVENTS
Practice what has been taught. After students are taught each new
concept within a lesson, they should be provided with a chance to
practice that concept or skill. As a result of practice, students will
either demonstrate understanding or display a need for re-teaching or
more practice. Students may or may not be offered a chance to go
back and review material or have access to HELP. Practice happens
while teaching is going on, not after--that is a test which is another
Event.




                                MENU
                Click on the Nucleus of the cell


Explanation Window
 Students should practice what they are being taught as they are being taught. Combine the lesson
with practice items (questions) that determine if the student is learning the material. As previously
suggested, some help may be offered, but they should be able to perform without HELP before being
allowed to move on to new concepts.



                                                MENU
                   Reinforcement

    INTERNAL LEARNING PROCESS
   Reinforcement by means of which the results of learning
   are established.



EXTERNAL INSTRUCTIONAL EVENTS
Feedback--Students need to know whether they are correct in their
understanding of new concepts or skills. This is especially important
during practice exercises. Feedback should be immediate, but in the
case of incorrect answers, should not be degrading. Correct answers
would be given encouragement, and then the student offered the
chance to move on. Incorrect answers may be dealt with in a variety
of ways such as:




                               MENU
      Which is NOT part of hypermedia

                            Graphics                            Text

                           Disk Drive                        Buttons


Explanation Window
Suggestion 1: Inform the student they were wrong, then give the student a chance to answer the
question again (Click on the RIGHT arrow below to continue after seeing the suggestion).




                                               MENU
                                                     5
                                                    x3

                                 15                  20              25
Explanation Window
Suggestion 2: Inform the student they were wrong, then give the student the correct answer (Click on
the RIGHT arrow below to continue after seeing the suggestion).




                                                   MENU
                                                256
                                                x32

             7562                         8192                        9182

Explanation Window
Suggestion 3: Inform the student they were wrong, then repeat the informative part of the lesson that
provided the information (Click on the RIGHT arrow below to continue after seeing the suggestion).




                                                MENU
                                                     5
                                                    x3

                   15                            25                   35

Explanation Window
Suggestion 4: Inform the student they were wrong, then teach the concept in a different way (Click on
the RIGHT arrow below to continue after seeing the suggestion).




                                                   MENU
             Cueing Retrieval

    INTERNAL LEARNING PROCESS
   Cueing retrieval of information provided to students that
   are used in recall.



EXTERNAL INSTRUCTIONAL EVENTS
Testing-assessing student performance.
After all the teaching has been done, student understanding of the
entire lesson should be measured. This Test may or may not include
feedback but should not offer students a chance to get HELP to
answer the questions.




                               MENU
                                                  5
                                                 x3

                  15                            25                          35

 Explanation Window
   Imagine this is the 10th question. Notice that there is no difference between right and wrong
answers, no feedback is given. You could, at your option, offer positive or negative feedback, but no
second chances and no help.
   The same questions used during Practice (but not the same slides) may be used for the Test.
Since PowerPoint will not save student answers or calculate a score, you may also just have
questions appear on the screen for students to handwrite their answers.

                                                MENU
                    Generalizing

    INTERNAL LEARNING PROCESS
    Generalizing performance to new situations.




EXTERNAL INSTRUCTIONAL EVENTS
Enhancing retention and learning transfer.
   Students must know how they will be able to use what they have
learned as a result of this lesson in other situations. Generalizing this
knowledge to other similar situations provides purpose for the lesson.




                                 MENU
     The purpose of this lesson is to focus on instructional design as it applies to CAI. There are
     many instructional design theories, but we are going to take one instructional design theory,
     Robert Gagne's Events of Instruction, and show you how it can be incorporated into a
     hypermedia lesson lesson that you are creating. Gagne's theory is also appropriate for all means
     of instruction, not just CAI.




    Explanation Window
This appeared earlier in this lesson (twice, once as an introduction, and also as an example of letting
students know what the objective of a lesson is). The italics also point out that this theory can be
generalized by you to other situations in which you are creating lessons such as lectures, not just CAI
.




                                                 MENU
                                            References
      Price, R. (1991) Computer aided instruction: A guide for authors. Pacific Grove, CA: Cole
Publishing Company.

Picture on slide #12
       Lockheed Martin-Boeing. (1997). F-22 climbs during first flight, available at
http://www.af.mil/photos/Oct1997/f22first4.html




                                                 MENU
          The End.
Click your mouse to Quit the
            show




             MENU
1 x 1=1   1 x 2=2    1 x 3=3
2 x 1=2   2 x 2=4    2 x 3=6
3 x 1=3   3 x 2=6    3 x 3=9
4 x 1=4   4 x 2=8    4 x 3=12
5 x 1=5   5 x 2=10   5 x 3=15
6 x 1=6   6 x 2=12   6 x 3=18
7 x 1=7   7 x 2=14   7 x 3=21
8 x 1=8   8 x 2=16   8 x 3=24
9 x 1=9   9 x 2=18   9 x 3=27


                     Press to Return


          MENU
Sorry, this is the nucleus
              Press to continue




     MENU
That is correct!!!
Now you are ready to learn about cell
division!!!




                     MENU
                      Sorry, try again.
                      Click your mouse
                      to continue


Explanation Window
Suggestion 1: Inform the student they were wrong, then give the student a chance to answer the
question again.




                                               MENU
                        Remember:

                        +Words +                                      + HyperMedia
                                                  Button




Explanation Window
 Previously in class, I had taught you that minimally, HyperMedia lessons consisted of graphics, text,
and buttons. I am reminding you of this previously taught, but prerequisite knowledge for you to use in
combination with this new knowledge (instructional design theory) to create CAI.




                                                MENU
                                                                      Multiply these two
                                                                      numbers first

                                                256
                                                x32
       Click to continue.
                                                                                   Help!!!

Explanation Window
Suggestion 3: Inform the student they were wrong, then repeat the informative part of the lesson that
provided the information.




                                                MENU
Yes this is the correct answer, but
use the wrong answer to see
examples.


Click the mouse




                  MENU
                                 Sorry, the answer is
                                                   15

                           Click the mouse to continue

Explanation Window
Suggestion 2: Inform the student they were wrong, then give the student the correct answer,




                                               MENU
Explanation Window
Suggestion 4: Inform the student they were wrong, then teach the concept in a different way.




                                               MENU
       You are now finished with your test

                 Click the mouse to continue.
Explanation Window
This card offers no feedback. In the test, feedback is not necessary They can be the same questions you used for
practice questions.




                                                    MENU

				
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