MicroFuel Cell™ Challenges Survivor

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					MicroFuel Cell™ Challenges Survivor
Presented by J.T. Park

i-Power, Inc.

What we need is a survivor power supply that is… •Longer Lasting •More Powerful •Smaller

•Lighter
•Simpler

•Green
•Affordable

Ultralight Power
P a ra m e te rs P h ysica l S ta te P ra ctica l S p e cific E n e rg y (W *h rs/kg ) P ra ctica l E n e rg y D e n sity (W *h rs/L ) S p e cific P o w e r (W /kg ) P o w e r D e n sity 2 (m W /cm ) T e m p e ra tu re S e n sitivity
swf

Source Comparison
N aB H 4 L iq u id / G as T a rg e t:1 0 0 0 T e st: 3 6 0 6 2 9 (s yste m )
b b

M e th a n o l L iq u id T e st: 4 0 0 A rra y: 3 0 0 T a rg e t: 1 0 0 0 a 767
b

L i-Io n S o lid 7 0 (In p h o n e b a tte ry p a ck ) 100

Z n -A ir S o lid / G as

Z n -M n O 2 S o lid

150

1 1 4 -2 3 6

c

686

1050 5 2 5 -6 4 1 (s ys te m ) ~ 7 8 4 (fu e l ce ll a lo n e ) 45

2 0 0 -4 0 0

d

1050

d

3 8 5 -7 9 6

d

5 2 -8 7 (fu e l ce ll a lo n e ) 3 -5 3 3 % @ 6 C 3 3 0 % @ 6 0 C

~ 9 0 -1 8 0

~80

~89

a b

Assumes 1:1 MeOH/H2O on FC at 0.3 V and 100% fuel utilization. Assumes saturated fuel, and FC at 0.5 V and 100% fuel utilization. c Practical to maximum. d Energy and power density numbers (W*hr/l, W/l) Data for batteries from John Bailey, Eveready Battery Co. April 30, 1999, Small Fuel Cells, Bethesda, 1999. Estimates for specific power and energy per unit mass were made based on density estimates from measurements of actual batteries.

The Fuel Cell Energy Opportunity is High
3500

3000
3000

Specific Energy (Watt*Hr/Kg)

2500

Available Today Practical Limit 2000

2000

1500

1000

600
500

600

600 300

450 30 100 150 180 100

0

NiMH

Zn/Air

Li-Ion

Li Polymer

NaBH4

Methanol Fuel Cell

Conventional Fuel Cell

Conventional Fuel Cell Details
PEM (PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE) OXIDANT FLOW FIELD PLATE EXHAUST WATER VAPOR (NO POLLUTION) LOW TEMPERATURE ELECTROCHEMICAL PROCESS (90°C) FUEL FLOW FIELD PLATE

FUEL TO RECIRCULATE

HEAT (90°C) WATER COLLED

AIR

FUEL (HYDROGEN)

Conventional Fuel Cells
•Stacks of plates. •Heavy and bulky.

•Bipolar stacking.
•Pumped flow.

•Many Separate Components.
•High operating temperatures.

•Hydrogen fueled.

Conventional Fuel Cell Critical Weaknesses
• • • • • • • • • • Pumping required. Mechanical electrical contacts. Pure hydrogen fuel source. High metal to insulator ratio. Sensitive to relative humidity. Fuel and oxidizer crossover. Shunt failures. Flow blockage failures. Possible catastrophic failures. Power plant optimization.

The MicroFuel Cell™ is the New Paradigm
Wires Stacks of heavy plate

Printed Circuit Boards

Composites (MSI/NovArs)

Integrated Circuits

Roll Sheets

(MSI/ERD)

Bipolar Current Collection

Lateral Current Collection

Exploded View of the MicroFuel Cell™ Assembly

M icro Fuel C ell TM Sche m a tic C ross Sectiona l V iew (A ir Re a ction) (Fuel R ea ction) 3 C H 3O H + H 20 C O 2 + 6H+ 6e+ 3H 2 O 6H ++ 2 O2 + 6e
ee-

(-) S ID E

C o nd uctio n Electrod e A ir Ele ctro d e
H+ O
-2

Fue l Electrod e

A ir C ell Brea k

H

+ e-

C ell Brea k
C O2
e-

e-

LO A D
C e ll Inte rco nnections
H+ O
-2

C a rb on D io xid e M e tha no l + W a ter Etche d N uclea r P a rticle Tra ck P la stic M em b ra ne
e-

H

+ e-

H2O

O x y g en

W a ter

Ele ctro ly te B a rrier La yer

(+ ) S ID E eP ro to n C o nd uctive Ele ctro ly te C O 2 + 3 H2 O

C H3 O H + H 2 O + 3 O 2 2

(N e t Fue l C e ll Rea ction)

The MicroFuel Cell™
• • • • • • • • • • Thin flexible sheet plastic substrates. Low metal to insulator ratio. Potential blocking layers and new electrolytes. No mechanical electrical contacts. Light weight flexible assemblies. Common fuel manifolds. Non-bipolar stacking. No moving parts. Ambient operation. Methanol, ethanol or chemical hydride fuels, or mixed fuels.

Fault Tolerance by Design

• • • • • • •

Thin metal films over dielectric substrates. Built in diodes. Flow field and fuel source impedance. Diffusion membrane fuel and air delivery. Self sealing connections. Parallel arrays. Mimic biological systems.

System Redundancy • Parallel array of fuel cells • Diode arrays • Analogy to large solar arrays or electric power grids • Alternating current fuel cells? • Smart component systems

Exploded View of Cylinder MicroFuel Cell™
D ieletric Ba cking Surfa ce A ir M a nifold Surfa ce M icroFuel C ell A ssem b ly
TM

V ent H oles

Positive Term ina l C a p

Fuel G a sket N eg a tive Term ina l C a p

Fuel Ta nk Fuel G a sket

D ielectric Tub e

Portable Charger MicroFuel Cell™ Prototype

Challenges
• Effective catalyst surface area • Water management of the fuel cell. • Reduced reactant crossover or idle losses while maintaining desired power performance. • Maintaining performance over a range of exterior humidity, pressure and temperatures. • Endurance and reliability. • Packaging.

Heat and Water Management
• Product water flooding at or near ambient temperature operation. • Electrolyte dehydration at elevated temperature operation.

• • • •

Higher temperature operation. Electrolytes that can operate without water. Product water removal, vapor, wicking, pumping. Mimic animal and plant systems.

Fuel Packaging • Fuels: methanol, chemical hydrides, hydrogen, dimethyl ether, and ethanol. • Fuel tanks and bottles • Fuel ampoules • Sealed systems • Open systems • Binary systems • Immobilization • Fire retardation • Compartmentalization

Cost Comparisons

M e th a n o l 500 m W F u e l C e ll F u e l A m p o u le D e liv e re d E n e rg y Fuel C ost

H yd ro g e n (c h e m ic a l h yd rid e ) $ 0 .4 $ 0 .3 9 (2 1 A *h rs ) $ 0 .4 4 -$ 1 1 /kW *H r 5 0 % E ffic ie n c y.

$5 $ 0 .1 0 (3 5 A *h rs ) $ 0 .1 2 /kW *H r 3 0 % E ffic ie n c y.

Fuel and Oxidizer Crossover

• • • •

The perfect electrolyte: High single ionic conductivity. Zero reactant crossover rates. Constant performance over a wide range of temperatures and humidities. • Inert to contaminants, insoluble and immobile.

NanoTechnology expected to be used in Micro Fuel Cells

• For catalytic surface area engineering (The triple
interface between fuel-catalyst-electrolyte).,

• Electrolyte structure engineering, • Embedded electrical circuit engineering, • and MEMS (Micro-Electro Mechanical Systems) to control fuel and air on the micro-scale.

Nanostructure of Electrode Surface, Electromicrograph.

Organized Nanoporous Electrolyte 30 nanometer diameter pores in MicroFuel Cell™ membrane.

Current Status
• Achieved 400 Watt*hr/Kg on a test cell, with methanol/water fuel, no moving parts and room temperature conditions (22°C @ .75 atm).

• Achieved 5.7% hydrogen yield by weight with chemical hydride ampoules. Translates to practical system estimate of 940 Watt*hr/kg (0.6 V/cell).

A Survivor: 1000 days

마이크로 연료전지의 응용사례

Toshiba’s Docking Station Prototype for a Laptop and DMFC Prototype for Mobile Phones

Smart Fuel Cell’s DMFC Prototype for Laptop & Smart Fuel Cell’s Powerboy Prototype

마이크로 연료전지의 응용사례

NEC’s DMFC Prototype for a Laptop and NEC’s DMFC Prototype for Mobile Phones

Hitachi’s DMFC Prototype for mobile phones

마이크로 연료전지의 응용사례

Toshiba Announces World's Smallest Direct Methanol Fuel Cell With Energy Output of 100 Milliwatts

Samsung’s 10 hour DMFC Prototype for a Laptop

SFC A50

마이크로 연료전지의 응용사례

Military Fuel Cell prototype powerpack in military battery (BA5590) form factor powering Harris Corp’s Falcon II Tactical Radio.

Industrial Mobion™ power pack integrated into Intermec Technologies’ portable Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) reader with methanol fuel refill cartridge. Debuted November 2004

마이크로 연료전지의 응용사례

Consumer Mobion™ technology powering PDA/smart phone (left) and handheld entertainment system (below) concept models.

MTI MicroFuel Cell’s Mobion DMFC fuel cell, shown here with a PDA/smartphone mockup.

마이크로 연료전지의 응용사례

Main Specifications
Product Output Voltage Size Weight Operating hours Methanol fuel cell directly connected to the PC Average 12W Maximum 20W 11V 275 x 75 x 40mm (825cc) 900g Approx. 5hours with 50cc, and 10hours with 100cc, of high concentration methanol fuel

Cartridge weight
Cartridge size Fuel

120g (100cc), 72g (50cc) (Approximate)
100cc:50x65x35mm, 50cc:33x65x35mm Methanol

The Next Step:

Commercialization


				
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