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Classroom Expectations

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					Revisiting SST and Welcome
                     to RTI

              Student Support Team
            Response to Intervention
Agenda


• Review the process of SST
• Introduce RTI
• Discuss the relationship of RTI to the SST
  process
• What is RTI
• Review the SST/RTI Resource Guide
• Discuss nuts & bolts
• Where to?
Purpose of the Student Study Team
• The purpose of the Student Study Team is to
  design a support system for students having
  difficulty in the regular classroom. Once
  activated, this process will assist teachers and
  students by generating classroom instructional
  suggestions, classroom accommodations and/or
  intervention plans. The team may also act as a
  resource for additional services or programs. (i.e.,
  ESL, G/T, school Medicaid program, etc.)
• SSTs provide consultation to teachers using a
  problem-solving process to better serve
  students. They provide teachers with enhanced
  skills that may be useful in assisting future
  students. Additionally, SSTs decrease
  inappropriate referrals to Special Education. SSTs
  assist the school community in maximizing
  resources. SSTs are not intended to replace
  reviews for students with current IEPs.
Selecting SST Members
• The size of the Student Study Team depends upon
  the personnel resources available in a
  building. The typical size of SSTs ranges from
  four to seven members.
• In most instances, a core team is
  established. This core team may be composed of
  the principal, assistant principal or a SST
  coordinator, guidance counselor, regular
  education teacher, school psychologist or social
  worker, special education teacher,
  paraprofessionals, ESL staff and/or school
  nurse. Core team membership is based upon
  building need, student need, and/ or available
  resources. One advantage to using a core team is
  that it provides continuity for members serving on
  the team.
       What Are Interventions?

• Increase task structure (directions, rationale,
  checks for understanding, feedback)
• Increase task relevant to practice
• Increase opportunities to engage in active
  academic responding (e.g. writing, reading
  aloud, answering questions in class)
• Mini-lesson on skill deficits
• Decrease group size
• Increase the amount and type of cues and
  prompts
What Are Interventions?
• Match curricular materials and instructional level
• Modify modes of task presentation
• Cue work habits/organizational skills
• Modify direct instruction time
• Modify guided and independent practice
• Modify instructional time
• Ensure optimal pacing
• Partner read
• Self-correct mistakes
What Are Interventions

• Teach additional learning strategies
• Organizational/Metacognitive/Work habits
• Change Curriculum
• Add intensive one to one small group
  instruction
• Change scope and sequence of tasks
• Increase guided and independent practice
• Change types and methods of corrective
  feedback
        Interventions Are Not

• Preferential Seating
• Shortened assignments
• Parent Contacts
• Classroom Observations
• Suspension
• Doing More of the Same/general classroom
  assignments
• Retention
• Peer-tutoring
The Historical Failure of Interventions

Essential Practice                 Not Found

Adequate Behavioral definition?    85%

Data Prior to intervention?        90%

Written Plan for Intervention?     85%

Progress Monitored/Changes made?   95%

Compare pre to post measures?      90%
The New Puzzle Piece-RTI

•RTI is one
component of a
comprehensive
evaluation.
What is ‘Response to Intervention’ (RTI)?

  ‘Response to Intervention is an emerging
   approach to the diagnosis of Learning
   Disabilities that holds considerable promise. In
   the RTI model:
• A student with academic delays is given one or more
  research-validated interventions.
• The student’s academic progress is monitored frequently
  to see if those interventions are sufficient to help the
  student to catch up with his or her peers.
• If the student fails to show significantly improved
  academic skills despite several well-designed and
  implemented interventions, this failure to ‘respond to
  intervention’ can be viewed as evidence of an underlying
  Learning Disability.
The steps of RTI for an individual case…

   Under RTI, if a student is found to be performing well
   below peers, the school will:
Determine the likely reason(s) for the student’s depressed
   academic performance
Select a scientifically-based intervention likely to improve the
    student’s academic functioning
Monitor academic progress frequently to evaluate the impact
   of the intervention
If the student fails to respond to several well-implemented
     interventions, consider a referral to Special Education
Determine the likely reason(s) for the student’s
depressed academic performance:

  There can be several possible underlying
  reasons why a student is doing poorly in an
  academic area. It is critical to determine the
  reason(s) for poor performance in order to
  select an appropriate intervention:
• Skill Deficit: The student lacks the necessary skills to
  perform the academic task.
• ‘Fragile’ Skills: the student possesses the necessary
  skills but is not yet fluent and automatic in those skills.
• Performance (Motivation) Deficit: The student has the
  necessary skills but lacks the motivation to complete the
  academic task.
 Select a scientifically-based intervention likely to
improve the student’s academic functioning:

  Any intervention idea chosen for the student
  should be backed by scientific research(e.g.,
  research articles in peer-reviewed professional
  journals) demonstrating that the intervention is
  effective in addressing the student’s underlying
  reason(s) for academic failure.
Monitor academic progress frequently to
evaluate the impact of the intervention:

  Under RTI, interventions are monitored frequently (e.g.,
  weekly) using valid and reliable measures that are
  sensitive to short-term gains in student performance.
• Measure for Basic Academic Skills: Curriculum-based
  Measurement (CBM) probes are short, timed
  assessments that have been developed to measure
  phonic awareness, oral reading fluency, math
  computation, writing, and spelling skills (Shinn, 1989).
• Measure for Classroom Academic and General
  Behaviors:
     Daily Behavior Report Card (DBRCs): These customized
      teacher rating forms allow the instructor to evaluate the
      student’s behaviors each day (Chafouleas, 2005).
     Direct Observation: An external observer visits the
      classroom to observe the student;s rate of on-task and
      academically engaged behaviors; (Shapiro, 1996).
 If the student fails to respond to a series of several well-
implemented interventions, consider a referral to special
Education.

   In the RTI model, the student would be referred for a
   special education evaluation if:
• A series of research-based interventions have been
  attempted
• There is documentation that the interventions were
  carried out as designed (treatment/intervention integrity)
• Progress-monitoring data shows that the student failed to
  meet the goal set for his or her improvement (that is, the
  student shows a ‘discrepancy in rate of learning’ relative
  to grade-peers).
Could it be a Learning Disability?

• Does the student appear to have areas of
  significant strength and weakness?
• Does the student appear to have average
  intelligence?
• Has the student’s poor academic performance
  continued despite targeted interventions?
Why RTI?

• Discrepancy has developed into a “wait to fail”
  model
• Discrepancy model not proven to be effective
• Over identification
• Disproportionality
Why RTI?

• Use information that makes sense to personnel
  -logical
  -research based
  -discussion is based on school staff experience
  -utilize teacher’s daily data as a part of the
  problem solving method
  -Is this the best we can do?
  - “The question is not is it possible to educate
  all children well? But rather, Do we want to do
  it badly enough?” D.Meier
What is the LD problem?
• Identification occurs too   • Minority over/under
  late                          representation
• Identification requires     • Cost in assessment and
  students to fail              services
• Too many students           • Classified without
                                participating in effective
                                reading instruction in the
                                regular classroom
                     Harm

• Pivotal issue is harm to children.
• Ability-achievement discrepancy model delays
  treatment to the point where there is
  documented evidence that treatments are less
  effective to the point where children suffer the
  profound consequences of poor reading
  instruction.
Determining the Existence of LD

The group may find that a child has LD if:
1) Child doe not achieve adequately for his/her
   age or to meet State-approved grade-level
   standards, when provided with appropriate
   instruction; and
2) Child does not make sufficient academic
   progress when using RTI (or other alternative
   methods using research-based interventions)
   or exhibits a pattern of strengths and
   weaknesses (discrepancy formula); and
Determining the Existence of LD

3) The ‘group” rules out vision, hearing, or motor
   disabilities; MR ;ED; cultural factors;
   environmental/economic disadvantage; or
   limited English proficiency as cause of the
   deficits.
4) LEA must ensure that the child is observed in
   the regular classroom setting (or other
   appropriate learning environment). This
   observation can be done prior to the referral (if
   routine), or after the referral (with parent
   informed consent)
The “group” must also ensure that under
achievement is not due to lack of appropriate
instruction in reading or math,” by considering:

1) Data that demonstrated that prior to or as a
   part of, the referral process, the child was
   provided “appropriate instruction in regular
   classroom settings,” delivered by qualified
   personnel; and
2) Data-based documentation of repeated
   assessments of achievement at reasonable
   intervals “which were provided to the child’s
   parents.
34 C.F.R. 300.309
   Six Critical Components of an RTI
                  Model
• Universal Screening
• Measurable definition of problem area
• Baseline data prior to an intervention
• Establishment of a written plan detailing
  accountability
• Progress Monitoring
• Comparison of pre intervention data to post
  intervention data for efficacy
        Problems to Overcome

• Teachers have a “full plate” and the process will
  not be successful without significant support to
  the teacher
  - Pre-referral mentors
  - Redefining the psychologist’s role
  -Taking something off the plate of teachers
      *Volunteers
      * Teaching assistants
      * Community Resources
        Problems to Overcome

• Training and more training
    Follow-up
    Must be at least annual


• The more interventions the more training
• Trying to bite off more than you can chew at
  one time
     -Implementation in phases, not ALL at once
     unless you are a small district
Resource Guide
Nuts & Bolts
Where To????




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