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Revisiting SST and Welcome to RTI Student Support Team Response to Intervention Agenda • Review the process of SST • Introduce RTI • Discuss the relationship of RTI to the SST process • What is RTI • Review the SST/RTI Resource Guide • Discuss nuts & bolts • Where to? Purpose of the Student Study Team • The purpose of the Student Study Team is to design a support system for students having difficulty in the regular classroom. Once activated, this process will assist teachers and students by generating classroom instructional suggestions, classroom accommodations and/or intervention plans. The team may also act as a resource for additional services or programs. (i.e., ESL, G/T, school Medicaid program, etc.) • SSTs provide consultation to teachers using a problem-solving process to better serve students. They provide teachers with enhanced skills that may be useful in assisting future students. Additionally, SSTs decrease inappropriate referrals to Special Education. SSTs assist the school community in maximizing resources. SSTs are not intended to replace reviews for students with current IEPs. Selecting SST Members • The size of the Student Study Team depends upon the personnel resources available in a building. The typical size of SSTs ranges from four to seven members. • In most instances, a core team is established. This core team may be composed of the principal, assistant principal or a SST coordinator, guidance counselor, regular education teacher, school psychologist or social worker, special education teacher, paraprofessionals, ESL staff and/or school nurse. Core team membership is based upon building need, student need, and/ or available resources. One advantage to using a core team is that it provides continuity for members serving on the team. What Are Interventions? • Increase task structure (directions, rationale, checks for understanding, feedback) • Increase task relevant to practice • Increase opportunities to engage in active academic responding (e.g. writing, reading aloud, answering questions in class) • Mini-lesson on skill deficits • Decrease group size • Increase the amount and type of cues and prompts What Are Interventions? • Match curricular materials and instructional level • Modify modes of task presentation • Cue work habits/organizational skills • Modify direct instruction time • Modify guided and independent practice • Modify instructional time • Ensure optimal pacing • Partner read • Self-correct mistakes What Are Interventions • Teach additional learning strategies • Organizational/Metacognitive/Work habits • Change Curriculum • Add intensive one to one small group instruction • Change scope and sequence of tasks • Increase guided and independent practice • Change types and methods of corrective feedback Interventions Are Not • Preferential Seating • Shortened assignments • Parent Contacts • Classroom Observations • Suspension • Doing More of the Same/general classroom assignments • Retention • Peer-tutoring The Historical Failure of Interventions Essential Practice Not Found Adequate Behavioral definition? 85% Data Prior to intervention? 90% Written Plan for Intervention? 85% Progress Monitored/Changes made? 95% Compare pre to post measures? 90% The New Puzzle Piece-RTI •RTI is one component of a comprehensive evaluation. What is ‘Response to Intervention’ (RTI)? ‘Response to Intervention is an emerging approach to the diagnosis of Learning Disabilities that holds considerable promise. In the RTI model: • A student with academic delays is given one or more research-validated interventions. • The student’s academic progress is monitored frequently to see if those interventions are sufficient to help the student to catch up with his or her peers. • If the student fails to show significantly improved academic skills despite several well-designed and implemented interventions, this failure to ‘respond to intervention’ can be viewed as evidence of an underlying Learning Disability. The steps of RTI for an individual case… Under RTI, if a student is found to be performing well below peers, the school will: Determine the likely reason(s) for the student’s depressed academic performance Select a scientifically-based intervention likely to improve the student’s academic functioning Monitor academic progress frequently to evaluate the impact of the intervention If the student fails to respond to several well-implemented interventions, consider a referral to Special Education Determine the likely reason(s) for the student’s depressed academic performance: There can be several possible underlying reasons why a student is doing poorly in an academic area. It is critical to determine the reason(s) for poor performance in order to select an appropriate intervention: • Skill Deficit: The student lacks the necessary skills to perform the academic task. • ‘Fragile’ Skills: the student possesses the necessary skills but is not yet fluent and automatic in those skills. • Performance (Motivation) Deficit: The student has the necessary skills but lacks the motivation to complete the academic task. Select a scientifically-based intervention likely to improve the student’s academic functioning: Any intervention idea chosen for the student should be backed by scientific research(e.g., research articles in peer-reviewed professional journals) demonstrating that the intervention is effective in addressing the student’s underlying reason(s) for academic failure. Monitor academic progress frequently to evaluate the impact of the intervention: Under RTI, interventions are monitored frequently (e.g., weekly) using valid and reliable measures that are sensitive to short-term gains in student performance. • Measure for Basic Academic Skills: Curriculum-based Measurement (CBM) probes are short, timed assessments that have been developed to measure phonic awareness, oral reading fluency, math computation, writing, and spelling skills (Shinn, 1989). • Measure for Classroom Academic and General Behaviors: Daily Behavior Report Card (DBRCs): These customized teacher rating forms allow the instructor to evaluate the student’s behaviors each day (Chafouleas, 2005). Direct Observation: An external observer visits the classroom to observe the student;s rate of on-task and academically engaged behaviors; (Shapiro, 1996). If the student fails to respond to a series of several well- implemented interventions, consider a referral to special Education. In the RTI model, the student would be referred for a special education evaluation if: • A series of research-based interventions have been attempted • There is documentation that the interventions were carried out as designed (treatment/intervention integrity) • Progress-monitoring data shows that the student failed to meet the goal set for his or her improvement (that is, the student shows a ‘discrepancy in rate of learning’ relative to grade-peers). Could it be a Learning Disability? • Does the student appear to have areas of significant strength and weakness? • Does the student appear to have average intelligence? • Has the student’s poor academic performance continued despite targeted interventions? Why RTI? • Discrepancy has developed into a “wait to fail” model • Discrepancy model not proven to be effective • Over identification • Disproportionality Why RTI? • Use information that makes sense to personnel -logical -research based -discussion is based on school staff experience -utilize teacher’s daily data as a part of the problem solving method -Is this the best we can do? - “The question is not is it possible to educate all children well? But rather, Do we want to do it badly enough?” D.Meier What is the LD problem? • Identification occurs too • Minority over/under late representation • Identification requires • Cost in assessment and students to fail services • Too many students • Classified without participating in effective reading instruction in the regular classroom Harm • Pivotal issue is harm to children. • Ability-achievement discrepancy model delays treatment to the point where there is documented evidence that treatments are less effective to the point where children suffer the profound consequences of poor reading instruction. Determining the Existence of LD The group may find that a child has LD if: 1) Child doe not achieve adequately for his/her age or to meet State-approved grade-level standards, when provided with appropriate instruction; and 2) Child does not make sufficient academic progress when using RTI (or other alternative methods using research-based interventions) or exhibits a pattern of strengths and weaknesses (discrepancy formula); and Determining the Existence of LD 3) The ‘group” rules out vision, hearing, or motor disabilities; MR ;ED; cultural factors; environmental/economic disadvantage; or limited English proficiency as cause of the deficits. 4) LEA must ensure that the child is observed in the regular classroom setting (or other appropriate learning environment). This observation can be done prior to the referral (if routine), or after the referral (with parent informed consent) The “group” must also ensure that under achievement is not due to lack of appropriate instruction in reading or math,” by considering: 1) Data that demonstrated that prior to or as a part of, the referral process, the child was provided “appropriate instruction in regular classroom settings,” delivered by qualified personnel; and 2) Data-based documentation of repeated assessments of achievement at reasonable intervals “which were provided to the child’s parents. 34 C.F.R. 300.309 Six Critical Components of an RTI Model • Universal Screening • Measurable definition of problem area • Baseline data prior to an intervention • Establishment of a written plan detailing accountability • Progress Monitoring • Comparison of pre intervention data to post intervention data for efficacy Problems to Overcome • Teachers have a “full plate” and the process will not be successful without significant support to the teacher - Pre-referral mentors - Redefining the psychologist’s role -Taking something off the plate of teachers *Volunteers * Teaching assistants * Community Resources Problems to Overcome • Training and more training Follow-up Must be at least annual • The more interventions the more training • Trying to bite off more than you can chew at one time -Implementation in phases, not ALL at once unless you are a small district Resource Guide Nuts & Bolts Where To???? ?
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