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MCI and Climate Change Overview

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					MOTOR COACH INDUSTRIES
Climate Change Initiatives

Percy Phillips
Director of Engineering

MCI and Climate Change Overview:
   

1. About Motor Coach Industries 2. Transportation and Climate Change 3. Traffic and Bus Energy and Emissions 4. MCI Climate Improvement Opportunities: – Compressed (or Liquified) Natural Gas fueled commuter bus – Hybrid powered commuter bus – Low Emission Auxiliary Power Units – Driver Training for Energy Use Optimization. 5. Government Climate Improvement Opportunities: – Provide R&D assistance for low emission bus projects – Increase bus ridership – Provide Tax Incentives and/or Subsidies to support low emission bus deployment and ridership.
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Privileged and Confidential

MCI: Who We Are
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MCI designs, develops, manufactures and markets intercity coaches for revenue service and personal use. MCI is the largest North American coach manufacturer, with plants and offices in Manitoba, Quebec, North Dakota, New Mexico, California, Texas, New Jersey,Ohio, Kentucky, Illinois, and Mexico. In Manitoba alone, we build almost 1,400 coaches per year, with almost 2,000 employees. Some of the major subcontractors supporting MCI in Manitoba include: Vansco, Acrylon, Franklin, EH Price, Custom Steel, Sigma, Mackow, Stormtite, Industrial Rubber, Thor, Dupont, and Atlas Alloys.
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Privileged and Confidential

Climate Change
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Scientific evidence strongly suggests that the rapid buildup of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is raising the earth's temperature and changing the earth's climate with many potentially serious consequences.

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Greenhouse Gas Emissions


Canada is number 3 in the world for Greenhouse Gas Emissions at 6.0 MMTCE (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Equivalent) per capita.

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Transportation’s Contribution to Greenhouse Gases:
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The transportation sector is the second largest contributor to greenhouse gases.

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Greenhouse Gases from Transportation:
 Primary

Greenhouse Gases:

– Carbon Dioxide, CO2 – Nitrous Oxide, N2O – Methane, CH4

 Indirect

Greenhouse Gases:

– Nitrogen Oxides, NOx – Carbon Monoxide, CO

Privileged and Confidential

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CO2 Production
1998 CO2 Emissions
Fossil Fuel Combustion Cement Manufacture Natural Gas Flaring Lime Manufacture Waste Combustion Limestone and Dolomite Use Soda Ash Manufacture and Consumption Carbon Dioxide Consumption International Bunker Fuelsb

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Nitrogen Oxide Emissions
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While total N2O emissions are much lower than CO2 emissions, N2O is approximately 310 times more powerful than CO2 at trapping heat in the atmosphere (IPCC 1996). Mobile sources are the second largest producer of N2O.

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Recent Trends
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The recent trends show a general increase in total greenhouse gas emissions.

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Bus Emissions
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Total bus and Heavy Duty Truck emissions have increased.
Bus Emissions
4

3.5

3

2.5

MMTCE

2

Buses CO2

HD Trucks and Buses CH4

1.5

HD Trucks and Buses N2O

1

0.5

0 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 Year 1995 1996 1997 1998

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Traffic
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Average MCI coach has seating for 56 passengers Assuming some existing car pooling, one coach could easily take 40 cars off the road during rush hour.

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Privileged and Confidential

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Traffic Energy and Emissions
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Year 2000 average Canadian car fuel economy was 24.2 miles per U.S. gallon, or .0412 gallons per mile per car which generates .3605 kg CO2 per mile per car. 40 passenger cars would release 14.42 kg CO2 per mile.

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Typical MCI intercity coach fuel economy is 6.7 mpg, or .149 gallons per mile per coach which generates 1.49 kg CO2 per mile per bus.
If one coach could replace 40 cars during rush hour commutes, it would generate 11 times less CO2, and save 1.5 gallons per mile. However, for the last 30 years, while intercity bus miles traveled in Canada has not shown any trend, the number of passengers has declined. In the U.S., this trend has not been demonstrated. Therefore, bus usage has become less optimized in Canada.
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Privileged and Confidential

Intercity Bus Usage in Canada
Canadian Intercity Bus
(source: Transport Canada)

250,000

200,000

150,000 Passengers (X1000) Veh-Kms (X1000) 100,000

50,000

0

1941

1943

1945

1947

1949

1951

1953

1955

1957

1959

1961

1963

1965

1967

1969

1971

1973

1975

1977

1979

1981

1983

1985

1987

1989

1991

1993

1995

Year

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1997

Canada vs. U.S. Bus Usage
Intercity Bus Passengers
(source: Transport Canada)

120

100

80

Index (1970 = 100)

60

US Canada

40

20

0

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19 70 19 71 19 72 19 73 19 74 19 75 19 76 19 77 19 78 19 79 19 80 19 81 19 82 19 83 19 84 19 85 19 86 19 87 19 88 19 89 19 90 19 91 19 92 19 93 19 94 19 95 19 96 19 97
Year

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Canadian Bus Usage
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If Canadian Bus Usage could be returned to the 1970 level, we could take over 20 Million car trips off the Canadian roads, and save at least 387 kg of CO2 per mile traveled. Less traffic congestion would also further reduce the emissions generated by the remaining vehicles on the street, through smoother flowing traffic.

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MCI Climate Change Initiatives/Opportunities:
Natural Gas Fueled Engines:

 Compared

to current Diesel Engines:

– 50% less NOx emissions – up to 25% less CO2 – significant reductions in other toxic emissions

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MCI Climate Change Initiatives/Opportunities:
 MCI

CNG fueled Commuter bus is currently offered.

 Future

opportunities for LNG Commuter Bus and CNG/LNG short haul Tour Coach.
– Current CNG/LNG DDC S60 engine carries a tremendous cost penalty. The S60G engine is currently the only CNG/LNG engine available in the power range required for our bus/coach size/weight. – Low cost, light weight fuel tanks. – R & D costs for MCI to develop LNG Commuter Coach ~ $2 Million (US).

 Challenges:

 Opportunities:
– possible alternative CNG/LNG engine development cooperative program with Westport Innovations of Vancouver, B.C.
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Privileged and Confidential

MCI Climate Change Initiatives/Opportunities:
Diesel fueled Hybrid-Electric Powered:

 Compared

to current conventional Diesel Powertrains:

– 50% less NOx emissions* – 50% less CO2 emissions* – significant reductions in other toxic emissions * over CBD-14 standard driving cycle
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MCI Climate Change Initiatives/Opportunities:
 MCI

does not currently offer a Diesel Hybrid Electric powertrain bus. sales opportunities for Hybrid- Electric Commuter Buses.

 Future

 Challenges:
– R & D costs for MCI to develop a Hybrid Powered Commuter Coach ~ $2 Million (US) – Cost of hybrid components are still high, therefore the hybrid bus will also carry a significant cost penalty.

 Opportunities:
– MCI currently has an opportunity with Allison Electric Drives to codevelop an advanced Parallel Hybrid-Electric commuter bus.
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Privileged and Confidential

MCI Climate Change Initiatives/Opportunities:
Low Emission Auxiliary Power Units (APU):

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Current Commuter Buses and Coaches often spend a great deal of time idling, to maintain interior comfort levels (heat in winter, A/C in summer), and electrical accessories.

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A typical Coach or Commuter Bus spends 40% of it’s time with the engine at idle. This corresponds to about 2000 gallons of fuel, and generates approximately 20,000 kg of CO2, per year per bus. With over 3000 coaches in Canada alone, this corresponds to 60 Million kg of CO2 per year. For all of North America, 880 Million kg of CO2 are generated by coaches idling.
A low emission, high efficiency APU could generate electricity to run the bus/coach “hotel loads”, and allow the main engine to shut down, thereby conserving fuel and reducing emissions.
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Privileged and Confidential

MCI Climate Change Initiatives/Opportunities:
 MCI

does not currently offer a low emission APU.

 Future

opportunities to use small Fuel Cells, MicroTurbines, or other low emission, high efficiency auxiliary power sources.
– MCI does not currently have the budget (or necessary expertise) to develop the APU systems. – Cost of Fuel Cells are still high, therefore the APU may also carry a significant cost penalty.

 Challenges:

 Opportunities:
– Canada is the leader in Fuel Cell technology, with several companies developing different fuel cell systems.
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MCI Climate Change Initiatives/Opportunities:
Driver and Mechanic Training:

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Current and future Bus and Coach drivers and service personnel can be trained to: – minimize bus idling times (park in shaded areas in summer, etc.) – drive smoothly to conserve energy and reduce emissions – maintain the bus/coach in a “clean” and efficient state of tune (brakes aren’t dragging, etc.). However, MCI currently does not have the budget to expand training programs.

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Summary:
Opportunities for MCI to help reduce climate change:
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CNG/LNG powered buses/coaches Hybrid-Electric powered buses High Efficiency, Low Emission APUs to reduce idle time Driver and Maintenance Training Programs

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Summary:
Opportunities for the Canadian and Manitoba Governments:
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provide R&D assistance for the “green” technology bus projects, and training initiatives. increase bus ridership in Canada. offset “green” technology bus costs with Tax Incentives or Subsidies for bus/coach operators: – ~ $50,000 (US) for each Hybrid bus – ~ $80,000 (US) for each CNG/LNG bus – ~ $30,000 (US) for each APU equipped bus – reduce fuel taxes on ultra low sulfur Diesel fuel, CNG and other possible “clean” fuels.

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Privileged and Confidential

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