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EP_Chapter 32 Mammals

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					Mammals!!
 Chapter 32
Section 32-1 Introduction to Mammals

•List the characteristics
 of mammals
•Describe how mammals
 perform essential life
 functions
CLASSIFICATION
• KINGDOM: Animalia
• PHYLUM: Chordata
• SUBPHYLUM:Vertebrata
• CLASS: MAMMALIA
• ORDERS:
  –MONOTREMES
  –MARSUPIALS
  –12 Orders of PLACENTAL
   mammals
CHARACTERISTICS
• Hair
• Mammary Glands
  –Nourish young w/ milk
• Breathe air
• Four-chambered heart
• Endotherms: generate
 body heat internally
Form & Function: BODY TEMP
• Body Temperature Control
  • Like birds, mammals are
    ENDOTHERMS
     • Stays w/in ideal operating
       range
     • Higher metabolism to
       generate body heat
     • External body hair and
       Subcutaneous fat
       • Help conserve body heat
    • Some have sweat glands to
      cool body
       • If no sweat glands, some
         pant to rid heat
Getting rid of excess heat
Form & Function: FEEDING
   • Mammals have high metabolic rate
      –Must eat LOTS!
   • Herbivores
      –EX: rabbits, giraffes
   • Carnivores
      –EX: cats, weasels
   • Omnivores
      –EX: humans, bears
   • Filter Feeders
     –Ex) Humpback whales
Form & Function: DIGESTION
• SPECILIZED Jaws &
  Teeth:
  –Stronger Joint b/w
    skull & lower jaw
  –Canines (piercing &
    tearing)
  –Incisors (cutting &
    gnawing)
  –Molars (crush & grind)
                            Jaws & Teeth
            CARNIVORE                                                          HERBIVORE
                                  Canines are pointed teeth. Carnivores
                               use them for piercing, gripping, and tearing.
                                In herbivores, they are reduced or absent.




                                                                                                 Jaw
Jaw joint                                                                                        joint




                                                                                   Horse
                  Wolf               Chisel-like incisors are used for
                                     cutting, gnawing, and grooming.



            Molars crush and grind food. The ridged shape of the wolf’s molars and premolars
              allows them to interlock during chewing, like the blades of scissors. The broad,
             flattened molars and premolars of horses are adapted for grinding tough plants.
Form & Function: DIGESTION
• SPECILIZED Digestive Tract:
   –CARNIVORES: meat is more
      quickly broken down… thus
      shorter GI tract
  –   HERBIVORES: plant tissue
      longer digestion… thus longer
      GI tract
       • RUMEN: plant food
         stored & processed;
         bacteria digest cellulose;
         regurgitated back to
         mouth (cows)
                Digestive Systems
                 of Vertebrates

Esophagus     Shark   Salamander   Lizard   Pigeon   Cow
Stomach
Intestine
Liver
Gallbladder
Pancreas
Cloaca
Crop
Gizzard
Cecum
Rectum
Form & Function: RESPIRATION
• LUNGS:      controlled by
    intercostals (ribs) muscles &
    diaphragm
•   INHALE:
   –Muscles lift rib cage up & out
   –Diaphragm contracts
• EXHALE
   –Muscles relax pulling rib cage
    down
   –Diaphragm relaxes
• ALVEOLI (site of gas
    exchange)
Vertebrate Lungs

   Nostrils, mouth, and throat
   Trachea
   Lung
   Air sac




 Salamander               Lizard   Primate   Pigeon
Form & Function: CIRCULATION
• DOUBLE-Loop (completely
  separate)
  – PULMONARY: deoxygenated blood
    to lungs and back to heart (right)
     • R. ATRIUM to R. VENTRICLE
  – SYSTEMIC: oxygenated blood to
    body and back to heart (left)
     • L. ATRIUM to L. VENTRICLE
• 4 CHAMBER HEART
  – 2 ATRIA & 2 VENTRICLES
Structure of a Bear’s Heart




                                           Left
                                           atrium
                        Right
                       atrium
                                           Left
                                           ventricle
                           Right
                        ventricle

                                    Complete
                                    division
       Circulatory Systems
          of Vertebrates
   Single-Loop          Double-Loop Circulatory System
Circulatory System




     FISHES          MOST REPTILES     CROCODILIANS, BIRDS,
                                          AND MAMMALS
Form & Function: EXCRETION
• FUNCTION: control
  homeostasis of body
  fluids
  –Pressure/pH/components
• KIDNEYS: filters blood
  –Removes urea & excess
   water
  –Keeps sugars & salts
Form & Function: RESPONSE
 • BRAIN: most highly
   developed of all animals
 • CEREBRUM – largest portion
   – Cerebral Cortex (outer layer)
      • Thinking, learning, complex
        behaviors
 • CEREBELLUM – smaller
   portion
   – Muscular coordination
 • BRAIN STEM – base of brain
   – Medulla (involuntary functions)
      • Breathing & Heart Rate
Form & Function: REPRODUCTION
  • Mammals reproduce by
    internal fertilization
  • Fewer # of offspring
    & MORE parental care
  • VIVIPAROUS
   DEVELOPMENT:
    –Most
    –Nourishment off of
     mother’s body
Section 32-
2 Diversity
of Mammals
•Explain how the
Section 32-2 Learning Targets


 three groups of
 living mammals
 differ from one
 another.
•Name the major
 orders of placental
 mammals
•Monotremes
Three Groups of Living Mammals




•Marsupials
•Placentals
MONOTREMES
• ORDER: Monotremata
  “Egg Laying Mammals”
• CHARACTERISTICS:
  –Share two features with
   Reptiles:
    • Digestive, Reproductive and
        Urinary systems all open to a
        cloaca
    •   Lay soft shelled eggs that are
        incubated outside the body
  –In Mammals however the
   young are nourished by milk
   from the mothers body
•EXAMPLES:
 –Only 3 exist
  today
 –Duckbill Platypus;
  2 species of Spiny
  Anteaters
  (Echidnas)
MARSUPIALS
• ORDER: Marsupialia
• CHARACTERISTICS
  –Young develop in Uterus
   (nourished from yolk sac)
    • BUT complete their
        development in mother’s
        external POUCH (marsupium)
    •   Inside the marsupial it drinks


• EXAMPLES:
        milk and grows large


  –Kangaroos, Koalas,
   Wombats, Opossum (only
   one in U.S.)
Wombat
Newborns
Wombat
 Koala baby struggles from womb to
make the climb to the mothers pouch
PLACENTALS
 • ORDERS: 12 orders total
 • CHARACTERISTICS:
   –Named for Placenta (formed
    when the embryo’s tissue
    joins w/ mother’s tissue):
     • Exchanges nutrients,
       gases, wastes between
       embryo and mother
 • ADVANTAGES:
   –Allows for longer
    development
     • Mice a few weeks… Elephants
       2 years
 Compare/Contrast Table
                         Orders of Placental Mammals

Order          Characteristics                       Examples

Insectivores   Long, narrow snouts, sharp            Shrews, hedgehogs, moles
               claws
Sirenians      Water-dwelling, slow-moving           Manatees, dugongs
Cetaceans      Live and breed in ocean, come         Whales, dolphins
               to surface to breathe
Chiropterans   Winged, capable of true flight        Bats
Rodents        Single pair of long, curved incisor   Mice, rats, voles, squirrels,
               teeth in upper and lower jaws         beavers, porcupines, chinchillas
Compare/Contrast Table
                          Orders of Placental Mammals

Order            Characteristics                 Examples

Perissodactyls   Hoofed, with an odd number of   Horses, tapirs, rhinoceroses,
                 toes on each foot               zebras
Carnivores       Sharp teeth and claws           Tigers, hyenas, dogs, foxes,
                                                 bears, raccoons, walruses
Artiodactyls     Hoofed, with an even number     Cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, ibex,
                 of toes on each foot            giraffes, hippopotami, camels
Proboscideans    Trunks                          Asian and African elephants,
                                                 mastodons and mammoths
 Compare/Contrast Table
                       Orders of Placental Mammals

Order         Characteristics                  Examples

Lagomorphs    Two pairs of incisors in upper   Snowshoe hares, rabbits
              jaw, hind legs allow leaping
Xenarthrans   No teeth (or very small teeth    Sloths, anteaters, armadillos
              in the back of the jaw)
Primates      Highly developed cerebrum and    Lemurs, tarsiers, apes, gibbons,
              complex behaviors                macaques, humans
FETAL PIG DISSECTION
EXTERNAL (both)
FEMALE vs. MALE
ORAL CAVITY
NECK (ventral view)
RESPIRATION & CIRCULATION
DIGESTIVE
URINARY
FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE
FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE
MALE REPRODUCTIVE
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