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					DOPPLER/GPS 128 B
Terminal Learning Objective (TLO)

   ACTION: Describe components, operational
    characteristics, functions, procedures, and
    limitations of the AN/ASN 128B Doppler/GPS
    navigation system.

   CONDITIONS: In the classroom, given a 128B
    Doppler/GPS navigation system trainer and a student
    handout.

   STANDARDS: Correctly perform at the flight line the 3
    types of updates for the AN/ASN 128B Doppler/GPS
    navigational system IN Accordance With (IAW) TM 1-
    1520-240-10 and the student handout.
Terminal Learning Objective (TLO)

   SAFETY REQUIREMENTS: None

   RISK ASSESSMENT LEVEL: Low

   ENVIROMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS: None

   EVALUATION: Each student will be
    evaluated on this block of instruction at
    the flight line.
     LEARNING STEP/ACTIVITY 1

Describe the operational characteristics and
components of the 128B Doppler/GPS System.
    Description of the GPS Doppler Navigation Set
    The Doppler Navigation Set, in conjunction with the aircraft's
     heading, vertical references, position and velocity update from
     its internal GPS, provides accurate aircraft velocity, direction,
     position and steering information from ground level to 10,000
     feet.

    The system provides worldwide navigation, with position readout
     available in both Military Grid Reference System (MGRS) and
     LAT/LONG coordinates.

    Up to 100 destinations may be entered in both format and not
     necessarily the same format.

NOTE: Waypoints are numbered 00 to 99. Waypoints 00 to 69 are
standard waypoints. Waypoints 70 to 89 can not be changed via the
CDU keyboard and must be loaded from a data loader only, however
once loaded they are used for navigation. Waypoints 90 to 99 are
reserved for Target Store Waypoints, but can also be used as
standard waypoints.
     Computer Display Unit (CDU)

Computer Display Unit
(CDU)

It is used to control the
DGNS by allowing the
operator to select modes
of operation and
displays.
        Computer Display Unit (CDU)




     SDC



The CDU is mounted in the center of the canted
console, and is the only portion, to which the operator
has direct access.
       Computer Display Unit (CDU)

   The CDU is used to enter various operating data,
    such as initial present position, destination
    coordinates with or without GPS landing data, and
    magnetic variation. Data can be entered at any
    time into the CDU by using the keyboard or a pre-
    programmed data transfer module, but will usually
    be accomplished before flight.

   The CDU receives frequency information and GPS
    data (when in GPS mode or combined mode) from
    Signal Data Converter (SDC). The CDU also
    receives automatic inputs from the aircraft's
    avionics systems.
    Signal Data Converter (SDC)

Signal Data
Converter (SDC)

It converts the
information for
use in the CDU.
     Signal Data Converter (SDC)




The SDC is located in
the avionics closet on
the left side of the
aircraft.
    Signal Data Converter (SDC)

   The SDC receives the external inputs of
    heading, pitch, and roll from the aircraft
    systems and converts the information
    into a binary language for use in the
    CDU.

   The SDC includes an Embedded GPS
    Receiver (EGR) that receives GPS
    signals, which the SDC converts for use
    by the CDU.
Receiver-Transmitter Antenna (RTA).



    Receiver-
     Transmitter
     Antenna (RTA).
Receiver-Transmitter Antenna (RTA).




  Receiver-Transmitter Antenna (RTA).
Receiver-Transmitter Antenna (RTA).

The RTA
Transmits a
microwave
signal and
receives the
backscattered
microwave
signal and
sends it to the
SDC for
Doppler
positioning.
                  GPS Antenna



Global Position
System (GPS)
antenna




Located on top of fuselage on the 2nd tunnel cover or
the 1st short tunnel cover.
               GPS Antenna
It receives position/velocity signals, GPS
crypto signals, and Universal Time
Coordinates (UTC) from the GPS satellites it is
tracking and sends these signals to the SDC
for processing, providing Time of Day (TOD)
for the No. 1 and No. 2 VHF/FM and the
UHF/AM radio set.

Power to operate the set is supplied by the
No.2 PDP and the No. 1 AC instrument bus
through the NAV DOPPLER circuit breaker on
the No. 1 PDP
GPS Satellites
          Data Transfer Module

Data Transfer
Module

Located in the
avionics closet on
the left side of the
SDC.

It is the receptacle
for the data loader
cartridge.
         Data Transfer Module

The data transfer module is required for down
loading non-corruptible WP via the Aviation
Mission Planning System (AMPS) data
cartridge in WP’s 70-89 and cannot be
changed by the CDU Keyboard.

Other data that can be stored on the Data
Loader Cartridge includes initial present
position, destination coordinates with or
without GPS landing data, and magnetic
variation.
          Data Transfer Module
Prior to inserting the data loader cartridge,
the CDU should be OFF.

The cartridge is a preprogrammed storage
device used to enter data into the CDU.

It is a single entity. Nothing more than a
receptacle, it has an adapter for different
sources of media such as PCMCIA cards, 3 ½
disk, 3M cards and more.
               The GPS Alert Light
The GPS Alert
Light is located on   GPS
the center            Alert
instrument panel      light
right side of the
AN/APR-39AV(1)
Indicator.

It tells you that
something is
wrong with the
GPS.
         The GPS Zeroize Switch
The GPS Zeroize       GPS
Switch is located    Zeoize
next to the GPS
Alert Light and is
a guarded toggle
switch.




It is used to erase any crypto data and all
navigational information stored in the GPS
Receiver.
    LEARNING STEP/ACTIVITY 2
Describe the function of the switches and keys on the
 CDU
     Four Line Alfa-Numeric display
Four Line Alfa-
Numeric display

Displays
alphanumeric
characters, as
determined by the
operation of the
keyboard and both
the Display and
Mode Switches.
     Four Line Alfa-Numeric display
The Top line is
reserved for Fly-to
destination

It displays the WP
number, name (if
entered previously),
EPE in meter, GPS
code and GPS
Doppler Navigation
Set mode of
operation, and next
available target store
number.
Four Line Alfa-Numeric display




  Estimated Position Error (meters only)
Four Line Alfa-Numeric display



                                  Doppler GPS
                                  Navigaion mode:
                                  C-Combined
                                    Doppler/GPS
                                  G-GPS
                                  D-Doppler only
                                  R-Remembered
                                       velocities
                                  T-True airspeed
Selected GPS mode of operation,   *-No navigation
mode M or Y
     Four Line Alfa-Numeric display




                                         Next available
                                         Target store
                                         number



The remaining lines display data I/A/W the settings of
the Display and Mode switches.
           MAL Indicator lamp
MAL Indicator lamp


Lights when a
navigation set
malfunction is
detected by the
built-in-test
circuitry.
                      Mode Switch

     Mode Switch

Selects navigation set
mode of operation.

Six position switch

Off
Lamp Test
Test
MGRS
Lat/Long
GPS LDG
                      Off Position
In the off position the
navigation set is
inoperable;
nonvolatile RAM
retains stored.

NOTE: The MODE
switch is locked in the
OFF position and must
be pulled out and turned
to get into or out of OFF
position.
              Lamp Test Position

LAMP TEST

Checks operation of
all lamps.

NOTE: The BRT and
DIM keys will not
function with the
Mode switch in Lamp
Test once M or Y has
been selected.
                   Test Position
        TEST

Initiates built-in-
self-test exercise for
the Doppler and
GPS functions of the
Navigation set.
 Military Grid Reference System (MGRS) Position

     MGRS

Selects Military
Grid-Reference
System
navigational mode
of operation.
         Latitude/Longitude Position
     LAT/LONG

Selects
latitude/longitude
navigational mode of
operation.
            GPS Landing Position
       GPS LDG

Places navigation set in
GPS landing mode of
operation, providing
real-time, tactical
precision landing
guidance information to
the HSI indicator.
           Display Switch Positions
DISPLAY Switch

Selects navigation
data for display.

7 position switch

WIND-UTC DATA
XTK/TKE KEY
GS/TK NAV M
PP
DIST BRG TIME
WP TGT
DATUM ROUTE
  Wind-Universal Coordinated Time / Data position

WIND-UTC DATA

Used for wind
speed and
direction, UTC
time, sea
current, surface
wind, GPS status
and data load
functions.
   Cross Track Distance and Track Angle Error / Key


       XTK/TKE/Key

Displays steering (cross
track distance and track
angle error) information
and GPS variable key
status. Selection of fly to
destination by direct
entry of two digit
destination number.
      Cross Track Distance and Track Angle Error / Key

 The display indicates GPS
 daily key status, time
 remaining on the
 currently entered keys
 and how many Space
 Vehicles (SV) are
 currently being used by
 the GPS.

KEY    STATUS      TIME                  REMARKS
DK     OK          Days or hours still   GPS daily key in use and
                   available on key      verified.

DK     NO          *                     No GPS daily key available

DK     IN          *                     GPS daily key available but not
                                         verified.
    Ground Speed, Track Angle, Navigation Mode



   GS/TK NAV M

Displays ground
speed, trackangle,
and selection of
GPSand navigation
mode.
                 Present Position

        PP

Displays present
position, altitude,
and magnetic
variation.
   Distance, Bearing, and Time Position
  DIST BRG TIME

Displays distance,
bearing, and time
information to the
destination or
course selected.
Selection of fly to
destination can be
accomplished by
direct entry of two
digit destination
number.
        Waypoint and Target Position
      WP TGT

Accesses waypoint
or target data
(landing data,
variation, motion).
Selection of
destination for
display/entry by
direct entry of two
digit destination
number.
          Datum and Route Position



  DATUM ROUTE

Accesses datum
and steering/route
functions.
             Bright and Dim Keys


BRT and DIM Keys

Used to brighten
or dim the light
intensity of the
LCD display.
               Target Store Key

TGT STR Key

Stores present
position data in
the indicated
target
store/memory
location (90-99)
when depressed
and released.
                 Keyboard Key

    KYBD Key

Used in conjunction
with the keyboard
to allow data
display and entry
into computer.
                 F1 Key



   F1 Key

Reserved for
future growth.
        Increase and Decrease Key

INC and DEC Keys

Used to increase or
decrease the
Waypoint/Target
number, To access
P, or to increase or
decrease the Fly-
To-Destination
number.
               Enter (Page) Key
     ENT Key

Enters data into
memory and is
used for paging of
displays.
                      Clear Key

CLR Key

Clears last entered
character when
pressed once.
When pressed
twice, clears
entire input field
of display
keyboard control.
               Alfa-Numeric Keys
 Keyboard & LTR Keys

Used to set up data for
entry into memory. To
display a number,
press the
corresponding key or
keys. To display a
letter, first depress the
LTR key corresponding
to the position of the
desired letter on a key.
Then depress the key
which contains the
desired letter.
  LEARNING STEP/ACTIVITY 3
Describe the CDU modes of operation procedures.
Four Basic Modes of Operation:
   Off Mode

   Test Mode

   Navigate Mode

   GPS Landing Mode
                             Off Mode

In the Off Mode:

System is inoperable.

Data is being stored via
a RAM chip.

The Mode switch is
locked in the off position
and must be pulled out
and then moved.
             Off Mode Position

   In the off mode the system is
    inoperable.

   In this position data is being stored
    via a RAM chip.

   Mode switch is locked in the off
    position and must be pulled out and
    then moved.
          Test Mode
Consists of Two functions:

 •Lamp Test

 •Test
                Lamp Test Position
During initialization,
M or Y must be
selected.
Prior to selecting M,
check that the proper
year is displayed. The
year enables RAIM to
operate correctly.
In the lamp test
position all segments
and the MAL indicator
lamps are lit to verify
their operation.
                    Test Position
A self-test is run to
verify operation of
the Doppler and GPS
system.

Doppler test takes 15
seconds. Either a GO
or a failure code will
be displayed.

A rotating bar on the
second line indicates
that the GPS is doing
its self-test. Takes up
to two minutes.
                  Navigate Mode
In the navigation
mode (MGRS or
LAT/LONG) position of
the CDU MODE
switch) power is
applied to all system
components, and all
required outputs and
functions are
provided. The Doppler
radar velocity sensor
(DRVS) measures
aircraft velocity, and
converts analog
heading, pitch and roll
into digital form.
                Navigate Mode
   In the navigation mode (MGRS or LAT/LONG)
    position of the CDU MODE switch) power is
    applied to all system components, and all
    required outputs and functions are provided.
    The Doppler radar velocity sensor (DRVS)
    measures aircraft velocity, and converts analog
    heading, pitch and roll into digital form.

   This data, Embedded GPS Receiver (EGR)
    velocity, and position data are then sent to the
    CDU for processing. Baro altitude is used for
    aiding the GPS when only three space vehicles
    are available. Present position is computed by
    using one of three navigation submodes which
    can be selected manually or automatically.

   These submodes are as follows:
   Combined submode of operation
“C” Combined Mode:
The default or primary mode of operation. Doppler,
GPS position and velocity data are combined to
provide navigation. This mode is used when a
minimum of three (with baro) or four space vehicles
are available. GPS Estimated Position Error (EPE) is
less than approximately 150 meters, and the Doppler
is not in memory. If GPS becomes invalid (e.g., due to
increased EPE), the AN/ASN-128B will automatically
switch to Doppler mode until a valid GPS status is
received. If the Doppler becomes invalid (e.g., flight
over glassy smooth water causing memory), the
AN/ASN-128B will automatically switch to GPS mode
if GPS is valid or an alternate Doppler mode if the
GPS is not valid.
 Doppler only submode of operation
“D” Doppler Only:
Doppler position and velocity data are used for
navigation. If Doppler mode is selected and the
Doppler becomes invalid (refer to paragraph 3-79), the
AN/ASN-128B will automatically switch remembered
velocity since a TAS sensor is not available. If Doppler
mode is manually selected at the start of the flight an
initial present position must be obtained and entered
prior to flight. Navigation is performed in
latitude/longitude for computational convenience only.
At the same time, distance, bearing, and time-to-go to
any one of 100 preset destinations are computed (as
selected by FLY-TO-DEST).
      GPS submode of operation


“G” GPS Only:
GPS positions and velocities are used for
navigation by the Doppler navigation processor in
the CDU. If GPS mode is selected and the GPS
becomes invalid the AN/ASN- 128B will not
navigate.
              GPS Landing Mode
      GPS LDG

The GPS landing
procedure is not
permissible in the
current CH-47D
configuration. GPS
landing mode is not
operational in this
configuration.
         Route Sequencing Modes
   The system has the ability to fly a preprogrammed
    sequence of way- points. This sequence can be
    either consecutively numbered in which case a start
    and end waypoint are entered or randomly
    numbered in which case all waypoints are put in a
    list and the start and end waypoints are entered.
    Both sequence modes can be flown in the order
    they are in the list or in reverse order.

   Directions will be displayed to the waypoint next on
    the list until approximately 10 seconds before
    overflying the waypoint at which time the display
    will advance to the next waypoint and the new
    waypoint number will blink for ten seconds. One
    consecutive and one random sequence may be
    stored in the system.
       Route sequence mode menu
The route sequence
mode menu provides
access to the two route
sequencing sub modes
of operation. These sub
modes RANDOM, and
CONSEC (Consecutive).

When the DISPLAY
switch is set to
DATUM/ROUTE,
selecting the ENT key
accesses the route
sequence mode menu.
      Route Sequencing Modes
   The sequence mode menu provides access
    to the three route sequencing sub modes
    of operation. These sub modes are TO -
    TO, RANDOM, and CONSEC (Consecutive).

   When the DISPLAY switch is set to
    DATUM/ROUTE, selecting the ENT key
    accesses the route sequence mode menu.
                   Random mode
Up to 10 waypoints
can be entered into
the random mode.

The starting waypoint
and the ending
waypoint on the route
must be defined.

If the display switch is
in the DIST/BRG/TIME
position, sequenced
flights can be flown in
the order they are
listed or in reverse.
                Random mode

Directions will be displayed to the waypoint next
on the list until approximately 10 seconds before
overflying the waypoint at which time the display
will advance to the next waypoint and the new
waypoint number will blink for ten seconds. One
consecutive and one random sequence may be
stored in the system.
              Random mode



       WP12       WP03


                         WP75


                            WP10
WP06


                                   WP01
                Consecutive mode
A route sequence sub-
mode where waypoints
are consecutively
numbered.

The starting waypoint
and ending waypoint on
the route must be
defined.

If the display switch is
in DIST/BRG/TIME
flights can be flown in
the order they are listed
or in reverse.
            Consecutive mode

Directions will be displayed to the waypoint next
on the list until approximately 10 seconds before
overflying the waypoint at which time the
display will advance to the next waypoint and
the new waypoint number will blink for ten
seconds. One consecutive and one random
sequence may be stored in the system.
         Consecutive mode



       WP02     WP03


                       WP04


                       WP05
WP01


                              WP06
               To-To Route Mode
The system provides
navigational steering
information onto a
course defined by the
start and end waypoints.

The distance displayed is
the distance to the
course when outside 2
nautical miles of the
course, and the distance
to the second waypoint
when inside 2 nautical
miles of the course.
       To-To Route Mode




WP01                      WP02
       2 NMI
       To-To Route Mode




WP01                      WP02
        2 NMI
              Fault monitoring mode
Fault monitoring consist
of BITE, RAIM, FDE and
Predicted RAIM


The CDU is continuously
monitored for failures,
using its own computer
as built- in-test-
equipment (BITE).
Any BITE malfunction
causes the MAL
indicator lamp to light.
     Built- in-test-equipment (BITE).
   Once the CDU is taken out of test mode and
    place in another MODE of operation the CDU will
    continue to monitor the system for failures using
    built in test equipment (BITE).

   A BITE malfunction causes the MAL indicator
    lamp to illuminate.

   To determine what malfunction has occurred, the
    MODE switch must be placed in the TEST
    position. After the fault code has been displayed,
    the operator's manual can be referenced (pg 3-
    61) for information concerning the fault.
 Built- in-test-equipment (BITE).
If the MODE switch on the CDU is set to TEST,
identification of the failed LRU is indicated by a
code on the display panel. Aircraft heading, pitch
and roll are also displayed in this mode by
depressing the ENT key after Doppler test is
completed. GPS test status is displayed if the ENT
key is depressed a second time. Malfunction codes
are automatically latched and can only be cleared
by recycling the CDU power via the CDU mode
switch (OFF/ON).


After the fault code has been displayed, reference
the operator's manual pg 3-61 for the fault codes.
Failure Codes




   Pg 3-61
GPS Failure codes
          Fault monitoring mode
   Fault monitoring determines the GPS
    signal reliability and is provided by the
    EGR.

   It is a precursor to having the system
    certified by the FAA for IFR operations.

    It consists of two systems, Receiver
    Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM)
    and Fault Detection and Exclusion (FDE).
      Receiver Autonomous Integrity
           Monitoring (RAIM)
   Five satellite signals are required to establish an
    acceptable RAIM.

   The RAIM function performs consistency checks
    between position solutions obtained with various
    subsets of the visible satellites.

   The receiver provides and alert to the pilot if the
    consistency checks fail.

   Because of the geometry and service maintenance
    RAIM is not always available.
Fault Detection and Exclusion (FDE)

   Is and enhanced version of RAIM.

   A minimum of 6 satellites is required.

   It not only detect a possible faulty
    satellite, but excludes it so the navigation
    function can continue without interruption.
Fault Detection and Exclusion (FDE)
    The goal of fault detection is to detect
     presence of a positioning failure. Upon
     detection proper fault exclusion
     determines and exclude the source of the
     failure thereby allowing GPS navigation to
     continue without interruption.

    Availability of RAIM and FED will be
     slightly lower for mid-latitude operation
     and slightly higher for equatorial and high
     latitude regions due to the orbit of the
     satellites.
    LEARNING STEP/ACTIVITY 4
Describe operational characteristics and limitations of the
Doppler/GPS set prior to flight.
       Switching from Delta to Bravo
   If your system boots up in Delta mode it
    will need to be changed to Bravo mode
    before we can continue.

   Place the Mode selector into the Lat/Long
    position.

   Place the Display selector to
    Wind/UTC/DATA

   Press ENT (Page) Key to advance to the
    data menu page.
       Switching from Delta to Bravo
   Press ENT (Page) Key to advance to the
    data menu page.

   Press ENT (Page) Key again to advance to
    the data menu page.

   Press the 3 key to select CONFIG menu
    option.

   Press the KYBD key to select the MODE
    data field.
       Switching from Delta to Bravo
   Press the 1/B key to select the Bravo mode.

   Press ENT (Page) to save changes.

   Press the 9 key to confirm changes.

   Press KYBD key to clear EN.

   Turn system off and back on to reboot.
     Procedures for performing self-test
Verify the year.

Enter GPS code M or Y.

Verify that all segment
lights on the display
and the MAL lamp are
illuminated.

Set the MODE switch
to TEST.
    Procedures for performing self-test
Depress the BRT key
at least 10 times.
Depress the DIM key
at least 10 times.
Verify the operation
of the BRT and DIM
keys. Set the display
to desired brightness.

The self-test will take
approximately 15
seconds to test the
Doppler and up to 2
minutes for GPS.
    Procedures for performing self-test
At the completion of the self-test a code for Doppler
and a code for GPS will be displayed. If any code
other than GO ALL is displayed, a malfunction has
been detected. The malfunction can be determined
by referencing the malfunction code in the operator's
manual.

If the code displayed is not GO ALL the system should
be turned off and back to test to verify the failure was
not a momentary failure.
   Procedures for performing self-test

Once the self-test is completed and the CDU is
placed in operation, the CDU is still checked on a
continuous basis (except for the keyboard and
display). Any failure will be indicated by the
illumination of the MAL indicator lamp on the CDU,
but the failure code will not be displayed. The
MODE switch on the CDU must be placed to the
TEST position for the malfunction code to be
displayed.
Procedures for changing the year
   Set MODE switch to the MGRS, Lat/Long, or GPS
    LDG position.

   Set DISPLAY switch to the WIND-UTC/DATA
    position.

   Depress KYBD key, verify that “KYBD” is
    displayed in the lower right corner of the display
Procedures for changing the year
   This will highlight the YR field. (last 2 digits of the
    year)

   Depress the KYBD key a second time and note
    that the Day Field is highlighted enter the Julian
    date.

   Depress the KYBD key a third time and the TIME
    filed is highlighted enter hr: min: sec.
  Procedures for entering Doppler, GPS,
        or Combined Operations
Set MODE switch to
the MGRS, LAT/LONG,
or GPS LDG position.

Set DISPLAY switch to
the GS/TK/NAV M
position.
Procedures for entering Doppler, GPS,
      or Combined Operations
   Depress KYBD key. Verify that “KYBD” is
    displayed in the lower right corner of the
    display. This will highlight the GPS operating
    code field. Depress the KYBD key a second
    time and note that the NAV field is highlighted.

   Enter the appropriate letter for the desired
    mode of operation.

    • “C” Combined mode (default) GPS and
      Doppler.

    • “D” Doppler only

    • “G” GPS only
    Procedures for entering Doppler, GPS,
          or Combined Operations
   When the system requires a particular letter entry,
    the keys that represent these letter can be pressed
    without selecting “LTR LEFT”, “LTR RIGHT”, or “LTR
    MID” keys first.

   The system will also accept an R for Remembered
    Velocity and a T for true Airspeed.

   However the system does not receive a TAS input
    and is not available.

   If an asterisk (*) is displayed, the selected
    navigation-operating mode is not available.
      Procedures for entering Datum.
Set the MODE switch
to the MGRS or
LAT/LONG position.

Set the DISPLAY
switch to
DATUM/ROUTE.

To select the datum
field, depress the
KYBD Key. Verify that
“KYBD” is displayed in
the lower right corner
of the display.
     Procedures for entering Datum.
   Enter the number that corresponds to the
    appropriate horizontal map datum to be used.

   A reference chart of the datum codes is listed in
    the operator's manual Table 3-8, Pages 3-71
    and 3-72.

   Depress the ENT (page) key to enter the newly
    selected Datum.
       Procedures for entering Datum.
   Entering a new datum number to a particular
    waypoint applies that Datum to all waypoints
    and converts their coordinates accordingly.
    For example, assume that the Datum for
    waypoint 22 is Datum 47 and the Datum for
    waypoint 23 is Datum 25. The Datum
    number must be changed from 47 to 25
    prior to entering data for waypoint 23. This
    will change the displayed coordinates for
    waypoint 22 because they have been
    converted from Datum 47 to Datum 25. The
    actual ground position of waypoint 22 has
    not changed. Extreme care must be taken
    not to confuse these newly converted
    coordinates with those originally entered.
       Procedures for entering Datum.

   The Datum must be entered before entering
    coordinates for a particular waypoint.

   To clear all waypoints, variations, landing data,
    and target motions, enter RDW for the datum.
       Procedure for Entering Desired
           Waypoints in MGRS.
Set the MODE switch to
the MGRS position.

Set the DISPLAY switch
to the WP/TGT position.

Select the number
for the desired
waypoint. The
current waypoint
data, if previously
entered will be
displayed.
       Procedure for Entering Desired
           Waypoints in MGRS.
   Depress the INC or DEC keys until the desired
    number appears in the WP field.

   An alternate method is to perform a direct entry by
    depressing the desired number for the waypoint.

   Depress KYBD key. Verify that “KYBD” is displayed
    in the lower right corner of the display.

   The waypoint or destination number field will blink.
     Procedure for Entering Desired
         Waypoints in MGRS.
   Depress KYBD again to highlight the grid zone
    designator field.

   Enter the appropriate grid zone designator and
    depress KYBD again to highlight the grid area
    field.

   Enter the appropriate grid area and depress
    KYBD again to highlight the coordinate’s field.

   Enter the appropriate coordinates and depress
    KYBD again to highlight the name field.
     Procedure for Entering Desired
         Waypoints in MGRS.
   Enter a 5-letter name for the waypoint if
    desired.

   To store the displayed information into the
    selected destination display position, depress
    the ENT (page) key.
   Procedures for entering Variation.
Set MODE switch to
MGRS or LAT/LONG.
In the MGRS position,
altitude will be
displayed in meters.
In the LAT/LONG
position, altitude will
be displayed in feet.

Set DISPLAY switch
to WP/TGT position.
    Procedures for entering Variation.
    Select the waypoint number desired by directly
     entering the two-digit number or by depressing
     the INC or DEC keys until the desired waypoint
     is displayed.

    Depress the ENT (page) key to advance to the
     next page on the display screen.

    Depress KYBD to highlight the variation field.
    Procedures for entering Variation.

   Enter the East or West variation for the waypoint.

   An example for a variation of E001.2 degrees
    would be E, 0, 0, 1 and 2.

   Depress the ENT (page) key to store the variation
    data for the displayed waypoint.
      Procedure for Entering Desired
          Waypoints in Lat/long.
Set the MODE switch
to the LAT/LONG
position.

Set the DISPLAY
switch to the WP/TGT
position.

Select the number for
the desired waypoint.
The current waypoint
data will be displayed,
if previously entered.
       Procedure for Entering Desired
             Waypoints in Lat/long.
   Depress the INC or DEC keys until the desired
    number appears in the WP field.

   Another method is to perform a direct entry by
    depressing the desire number keys for the
    waypoint.

   Depress KYBD key.

   Verify that “KYBD” is displayed in the lower right
    corner of the display.
      Procedure for Entering Desired
          Waypoints in Lat/long.

   The waypoint or destination number field will
    blink.

   Depress KYBD again to highlight the Latitude field.

   Enter the appropriate Latitude and depress KYBD
    again to highlight the Longitude field.

   Enter the appropriate Longitude and depress KYBD
    again to highlight the name field.
      Procedure for Entering Desired
          Waypoints in Lat/long.
   Enter a 5-letter name for the waypoint if desired.

   To store the displayed information into the
    selected destination display position, depress the
    ENT (page) key.

   To access P when entering waypoints in MGRS or
    LAT/LONG depress the LTR LEFT key and then the
    6 key, or display waypoint 99 then depress the
    INC key, or display waypoint 00 then depress the
    DEC key.
        Procedure for Entering Desired
            Waypoints in Lat/long.
   Waypoints, either MGRS or LAT/LONG, can only be
    recalled by their two-digit number and cannot be
    recalled by their name.

   In most cases the computer program will reject
    unacceptable data (for example, a MGRS area of
    W1 does not exist, and will be rejected). If the
    operator attempts to insert unacceptable data, the
    unacceptable data will be displayed on the panel
    and then the selected field will blink after the ENT
    (page) key is pressed, displaying the last valid
    data.
   Procedures for entering Variation.
Set MODE switch to
MGRS or LAT/LONG.
In the MGRS position,
altitude will be
displayed in meters.
In the LAT/LONG
position, altitude will
be displayed in feet.

Set DISPLAY switch
to WP/TGT position.
    Procedures for entering Variation.
    Select the waypoint number desired by directly
     entering the two-digit number or by depressing
     the INC or DEC keys until the desired waypoint
     is displayed.

    Depress the ENT (page) key to advance to the
     next page on the display screen.

    Depress KYBD to highlight the variation field.
    Procedures for entering Variation.

   Enter the East or West variation for the waypoint.

   An example for a variation of E001.2 degrees
    would be E, 0, 0, 1 and 2.

   Depress the ENT (page) key to store the variation
    data for the displayed waypoint.
      Procedures for transferring stored
    waypoints from one location to another.

    The operator can transfer stored
     destination/target data from one
     destination/target store location to another
     destination/target location (waypoint
     number).

    The information transferred consists of
     destination name, coordinate location,
     variation, and landing information if
     entered previously.
      Procedures for transferring stored
    waypoints from one location to another.

    Set DISPLAY switch to WP/TGT position.

    Depress the number of the waypoint to be
     transferred.

    Depress KYBD to freeze the data of the
     waypoint.

    Depress the number keys of the waypoint
     where it is desired to transfer the data.

    Depress ENT (page) key.
    LEARNING STEP/ACTIVITY 5
Describe components, functions, limitations, and
operational characteristics of the Doppler/GPS set in flight.
    Procedures for Selecting One of 100
       Possible Fly-To Destinations.
   Set MODE switch to MGRS or LAT/LONG. (GPS
    LDG may be used if an approach will be made at
    the selected destination.)

   Set DISPLAY switch to XTK/TKE or
    DIST/BRG/TIME.
    Procedures for Selecting One of 100
       Possible Fly-To Destinations.
       Select a Fly-To Destination

    •     Depressing the INC or DEC key until the
          desired waypoint is displayed on the top line of
          the display.

    •     Also a direct entry may be used by pressing the
          number keys which correspond to the
          waypoint.
    Procedures for Selecting One of 100
       Possible Fly-To Destinations.
    Steering signals, left or right, will be displayed
     on the display to direct the pilot to the selected
     waypoint.

    There are two methods to obtain steering
     signal.

    •   To steer the aircraft the shortest distance to
        the waypoint selected, set DISPLAY switch to
        DIST/BRG/TIME and steer to the bearing
        being displayed.
Procedures for Selecting One of 100
   Possible Fly-To Destinations.
     As an aid to maintaining course, set DISPLAY
      switch to XTK/TKE position and steer the
      aircraft to keep the track angle error (TKE) at
      zero.

     If the display indicates an L for Left, the
      aircraft must be flown to the left to zero the
      error. If the display indicates an R for Right,
      the aircraft must be flown to the right to zero
      the error.

NOTE: TKE is the number of degrees to be turned,
it is NOT a heading.
Procedures for Selecting One of 100
   Possible Fly-To Destinations.
•   When flying a ground track, set DISPLAY switch
    to XTK/TKE position.

       Fly the aircraft to obtain zero for cross track
        error (XTK). If XTK is L, the aircraft is to the
        right of the desired course and must be flown
        to the left to regain the initial course.

       If XTK is R, the aircraft is to the left of the
        desired course and must be flown to the left
        to regain the initial course.
    Procedures for Selecting One of 100
       Possible Fly-To Destinations.
The number 1−bearing pointer
will point to the selected
destination at all times.

If Doppler/GPS has been
selected on the HSI Mode
Select panel, left and right
steering commands will be
displayed on the course
deviation pointer and course
deviation bar. The initial
course, when the destination
was selected, should be set in
the course set display window.
  Procedures for entering the To − To Mode.

Set MODE switch to
MGRS or LAT/LONG.

Set DISPLAY switch to
DATUM/ROUTE.

Depress the ENT
(page) key to advance
to the next page on
the display screen.
    Procedures for entering the To − To Mode.

    Observe that a menu of special steering functions
     appears. To select the Route-Sequence To −To
     display, depress number 1Key.

    Depress KYBD to highlight the field for starting
     waypoint. Enter the starting waypoint and
     depress KYBD to highlight the ending destination.

    Enter the ending destination. Depress KYBD key
     to highlight the select field.

    Enter Y for yes if the To-To mode is to be
     selected for use.
    Procedures for entering the To − To Mode.
    Enter N for No if the start and end points of the
     route are to be entered into memory, but the
     route will be flown at a later time.

    If the system is currently in the To −To mode, N
     may be entered to stop the To-To mode.

    Depress ENT to store the starting and ending
     points and activate the To−To mode.

    To terminate the TO – TO mode, momentarily
     place the MODE switch to the GPS LND position
     and back to MGRS or LAT/LONG position.
  Procedures for entering Route-Sequence
              Random Mode.
Set MODE switch to
MGRS or LAT/LONG.

Set DISPLAY switch to
DATUM/ROUTE.

Depress the ENT
(page) key to advance
to the next page on
the display screen.
    Procedures for entering Route-Sequence
                   Random Mode.
     Observe that a menu of special steering
      functions appears. To select the Route-
      Sequence Random Mode display, depress
      number 2 key.

     Depress KYBD key to highlight the field for the
      first waypoint on the route to be flown.

     Enter the number of the waypoint the route will
      begin with.

     Continue to enter waypoints until a maximum
      of ten is displayed.
    Procedures for entering Route-Sequence
                Random Mode.
    If less than ten waypoints are used, the
     remaining fields will have an asterisks displayed
     if not entered previously.

    Depress ENT key to store the route in memory.

    Depress KYBD key to highlight the route
     starting point.

    Enter the number of the waypoint the route will
     start with. Depress KYBD key to highlight the
     route ending point.
    Procedures for entering Route-Sequence
                Random Mode.
    Enter the number of the waypoint the route will
     end with.

    Depress KYBD key to highlight the select field.

    Enter Y for yes if the Route-Sequence random
     mode is to be selected for use and fly the route
     in the sequence the waypoints were entered.

    Enter R for Reverse if the Route-Sequence
     random mode is to be selected for use and fly
     the route in the reverse sequence the
     waypoints were entered.
    Procedures for entering Route-Sequence
                Random Mode.
   Enter N for No if the route is to be entered into
    memory, but the route will be flown at a later time.

   If the system is currently in the Route-Sequence
    random mode, N may be entered to stop the
    random mode.

   Enter a C for Clear to clear the waypoints that have
    been entered.

   Depress ENT (page) to store the route and to
    activate the Route-Sequence random mode.
    Procedures for entering Route-Sequence
                Random Mode.

   If after pressing the ENT (page) key and cursor
    starts flashing at a previously entered waypoint
    Number, there is no valid waypoint data in that
    waypoint number.

   If the START waypoint appears in the route more
    than once, the beginning waypoint will be the first
    time it appears.

   If the END waypoint appears in the route more
    than once, the ending waypoint will be the last time
    it appears.
    Procedures for entering Route-Sequence
                Random Mode.

   The sequence mode must be flown from the
    beginning waypoint in either the Y or R mode.

   No target store destinations or destinations with
    target motion may be included as random
    waypoints.

   If it is desired to terminate the Route-Sequence
    random mode, momentarily place the MODE switch
    to the GPS LND position.
   Procedures for entering Route-Sequence
            Consecutive Mode.

Set MODE switch to
MGRS or LAT/LONG.

Set DISPLAY switch to
DATUM/ROUTE.

Depress the ENT
(page) key to advance
to the next page on
the display screen.
    Procedures for entering Route-Sequence
             Consecutive Mode.

    Observe that a menu of special steering
     functions appears. To select the Route-
     Sequence Consecutive Mode display, depress
     number 3 key.

    Y Press KYBD (page) to highlight the field for
     the START waypoint. Enter the START
     waypoint and depress KYBD key to highlight the
     END destination number.

    Enter the END destination number. Depress
     KYBD to highlight the selected field.
    Procedures for entering Route-Sequence
             Consecutive Mode.

    Enter Y for yes if the Route-Sequence
     consecutive mode is to be selected for use.

    Enter an R for Reverse if the Route-Sequence
     consecutive mode is to be selected for use and
     fly the route in the reverse sequence.

    Enter N for No if the route is to be entered into
     memory, but the route will be flown at a later
     time.
    Procedures for entering Route-Sequence
             Consecutive Mode.

    If the system is currently in the Route-
     Sequence consecutive mode, N may be entered
     to stop the consecutive mode.

    Press the ENT Key to store the starting and
     ending points and activate the Consecutive
     mode.

    Depress ENT (page) to store the route and to
     activate the Route-Sequence random mode.
            Procedures for displaying
       Distance/Bearing/Time information.

Set MODE switch to
MGRS or LAT/LONG.
(GPS LDG may be
used if an approach
will be made at the
selected destination.)

Set DISPLAY switch to
DIST/BRG/TIME.
             Procedures for displaying
        Distance/Bearing/Time information.

    The bottom two lines of the display will display the
     bearing to the destination,

    • The distance-to-go to the destination (kilometers
      if in MGRS, nautical miles if in LAT/LONG)

    • The time-to-go until arrival at the destination in
      hours, minutes, and tenths of minutes.

    The second line of the display will display the mode
     of steering the system is currently using either
     Direct-To, To-To, xx to xx RT-Random: xx to xx,
     RT-Consec; xx to xx.
            Procedures for displaying
       Distance/Bearing/Time information.
   Direct-To steering.

   The distance, bearing, and time information being
    displayed is in reference to the waypoint being
    displayed on the first line.

   Route-Sequence Steering (both consecutive and
    random).
   The distance, bearing, and time information being
    displayed is in reference to the Fly-To Destination
    waypoint being displayed on the first line.

   The system automatically advances to the next
    waypoint on the selected route approximately ten
    seconds prior to over flying the waypoint.
              Procedures for displaying
         Distance/Bearing/Time information.
   The next Fly-To Destination waypoint will be
    displayed on the first line of the display. The
    distance, bearing, and time information will now
    display the new Fly-To Destination waypoint.

   To−To steering.

   The starting Fly-To Destination waypoint and the
    ending To waypoint will be displayed.

   The distance, bearing, and time information being
    displayed depends upon the aircraft location in
    relation to the course.
           Procedures for displaying
      Distance/Bearing/Time information.

     The next Fly-To Destination waypoint will
      be displayed on the first line of the
      display. The distance, bearing, and time
      information will now display the new Fly-
      To Destination waypoint.

• To−To steering. The starting Fly-To
  Destination waypoint and the ending To
  waypoint will be displayed. The distance,
  bearing, and time information being
  displayed depends upon the aircraft
  location in relation to the course.
         Procedures for displaying
    Distance/Bearing/Time information.

   If the aircraft is outside 2 nautical miles
    from the course centerline, the
    information displayed on the number one
    bearing pointer will be a 90 intercept to
    the course and the distance on the HSI is
    the distance to the course centerline.

   If within 2 nautical miles from the course
    centerline the information displayed will
    be to the ending waypoint.
    Procedures for displaying Present
       Position and GPS altitude.
Set MODE switch to
MGRS or LAT/LONG.
(GPS LDG may be
used if an approach
will be made at the
selected destination.)

Set DISPLAY switch to
PP for Present
Position.
    Procedures for displaying Present
         Position and GPS altitude.
   Press the ENT key to advance to the next page
    on the display. Present position variation and
    GPS antenna altitude will be displayed.

   If it is desired to change or enter a new
    variation, depress KYBD to highlight the
    variation field, enter a new variation, and
    depress ENT.
     Procedures for Target Store operations.

There are two methods

       Method 1.

   Press TGT STR key
    when over the
    desired location to
    be stored.
     Procedures for Target Store operations.



   The present position and variation are automatically
    stored in the target destination location (90-99)
    which was displayed in the target store field
    immediately prior to depressing the TGT STR key.

   If a waypoint was previously stored in that location,
    it will be removed from memory and replaced with
    the stored target location.
    Procedures for Target Store operations.
       Method 2.

   Set MODE switch to
    MGRS or LAT/LONG
    position, depending
    on coordinate
    format desired.

   Set DISPLAY switch
    to WP/TGT position.

   Select P as the
    desired waypoint.
     Procedures for Target Store operations.

   Press KYBD key when over flying the potential
    target. Observe that the display freezes and KYBD
    is displayed in the bottom right corner of the
    display indication keyboard mode. The destination
    number field will be flashing and under keyboard
    control.

   If it is desired to store the target, enter the two-
    digit destination number and depress the ENT
    (page) key.

   If it is not desired to store the target, set the
    DISPLAY switch to another position.

   Caution: Do not press ENT (page) key while
    destination is set to P.
        Transferring Waypoints from One
             Destination to another.
Set DISPLAY switch to
WP/TGT position.

Select the waypoints to
be transferred by a
direct entry or the two-
digit number or use the
INC or DEC keys.

Press KYBD Key to
highlight the
Destination/Target field
and place the system
under keyboard control.
      Transferring Waypoints from One
           Destination to another.

   Enter the two digit number key of the
    Destination/Target where the waypoint data is
    to be stored and depress ENT.

   The same waypoint name, location, variation,
    and landing information from the first waypoint
    will now be stored in the second
    Destination/Target location.
    LEARNING STEP/ACTIVITY 6
Describe the procedures for operating the GPS Doppler
navigation set when GPS is not available.
              Doppler limitations.
   When operating in the DOPPLER mode of
    navigation, the system is limited to 10,000
    feet AGL, 45 bank angles and over smooth
    glassy water.

   When operating over smooth glassy water,
    the CDU may not receive velocity inputs
    from the RTA. The CDU will revert to the
    “R” mode and remember the last know
    heading and ground speed. If the system
    reverts to the memory mode for more than
    10 minutes, there may be a malfunction in
    the navigation set.
      Procedures for updating the Doppler

   The GPS provides present position to the GPS
    Doppler Navigation Set.

   The three methods of updating are not required or
    necessary when in the combined or GPS mode of
    navigation.

   If GPS is not available or Doppler mode is selected,
    present position can be initialized or updated to
    reduce Doppler error by using one of three
    different methods.
    Procedures for updating the Doppler
•    unanticipated location. Used when a
     landmark is over flown unexpectedly and the
     operator requires time to determine
     coordinates.

•    stored location. Used when a waypoint has
     been stored in a Destination/Target number
     and the aircraft is flying to that destination.

•    anticipated location. Used when the operator
     has time to plan and prepare for over flying a
     specific location.
    Performing an unanticipated update.
Set Display switch to PP
position.
Over fly landmark and
depress the KYBD key.
The present position
display will freeze.

Compare coordinates
with those on display. If
displayed coordinate are
correct an update is not
required, cancel by
setting the DISPLAY
switch to any other
position.
Performing an unanticipated update.
       If the displayed coordinate is not correct and an
        update is required depress the KYBD key until the
        coordinate field is highlighted.

    •     Enter the new desired coordinate and depress
          the ENT (page) key.

    •     The CDU updates the present position (from the
          time the KYBD key was depressed) to the
          landmark coordinates, and adds to the updated
          present position the distance traveled between
          the time the KYBD key was pressed and the ENT
          (page) key was depressed.
      Performing a stored update.

Set DISPLAY switch to
DIST/BRG/TIME
position.

When the aircraft is
over the destination,
depress the KYBD key.
Observe that the
display freezes.

Depress the ENT
(page) key.
Procedures for performing a stored update.


•   The CDU updates the present position at the
    time the KYBD key was depressed by using
    the stored destination coordinates, and adding
    to them the distance traveled between the
    time the KYBD key was pressed and the ENT
    (page) key was pressed.

•   If a variation for the stored destination was
    stored, the present position variation is also
    updated.
  Performing an anticipated update.
Set DISPLAY switch to
WP/TGT position.

Select P as the waypoint
in the
Destination/Target
number field. To access
P, enter destination 00
then press the DEC key,
or enter destination 99
then depress the INC
key.
     Performing an anticipated update.
   Depress the KYBD key and observe that the
    display freezes. Depress the KYBD key until the
    field to be changed is highlighted and enter the
    coordinates.

   When the aircraft is over the waypoint, depress
    the ENT (page) key to update the present position.

   If an update is not desired, set the DISPLAY switch
    to some other position. This action aborts the
    update mode.

   CAUTION: Do not press the ENT (page) key until
    over the anticipated update position.
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