Materials and Manufacturing Process Research and Development for Automotive and Heavy Vehicles

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					Materials and Manufacturing Process Research and Development for Automotive and Heavy Vehicles Pacific Northwest National Laboratory April 15, 2008 Mark T. Smith (mark.smith@pnl.gov)

Advanced Vehicle Materials and Manufacturing Technologies

PNNL Collaboration and DOE Funding
DOE Program Offices
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Office of FreedomCAR – Automotive and Heavy Vehicle Materials and Manufacturing Industrial Technology Program (ITP) Office of Hydrogen and Infrastructure Technology

Industry Partners and Collaborators
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USCAR (DaimlerChrysler, Ford, General Motors) Heavy Vehicle OEM’s (Freightliner, PACCAR, International, Volvo, etc) Boeing Tier 1 and 2 automotive and truck suppliers Material suppliers DoD- Army, Air Force, Navy

Universities and National Laboratories

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Vehicle Technologies Organization

Vehicle Technologies
Ed Wall, Program Manager
FreedomCAR & Fuel Partnership
Patrick Davis, Director Chief Scientist Dr. James Eberhardt • Environmental Science and Health Impacts Supervisory Engineer Rogelio Sullivan Supervisory Engineer Steve Goguen

21st Century Truck Partnership
Ken Howden, Director

Hybrid Electric Systems Tien Duong, Team Leader Vehicle Systems & Testing Lee Slezak Energy Storage and Power Electronics Tien Duong Susan Rogers Dave Howell Steve Boyd

Materials Technologies Rogelio Sullivan, Team Leader Lightweight Materials Joe Carpenter Propulsion Materials Jerry Gibbs HTML James Eberhardt

Fuels Technologies Kevin Stork, Team Leader Advanced Petroleum Based Fuels Kevin Stork Non-Petroleum Fuels Dennis Smith Technology Introduction Dana O’Hara Linda Bluestein

Engine and Emission Control Technologies Gurpreet Singh, Team Leader Combustion and Emission Control Ken Howden Heavy Truck Engine Roland Gravel

Waste Heat Recovery John Fairbanks

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U.S. Petroleum Production and Consumption, 1970-2030
22 20 18
Rail U.S. Production Off-Road Marine
Heavy Trucks
Air

Million barrels per day

16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0

Light Trucks

Cars

1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030
Sources: Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 26 and projections from the Annual Energy Outlook 2007.
Notes: • The sharp increase in values between 2005 and 2006 are the result of the data change from historical to projected values. • Petroleum production includes crude oil, natural gas plant liquids, refinery gains, and other inputs, which include liquids from gas, liquids from coal, and alcohols, ethers, petroleum product stock withdrawals, domestic sources of blending components, other hydrocarbons, and natural gas converted to liquid fuel.

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Effect of Automotive Lightweighting
• 6-8% (with mass compounding) increase in fuel

economy for every 10% drop in weight, everything else the same

and/or
• Offset the increased weight and cost per unit of power of alternative powertrains (hybrids, fuel cells) with respect to conventional powertrains

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Light-Duty Vehicle Trends
Adjusted Fuel Economy by Model Year (Three-Year Moving Average) Weight and Performance by Model Year (Three Year Moving Average)

Source: Light Duty Automotive Technology and Fuel Economy Trends: 1975 through 2004, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, April 2004.
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Lightweight Materials Forming and Manufacturing for Improved Efficiency
Lightweight Glazing Magnesium Alloy Thermoplastic Composites

Metal Matrix Composites
30% weight reduction 50% weight reduction Reduces mass by 60%

Aluminum Tailor Welded Blanks
Powertrain components - 40% weight reduction

Hydroforming

Superplastic Forming

40% weight reduction / 50% reduction in part count
Photo: Courtesy of GKN Aerospace

35% weight reduction / reduction in part count

40% weight reduction / 10 X reduction in part count

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Overview of Fuel Cell Materials Needs
Hydrogen Fuel Delivery System Fuel Cell Exhaust System Storage Battery Package and Controls

Fuel Cell Stack and Containment System

Regenerative Braking Motors and Drive System Heat Exchangers and HVAC Package Electric Propulsion Motor and Power Electronics Hydrogen Storage Tank(s) and Pressure Control System

Hydrogen Fuel Storage Protection System

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Advanced Materials and Manufacturing Technologies for Fuel Efficient Vehicles
Hybrid Materials Structures Electromagnetic Forming Superplastic Forming and Multisheet SPF Metals Formability Low-Cost Titanium Processing Metal Matrix Composites Friction Stir Welding and Processing/Surface Modification Low Cost Carbon Fiber (lignin, hybrid CF-glass) Predictive Modeling of Composite Properties and Performance Aluminum PU/SUV Frame Development
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