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Industrial Ecology of Microbial Utilization and Enzyme Hydrolysis

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					Innovations Are Driven By:
concerns  Distributed electric generation  Sustainable communities  Entrepreneurship opportunities
 Environmental

Putting the Pieces Together
Total Resource Recovery Anaerobic Digester Fuel+Cell CHP Plant Rural Economic Development Integrated Farm Energy Systems

Reduce Environmental Impacts

Energy Converters
Diesel engine Microturbines Fuel cells

Need for “Real” Numbers
AA Dairy has been meticulous in obtaining data for more than 3 years
production (total & per cow)  biogas composition (CO2 measurements)  oil consumption (daily)  electricity generated on the farm  electricity sold to the grid  difference between generated & sold is electricity used on the farm
 biogas

AA Dairy

Biogas production (cubic feet/day/cow)

100

120

20

40

60

80

0
6/11/98 9/9/98

Biogas/cow

12/8/98

3/8/99

Total biogas

6/6/99

9/4/99

12/3/99

Total biogas production and biogas production per cow per day

Date
3/2/00 5/31/00 8/29/00 11/27/00 2/25/01 5/26/01 8/24/01

0

Total biogas production (cubic feet/day)

20,000

40,000

60,000

80,000

100,000

120,000

Engine-generator performance at AA Dairy
120

100

80

60

40

20

0 6/8/98 9/6/98 12/5/98 3/5/99 6/3/99 9/1/99 11/30/99 2/28/00 5/28/00 8/26/00 11/24/00 2/22/01 5/23/01 8/21/01

Energy produced and net energy to grid at AA Dairy

2000

1500

Energy Produced on Farm

kWh/day

1000

Difference = Energy Used on the Farm

500

Net Energy to the Grid 0 - 50 point moving average -500 7/31/98

10/31/98

1/31/99

4/30/99

7/31/99

10/31/99

1/31/00

4/30/00

7/31/00

10/31/00

1/31/01

4/30/01

7/31/01

Date

Electricity Used by AA Dairy and Purchased from the Grid March 9-12, 2001 (NYSEG Energy Profiler Online)
Electricity used (kW) Electricity purchased (kW)
Generating Capacity ~70 kW

Time of day@ 5 min. intervals

Biomass Processing & Methane Production
Biogas (Methane)
Anaerobic Fermentation of Manure in a Plug Flow Biodigester

Fuel Cell Cogeneration
H2S scrubber

Liquid Separated from Fibrous Material
Compost or Dry Bedding

H2S

METHANE

CO2 scrubber
Digester Heating

Heat/Cogen

Energy Utilization

ELECTRICITY

Electricity
FACTORIES AND OTHER ENTERPRISES (EG. GREENHOUSES, PASTUERIZATION, AQUACULTURE ,etc.)

USEFUL HEAT

Nutrient Rich Stream Heat
CO2

CO2 Supply Electrical Supply Home Heating/ Air Conditioning

Fuel Cell Options
 Plug

Power (PEM) < 50kW (typical 4.5kW)

– EcoVillage at Ithaca (multiple households)
 Fuel

Cell Energy (MCFC) ~250kW

– Good size for 1000 cow unit

Reducing H2S Concentration
Dietary influence (limited ability) Direct precipitation with iron compound in digester (ferric phosphate, ferric oxide)

Iron sponge (hydrated ferric oxide with woodchips)
Commercial solid-oxide systems (zinc oxide/zinc carbonate) Activated carbon scrubbers Bioscrubbers Alkali solution (produce a fertilizer)

Viability
– “… fuel cells would be economically viable in rural areas, if they were put in specialized uses that operate on a continuous basis, use heat generated and that will pay a premium for such characteristics as low emissions, low noise levels, high quality power, modularity of design and capacity to use different types of hydrogen-based fuels.” – Max Pfeffer

Simplified Economic Analysis
Estimation using present value analysis with variables:
 discount

rate, capital costs, operating costs, insurance and taxes, purchase price of electricity, selling price of electricity, and electricity inflation  diesel engine, microturbine and fuel cell comparisons  calculated using data from AA Dairy

Economic Sensitivities
All three energy converters are most sensitive to:
The capital cost and  2. Price received for electricity produced.  3. Price paid for electricity from grid
 1.

Net Present Value Analysis
 Based

on 500 Cows

– Diesel Engine- payback in 3 to 7 years (depending) – Microturbines- payback in 3 to 8 years (depending) – Fuel Cell- payback not w/in 10 years (except if $1200/kW)

Net Present Value Analysis
 Based

on 1000 cows

– Diesel Engine- payback 2 to 7 years (depending) – Microturbines- payback 3 to 8 years (depending) – Fuel Cell- payback 3 years (if $1200/kW) - payback 9 years (if $2500/kW) - payback 11 years (if $5000/kW)

New York Distribution of Households & Electricity Demand
–

Households

% Households

Electricity Demand in gWh@5900kWh/hh/yr

   

Central cities Suburban areas

3,528,430 2,893,313

50 41

20,817 17,070

Rural Areas
TOTAL

635,117
7,056,860

9

3,747
41,635

Comparison of Different Systems in Meeting Electricity Needs
Cowpower to meet Rural Cowpower to meet Upstate Households Electricity Households Electricity Demand @5900 kWh/yr/hh Demand @5900 kWh/yr/hh Number of % Number of % Households Households Households Households Diesel Engine (19% 47,457 7.0 47,457 1.8 efficiency) Fuel Cell (48% 118,813 18.7 118,813 4.4 efficiency) Total Cowpower 280 gWh @19% efficiency 701 gWh @48% efficiency Biogas Electricity Generation System

Integrated Entrepreneurial Approach
Obviously reducing capital costs will improve the economic scenarios (especially for the fuel cell) BUT we suggest that a potentially innovative and economically successful route is to create business and community partnerships to enhance the value of energy produced, both electrical and thermal. Examples might include enterprises such as greenhouses, aquaculture facilities, algal farming, pateurization on the farm, various food and feed processing facilities, and most comprehensive of all, providing a community’s energy and jobs needs.

Agricultural Importance
Agriculture as a source for food, natural raw materials for bioindustries and energy will increasingly be a major engine to drive our transition to a sustainable world.

Input
Water Milk Plate Heat Exchanger Supplementals

Dairy Farm
Dairy Operation Future Benefits & Conclusions Absorption Chiller/ Refrigerator Lagoon Screw Separator Raw Manure Pretreatment Irrigation System Heating System Digester Algal Pond Fish Tanks

Output
milk fish M a r k e t s

Cow

Greenhouse Compost

veggies
compost

Sun

Cropland

H 2S Scrubber
Fuel Cell/ Cogeneration CO 2 Separator

On farm Electric Grid Inverter Electrical Storage electricity N Y S E G


				
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