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					Chapter 4 roadmap
4.1 Introduction and Network Service Models
4.2 Routing Principles
4.3 Hierarchical Routing
4.4 The Internet (IP) Protocol
4.5 Routing in the Internet
4.6 What’s Inside a Router
4.7 IPv6
4.8 Multicast Routing
4.9 Mobility

                                   Network Layer   4-1
Network layer functions

 transport packet from           application

  sending to receiving hosts      transport
                                   network
                                   data link
 network layer protocols in
                                                               network
                                   physical                    data link
                                                network                          network
  every host, router                            data link
                                                physical
                                                               physical          data link
                                                                                 physical
                                                               network
three important functions:                                     data link
                                                               physical      network

 path determination: route
                                                                             data link
                                                                             physical

   taken by packets from source                                      network
                                                 network
   to dest. Routing algorithms                   data link
                                                                     data link
                                                                     physical
                                                 physical
 forwarding: move packets                                   network
                                                             data link       application
   from router’s input to                                    physical        transport
                                                                              network
   appropriate router output                                                  data link
                                                                              physical

 call setup: some network
   architectures require router
   call setup along path before
   data flows
                                                                Network Layer              4-2
Network service model
  Q: What service model
    for “channel”
                                   The most important
    transporting packets           abstraction provided
    from sender to                  by network layer:
    receiver?
   guaranteed bandwidth?
   preservation of inter-packet
    timing (no jitter)?
                                     ? ?
                                     virtual circuit
                                           or
                                       datagram?
   loss-free delivery?
   in-order delivery?
   congestion feedback to
                                      ?
    sender?

                                           Network Layer   4-3
Datagram networks: the Internet model
 no call setup at network layer
 routers: no state about end-to-end connections
    no network-level concept of “connection”

 packets forwarded using destination host address
    packets between same source-dest pair may take
     different paths


application
                                                   application
transport
                                                   transport
 network
                                                    network
 data link 1. Send data            2. Receive data
                                                    data link
 physical
                                                    physical


                                              Network Layer   4-4
Chapter 4 roadmap
4.1 Introduction and Network Service Models
4.2 Routing Principles
      Link state routing
      Distance vector routing
4.3 Hierarchical Routing
4.4 The Internet (IP) Protocol
4.5 Routing in the Internet
4.6 What’s Inside a Router
4.7 IPv6
4.8 Multicast Routing
4.9 Mobility


                                         Network Layer   4-5
Routing
 Routing protocol
 Goal: determine “good” path                     5
 (sequence of routers) thru
                                                 B   3        C
network from source to dest.                                         5
                                             2
                                     A           2                        F
                                                                1
Graph abstraction for                    1
                                                         3
                                                 D            E       2
  routing algorithms:                                1
 graph nodes are
  routers                           “good” path:
 graph edges are                      typically means minimum
  physical links                        cost path
      link cost: delay, $ cost,       other def’s possible

       or congestion level

                                                             Network Layer    4-6
Chapter 4 roadmap
4.1 Introduction and Network Service Models
4.2 Routing Principles
4.3 Hierarchical Routing
4.4 The Internet (IP) Protocol
     4.4.1 IPv4 addressing
     4.4.2 Moving a datagram from source to destination
     4.4.3 Datagram format
     4.4.4 IP fragmentation
     4.4.5 ICMP: Internet Control Message Protocol
     4.4.6 DHCP: Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
     4.4.7 NAT: Network Address Translation
4.5 Routing in the Internet
4.6 What’s Inside a Router
4.7 IPv6
4.8 Multicast Routing
4.9 Mobility
                                                   Network Layer   4-7
 The Internet Network layer
  Host, router network layer functions:

                        Transport layer: TCP, UDP


           Routing protocols                IP protocol
           •path selection                  •addressing conventions
           •RIP, OSPF, BGP                  •datagram format
Network                                     •packet handling conventions
   layer                       forwarding
                                            ICMP protocol
                                  table
                                            •error reporting
                                            •router “signaling”

                                   Link layer

                                 physical layer


                                                                  Network Layer   4-8
IP Addressing: introduction
 IP address: 32-bit                      223.1.1.1

  identifier for host,                                              223.1.2.1
  router interface
                                          223.1.1.2
                                                 223.1.1.4     223.1.2.9
 interface: connection
                                                                    223.1.2.2
  between host/router                    223.1.1.3     223.1.3.27

  and physical link
      router’s typically have
       multiple interfaces                 223.1.3.1                223.1.3.2
      host may have multiple
       interfaces
      IP addresses
       associated with each      223.1.1.1 = 11011111 00000001 00000001 00000001
       interface
                                              223          1          1         1

                                                                Network Layer   4-9
IP Addressing
 IP address:                     223.1.1.1

    network part (high                                 223.1.2.1
                                  223.1.1.2
     order bits)                         223.1.1.4   223.1.2.9
    host part (low order
     bits)                       223.1.1.3
                                                            223.1.2.2
                                               223.1.3.27
   What’s a network ?
                                                      LAN
    (from IP address
    perspective)                   223.1.3.1                223.1.3.2
      device interfaces with
       same network part of
       IP address
                                network consisting of 3 IP networks
      can physically reach
                                (for IP addresses starting with 223,
       each other without       first 24 bits are network address)
       intervening router

                                                       Network Layer 4-10
IP Addressing                                        223.1.1.2



How to find the                     223.1.1.1                    223.1.1.4

  networks?
                                                   223.1.1.3
 Detach each
  interface from                         223.1.9.2         223.1.7.0
  router, host
 create “islands of
  isolated networks          223.1.9.1                                  223.1.7.1
                                             223.1.8.1   223.1.8.0

                                 223.1.2.6                           223.1.3.27

  Interconnected     223.1.2.1               223.1.2.2   223.1.3.1             223.1.3.2
 system consisting
   of six networks

                                                                     Network Layer   4-11
IP Addresses
given notion of “network”, let’s re-examine IP addresses:
“class-full” addressing:

   class
                                                      1.0.0.0 to
    A      0 network             host                 127.255.255.255

    B             network                             128.0.0.0 to
           10                           host
                                                      191.255.255.255
                                                      192.0.0.0 to
    C      110         network                 host
                                                      223.255.255.255
                                                      224.0.0.0 to
    D      1110         multicast address
                                                      239.255.255.255

                            32 bits


                                                          Network Layer 4-12
IP addressing: CIDR
 Classful addressing:
     inefficient use of address space, address space exhaustion
     e.g., class B net allocated enough addresses for 65K hosts,
      even if only 2K hosts in that network
 CIDR: Classless InterDomain Routing
     network portion of address of arbitrary length
     address format: a.b.c.d/x, where x is # bits in network
      portion of address

                    network                     host
                      part                      part
      11001000 00010111 00010000 00000000
                       200.23.16.0/23
                                                       Network Layer 4-13
IP addresses: how to get one?

Q: How does host get IP address?

 hard-coded by system admin in a file
    Wintel: control-panel->network->configuration-
     >tcp/ip->properties
    UNIX: /etc/rc.config
 DHCP: Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol:
  dynamically get address from as server
    “plug-and-play”
  (more shortly)

                                           Network Layer 4-14
Getting a datagram from source to dest.
                                         forwarding table in A
                                     Dest. Net. next router Nhops
                                      223.1.1                          1
                                      223.1.2       223.1.1.4          2
IP datagram:                          223.1.3       223.1.1.4          2
  misc source dest
                          data
 fields IP addr IP addr          A    223.1.1.1

  datagram remains                                            223.1.2.1
   unchanged, as it travels            223.1.1.2
   source to destination                     223.1.1.4   223.1.2.9
                                 B
  addr fields of interest                                       223.1.2.2
                                                                             E
   here                              223.1.1.3    223.1.3.27

                                      223.1.3.1                223.1.3.2




                                                         Network Layer 4-15
Getting a datagram from source to dest.
                                        forwarding table in A
 misc                                   Dest. Net. next router Nhops
                           data
fields 223.1.1.1 223.1.1.3
                                         223.1.1                          1
                                         223.1.2       223.1.1.4          2
Starting at A, send IP
                                         223.1.3       223.1.1.4          2
  datagram addressed to B:
 look up net. address of B in      A    223.1.1.1
  forwarding table
 find B is on same net. as A
                                                                  223.1.2.1
                                          223.1.1.2
 link layer will send datagram                 223.1.1.4   223.1.2.9
  directly to B inside link-layer   B
                                                                    223.1.2.2
  frame                                 223.1.1.3    223.1.3.27                 E
     B and A are directly
      connected                          223.1.3.1                223.1.3.2




                                                            Network Layer 4-16
Getting a datagram from source to dest.
                                         forwarding table in A
 misc                                    Dest. Net. next router Nhops
                           data
fields 223.1.1.1 223.1.2.3
                                          223.1.1                          1
                                          223.1.2       223.1.1.4          2
Starting at A, dest. E:
                                          223.1.3       223.1.1.4          2
 look up network address of E
    in forwarding table
                                     A    223.1.1.1
   E on different network
       A, E not directly attached
                                                                   223.1.2.1
                                           223.1.1.2
   routing table: next hop                      223.1.1.4   223.1.2.9
    router to E is 223.1.1.4         B
                                                                     223.1.2.2
   link layer sends datagram to         223.1.1.3    223.1.3.27                 E
    router 223.1.1.4 inside link-
    layer frame                           223.1.3.1                223.1.3.2

   datagram arrives at 223.1.1.4
   continued…..
                                                             Network Layer 4-17
Getting a datagram from source to dest.
                                     forwarding table in router
  misc                              Dest. Net router Nhops interface
                            data
 fields 223.1.1.1 223.1.2.3
                                    223.1.1          -       1       223.1.1.4
Arriving at 223.1.4,                223.1.2          -       1       223.1.2.9

  destined for 223.1.2.2            223.1.3          -       1        223.1.3.27

 look up network address of E      A    223.1.1.1
  in router’s forwarding table
 E on same network as router’s
                                                                  223.1.2.1
                                          223.1.1.2
  interface 223.1.2.9                           223.1.1.4   223.1.2.9
     router, E directly attached   B
                                                                    223.1.2.2
 link layer sends datagram to          223.1.1.3    223.1.3.27                 E
  223.1.2.2 inside link-layer
                                         223.1.3.1                223.1.3.2
  frame via interface 223.1.2.9
 datagram arrives at
  223.1.2.2!!! (hooray!)
                                                            Network Layer 4-18
  IP datagram format
  IP protocol version
              number                    32 bits                    total datagram
       header length           head. type of                       length (bytes)
              (bytes)     ver                     length
                                 len service                       for
       “type” of data                               fragment       fragmentation/
                           16-bit identifier flgs
                                                      offset       reassembly
          max number       time to    upper       Internet
       remaining hops        live      layer      checksum
     (decremented at
         each router)          32 bit source IP address

  upper layer protocol       32 bit destination IP address
  to deliver payload to                                           E.g. timestamp,
                                    Options (if any)
                                                                  record route
how much overhead                        data                     taken, specify
  with TCP?                        (variable length,              list of routers
 20 bytes of TCP                   typically a TCP               to visit.
                                   or UDP segment)
 20 bytes of IP
 = 40 bytes + app
  layer overhead
                                                               Network Layer 4-19
DHCP: Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol

 Goal: allow host to dynamically obtain its IP address
   from network server when it joins network
    Can renew its lease on address in use
    Allows reuse of addresses (only hold address while connected
      an “on”
    Support for mobile users who want to join network (more
      shortly)
 DHCP overview:
    host broadcasts “DHCP discover” msg
    DHCP server responds with “DHCP offer” msg
    host requests IP address: “DHCP request” msg
    DHCP server sends address: “DHCP ack” msg
                                                    Network Layer 4-20
DHCP client-server scenario

      A    223.1.1.1          DHCP            223.1.2.1
                              server
            223.1.1.2
                  223.1.1.4    223.1.2.9
      B
                                       223.1.2.2          arriving DHCP
          223.1.1.3    223.1.3.27                  E      client needs
                                                          address in this
           223.1.3.1                223.1.3.2
                                                          network




                                                               Network Layer 4-21
DHCP client-server scenario
   DHCP server: 223.1.2.5                                         arriving
                                   DHCP discover
                                                                   client
                                    src : 0.0.0.0, 68
                                    dest.: 255.255.255.255,67
                                    yiaddr: 0.0.0.0
                                    transaction ID: 654

                                     DHCP offer
                                      src: 223.1.2.5, 67
                                      dest: 255.255.255.255, 68
                                      yiaddrr: 223.1.2.4
                                      transaction ID: 654
                                      Lifetime: 3600 secs
               DHCP request
                 src: 0.0.0.0, 68
                 dest:: 255.255.255.255, 67
                 yiaddrr: 223.1.2.4
                 transaction ID: 655
       time      Lifetime: 3600 secs

                                    DHCP ACK
                                      src: 223.1.2.5, 67
                                      dest: 255.255.255.255, 68
                                      yiaddrr: 223.1.2.4
                                      transaction ID: 655
                                      Lifetime: 3600 secs


                                                                   Network Layer 4-22
  NAT: Network Address Translation

           rest of                         local network
          Internet                     (e.g., home network)
                                              10.0.0/24               10.0.0.1

                                  10.0.0.4
                                                                       10.0.0.2
                 138.76.29.7

                                                                       10.0.0.3


  All datagrams leaving local        Datagrams with source or
network have same single source      destination in this network
 NAT IP address: 138.76.29.7,       have 10.0.0/24 address for
 different source port numbers      source, destination (as usual)


                                                              Network Layer 4-23
  NAT: Network Address Translation

 Motivation: local network uses just one IP address as
  far as outside word is concerned:
    no need to be allocated range of addresses from ISP:
     - just one IP address is used for all devices
    can change addresses of devices in local network
     without notifying outside world
    can change ISP without changing addresses of
     devices in local network
    devices inside local net not explicitly addressable,
     visible by outside world (a security plus).


                                              Network Layer 4-24
  NAT: Network Address Translation
Implementation: NAT router must:

     outgoing datagrams: replace (source IP address, port
      #) of every outgoing datagram to (NAT IP address,
      new port #)
       . . . remote clients/servers will respond using (NAT
          IP address, new port #) as destination addr.

     remember (in NAT translation table) every (source
      IP address, port #) to (NAT IP address, new port #)
      translation pair

     incoming datagrams: replace (NAT IP address, new
      port #) in dest fields of every incoming datagram
      with corresponding (source IP address, port #)
      stored in NAT table
                                                Network Layer 4-25
    NAT: Network Address Translation
                           NAT translation table
2: NAT router                                                             1: host 10.0.0.1
                       WAN side addr    LAN side addr
changes datagram                                                          sends datagram to
                         138.76.29.7, 5001 10.0.0.1, 3345                 128.119.40, 80
source addr from
                          ……                          ……
10.0.0.1, 3345 to
138.76.29.7, 5001,                                         S: 10.0.0.1, 3345
updates table                                              D: 128.119.40.186, 80
                                                                                       10.0.0.1
                                                                      1
                      S: 138.76.29.7, 5001
                2     D: 128.119.40.186, 80   10.0.0.4
                                                                                         10.0.0.2
                             138.76.29.7          S: 128.119.40.186, 80
                                                  D: 10.0.0.1, 3345       4
              S: 128.119.40.186, 80
              D: 138.76.29.7, 5001    3                                         10.0.0.3
                                                4: NAT router
            3: Reply arrives                    changes datagram
            dest. address:                      dest addr from
            138.76.29.7, 5001                   138.76.29.7, 5001 to 10.0.0.1, 3345

                                                                            Network Layer 4-26
NAT: Network Address Translation

 16-bit port-number field:
     60,000 simultaneous connections with a single
      LAN-side address!
 NAT is controversial:
   routers should only process up to layer 3
   violates end-to-end argument
       • NAT possibility must be taken into account by app
         designers, e.g., P2P applications
     address shortage should instead be solved by
      IPv6


                                                   Network Layer 4-27
 IPv6
 Initial motivation: 32-bit address space
  completely allocated by 2008.
 Additional motivation:
    header format helps speed processing/forwarding
    header changes to facilitate QoS
    new “anycast” address: route to “best” of several
     replicated servers
 IPv6 datagram format:
    fixed-length 40 byte header
    no fragmentation allowed


                                           Network Layer 4-28
IPv6 Header (Cont)
Priority: identify priority among datagrams in flow
Flow Label: identify datagrams in same “flow.”
           (concept of“flow” not well defined).
Next header: identify upper layer protocol for data




                                             Network Layer 4-29
Other Changes from IPv4
 Checksum: removed entirely to reduce
  processing time at each hop
 Options: allowed, but outside of header,
  indicated by “Next Header” field
 ICMPv6: new version of ICMP
   additional message types, e.g. “Packet Too Big”
   multicast group management functions




                                           Network Layer 4-30

				
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