The Most Ruthless
By Julian Tetreault, Kevin
Fascist Party and Police State
• Within 2 years with Mussolini as leader,
Italy was turned into a police state.
• There were no constitutional restraints
on his power.
• Could do anything he wanted.
• The head of the black shirts (fascist
militia) which terrorized resistance
• All other parties were outlawed in Italy.
• The Italians invaded Ethiopia using chemical
weapons: mustard gas, phosgene.
• Used these weapons to indiscriminately kill
much of the local population in order to quell
• Mussolini himself allowed the weapons to be
• After being exposed for using these weapons
by the red cross the Italian bombed at least
19 red cross tents posted in Ethiopia.
• Besides chemical weapons Italians also used
created labor camps, killed hostages,
installed public gallows, and mutilated
• Captured resistance fighters were thrown out
of airplanes midflight.
Slaughter of Addis Ababa
• In a specific example of the
Ethiopian Genocide, after an
assassination attempt on an
Italian officer at a ceremony
failed, the 30 Ethiopians at the
ceremony were immediately
• The Black Shirts then
swarmed Addis Ababa and
tortured and killed all men
women and children in their
• They also set fire to homes
and organized mass
executions, up to 50 or a 100
people at a time.
The Orders of Mussolini in Ethiopia
• “The use of gas an “ultima ratio” to overwhelm
enemy resistance and in case of counter attack
• “Given the enemies system I have authorized
the use, even on a vast scale, of any gas and
• “All rebels taken prisoner must be killed.”
• “I have authorized once again to begin and
systematically conduct a politics of terror and
extermination of the rebels and the complicit
population without legge taglionis one cannot
cure the infection in time.
Mussolini’s Secret Police
• Created by Mussolini.
• Consisted of ex-soldiers who’s job it was
to bring “into line” those who opposed
Mussolini by means of intimidation,
violence, and murder.
• One particular technique was the force-
feeding large amounts of castor oil which
would then led to severe diarrhea and
dehydration, often resulting in death.
Capture Escape and Death
• Executed by the partisans April 28th.
• Colonel Valerio helped them to escape,
only to have them executed a mile from
• Valerio then drove back and rounded up
the 15 other fascist prisoners who were
shot down by a partisan firing squad.
• All the bodies were hung in the public
square for people to see.
• “Blood alone moves the wheels of history.”
• “Fascism is a religion. The twentieth century will be
known in the history as the century of Fascism.”
• “Fascism, the more it considers and observes the future
and the development of humanity, quite apart from
political considerations of the moment, believes neither
in the possibility nor the utility of perpetual peace.”
• “It is humiliating to remain with our hands folded while
others write history. It matters little who wins. To make a
people great it is necessary to send them to battle, even
if you have to kick them in the pants. That is what I shall
• “War alone brings up to their highest tension all human
energies and imposes the stamp of nobility upon the
people’s who have the courage to make it.”