b_denahan_urban_sprawl

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					                                 Topic: Are current land use policies in Florida contributing to sprawl?

                Sprawl is the spreading of urban areas in to Green-fields destroying
                farmland and woodlands, leaving fragmented non-viable isolated patches.




http://science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2002
/11oct_sprawl.htm
          Topic: Are current land use policies in Florida contributing to sprawl?




“This NAUTILUS map of Old Saybrook, Connecticut, is color-coded to show
the percent of the landscape covered by impervious surfaces (such as
pavement and rooftops) both today (left) and in the future (right) if current
zoning patterns are fully developed. Separate research has shown that
more than 25% of impervious surface (red) in an area leads to major
impairment of local waterways”.

                                               http://science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2002/11oct_sprawl.htm
                Topic: Are current land use policies in Florida contributing to sprawl?




                                                              However, population density does little to
                                                             alleviate auto-caused smog.” “Metropolitan
                                                             areas with the lowest population densities
                                                               have the fewest air pollution problems.
                                                                  Furthermore, population density or
                                                             compactness has little relationship to how
                                                             much commuters depend on automobiles.
                                                            More than 75 percent of commuter trips are
                                                            by car in every area except New York - and
                                                            more than 90 percent are by car in the vast
                                                                           majority of areas.
                                                              Studies show that the number of vehicle
                                                                 miles traveled actually increases with
http://blog.lib.umn.edu/ukura006/architecture/1114-Urban-
Sprawl-0.jpg                                                   population density in the United States.
                                                               Thus a policy strategy that attempts to
                                                              increase population density could lead to
                                                              more traffic congestion, exacerbating air
                                                            pollution levels and potentially causing more
                                                            areas to fail to meet federal clean air goals.
                                                                                http://www.ncpa.org/ba/ba287.html
          Topic: Are current land use policies in Florida contributing to sprawl?


 Ecological Principals


  The EPA reported that the rate of land nation wide being converted to
  urban sprawl is greater that the rate of population growth and that once
  converted that it no longer meets the needs of wildlife, especially wildlife
  that requires large areas of the landscape to thrive

       This means that we are using more land per-capita than in the past.
       Lots and homes are larger creating more sprawl


Sprawl creates habitat
fragmentation and opens
the door to invasive
species



                                             http://www.biodiversitypartners.org/habconser/sprawl/01.shtml
                Topic: Are current land use policies in Florida contributing to sprawl?




“Wetlands, many species depend upon wetland habitat to support some stage
in their life cycle. At the same time, human demand to develop these areas is
high. More than 50% of the wetlands in the U.S. have been drained and filled




                                                                http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://sofia.usgs.gov/virtu
                                                                al_tour/images/photos/corkscrew/css_boardwalk.jpg&imgrefurl=htt
                                                                p://sofia.usgs.gov/virtual_tour/corkscrew/index.html&h=600&w=80
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                                                                h=107&tbnw=143&prev=/images%3Fq%3DSwamps%2Bwetlands
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http://www.biodiversitypartners.org/habconser/sprawl/01.shtml
         Topic: Are current land use policies in Florida contributing to sprawl?




Present land-use policies occur in a variety of ways in Florida laws. Florida’s
environmental laws determine where certain activities can take place after
much study. Environmental impact statements and permitting is the state’s
mechanism for controlling development of certain types of development
predominately industrial.

The state has several conservation and research programs whose aim is
conservation of the more sensitive areas. Due to available funding for
conservation of sensitive areas the state is looking at the minimum
requirements.
         Topic: Are current land use policies in Florida contributing to sprawl?


Legal Principals:


The state’s statues are the mechanism by which sprawl and other
environmental issues are addressed.

One of the most telling statues is 163.2511 Urban infill and redevelopment
generally referred to as the Growth Policy Act. Paragraph 1c states: “In
recognition of the interwoven destiny between the urban center, the suburbs,
the region, and the state, the respective governments need to establish a
framework and work in partnership with communities and the private sector to
revitalize urban centers.” Putting the responsibility of growth management
firmly into the lap of local governments.




         http://www.leg.state.fl.us/statutes/index.cfm?App_mode=Display_Statute&Search_String=&URL=Ch0163/PART02.HTM
                 Topic: Are current land use policies in Florida contributing to sprawl?




                PART II GROWTH POLICY; COUNTY AND MUNICIPAL PLANNING; LAND DEVELOPMENT REGULATIONS
 163.2511 Urban infill and redevelopment. 163.2514 Growth Policy Act; definitions. 163.2517 Designation of urban infill and redevelopment
    area. 163.2520 Economic incentives. 163.2523 Grant program. 163.2526 Review and evaluation. 163.3161 Short title; intent and
   purpose. 163.3162 Agricultural Lands and Practices Act. 163.3164 Local Government Comprehensive Planning and Land Development
     Regulation Act; definitions. 163.3167 Scope of act. 163.3171 Areas of authority under this act. 163.3174 Local planning agency.
163.3175 Legislative findings on compatibility of development with military installations; exchange of information between local governments
   and military installations. 163.3177 Required and optional elements of comprehensive plan; studies and surveys. 163.31771 Accessory
       dwelling units. 163.31777 Public schools inter local agreement. 163.3178 Coastal management. 163.3179 Family homestead.
      163.3180 Concurrency. 163.31801 Impact fees; short title; intent; definitions; ordinances levying impact fees. 163.3181 Public
 participation in the comprehensive planning process; intent; alternative dispute resolution. 163.3182 Transportation concurrency backlogs.
     163.3184 Process for adoption of comprehensive plan or plan amendment. 163.3187 Amendment of adopted comprehensive plan.
        163.3189 Process for amendment of adopted comprehensive plan. 163.3191 Evaluation and appraisal of comprehensive plan.
        163.3194 Legal status of comprehensive plan. 163.3197 Legal status of prior comprehensive plan. 163.3201 Relationship of
 comprehensive plan to exercise of land development regulatory authority. 163.3202 Land development regulations. 163.3204 Cooperation
  by state and regional agencies. 163.3208 Substation approval process. 163.3209 Electric transmission and distribution line right-of-way
maintenance. 163.3211 Conflict with other statutes. 163.3213 Administrative review of land development regulations. 163.3215 Standing
to enforce local comprehensive plans through development orders. 163.3217 Municipal overlay for municipal incorporation. 163.3220 Short
         title; legislative intent. 163.3221 Florida Local Government Development Agreement Act; definitions. 163.3223 Applicability.
   163.3225 Public hearings. 163.3227 Requirements of a development agreement. 163.3229 Duration of a development agreement and
       relationship to local comprehensive plan. 163.3231 Consistency with the comprehensive plan and land development regulations.
       163.3233 Local laws and policies governing a development agreement. 163.3235 Periodic review of a development agreement.
  163.3237 Amendment or cancellation of a development agreement. 163.3239 Recording and effectiveness of a development agreement.
         163.3241 Modification or revocation of a development agreement to comply with subsequently enacted state and federal law.
    163.3243 Enforcement. 163.3245 Optional sector plans. 163.3246 Local government comprehensive planning certification program.

      163.32465 State review of local comprehensive plans in urban areas. 163.3247 Century Commission for a Sustainable Florida.




                     http://www.leg.state.fl.us/statutes/index.cfm?App_mode=Display_Statute&Search_String=&URL=Ch0163/PART02.HTM
          Topic: Are current land use policies in Florida contributing to sprawl?




The core legal principals that underlie the sprawl related environmental
problems are the lack of overall statues that directly addresses sprawl or how
urban centers can expand into non-urban areas. It is left up to each local
government agency to designate conservation and protected areas and to
develop regulations that govern expansion into or near these designated areas.
The local entity only needs to provide to the state regulations that comply with
their adopted comprehensive plans.
                 Topic: Are current land use policies in Florida contributing to sprawl?


                                              163.3202 Land development regulations.--
 1 Within 1 year after submission of its revised comprehensive plan for review pursuant to s. 163.3167(2), each county and each
municipality shall adopt or amend and enforce land development regulations that are consistent with and implement their adopted
                                                             comprehensive plan.
      2 Local land development regulations shall contain specific and detailed provisions necessary or desirable to implement the
                                           adopted comprehensive plan and shall as a minimum:
                                                    (a) Regulate the subdivision of land;
         (b) Regulate the use of land and water for those land use categories included in the land use element and ensure the
                                         compatibility of adjacent uses and provide for open space;
                                            (c) Provide for protection of potable water wellfields;
          (d) Regulate areas subject to seasonal and periodic flooding and provide for drainage and stormwater management;
                  (e) Ensure the protection of environmentally sensitive lands designated in the comprehensive plan;
                                                            (f) Regulate signage;
     (g) Provide that public facilities and services meet or exceed the standards established in the capital improvements element
       required by s. 163.3177 and are available when needed for the development, or that development orders and permits are
conditioned on the availability of these public facilities and services necessary to serve the proposed development. Not later than 1
 year after its due date established by the state land planning agency's rule for submission of local comprehensive plans pursuant
      to s. 163.3167 A local government shall not issue a development order or permit which results in a reduction in the level of
  services for the affected public facilities below the level of services provided in the comprehensive plan of the local government.
                         (h) Ensure safe and convenient onsite traffic flow, considering needed vehicle parking.
 3 This section shall be construed to encourage the use of innovative land development regulations which include provisions such
   as transfer of development rights, incentive and inclusionary zoning, planned-unit development, impact fees, and performance
        zoning. These and all other such regulations shall be combined and compiled into a single land development code for the
  jurisdiction. A general zoning code shall not be required if a local government's adopted land development regulations meet the
                                                         requirements of this section.
  4 The state land planning agency may require a local government to submit one or more land development regulations if it has
      reasonable grounds to believe that a local government has totally failed to adopt any one or more of the land development
    regulations required by this section. Once the state land planning agency determines after review and consultation with local
 government whether the local government has adopted regulations required by this section, the state land planning agency shall
  notify the local government in writing within 30 calendar days after receipt of the regulations from the local government. If the
  state land planning agency determines that the local government has failed to adopt regulations required by this section, it may
    institute an action in circuit court to require adoption of these regulations. This action shall not review compliance of adopted
                                   regulations with this section or consistency with locally adopted plans.
   5 The state land planning agency shall adopt rules for review and schedules for adoption of land development regulations. (7)
          Topic: Are current land use policies in Florida contributing to sprawl?




While sprawl is a national concern I think sprawl is locally created. Zoning is
the local mechanism to regulate land-use within a city or county. Each city or
county creates their own land-use/growth plan and implements their plan
through zoning. I feel that zoning regulations are the primary tool that
controls physical sprawl in any given area of Florida. Issues with land-use
planning being delegated to the local level are a lack of funding for the studies
need to make informed decisions; the lack of qualified technical advisers to
the decision / policy makers; the lack of coordination between various cities
and counties; and a lack of common goals.

I think the issue of land-use and sprawl relates strongly to the Hardin’s
“Tragedy of the Commons” and commonly held goods. Cities and counties
want to grow and be successful, they want to increase their income base and
ultimately their financial status and expand their services. These individual
goals can and at this time usually prohibit coordination between civic entities
leaving the environmental issues generated by sprawl generally unaddressed.
The state has delegated its power to the local level and can not or does not
provide overall guidance to bring about the best environmental resolution.

				
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