Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities by dffhrtcv3

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									 Mental Retardation and
Developmental Disabilities
            Learning Objectives
 Define mental retardation and developmental disabilities
  (MR/DD).
 List some of the factors that contribute to MR/DD.
 Describe the three levels of prevention: primary, secondary,
  tertiary.
 Identify four areas of instruction that generally constitute the
  special education programs for students with mild or
  moderate retardation.
 Describe how the push for inclusion has influenced children
  with MR/DD.
 List three ways that teachers can prepare students with
  MR/DD to function in the workplace.
 Identify some of the problems facing persons with MR/DD in
  making the transition from school to work and community.
 Explain how the standards movement has influenced children
  with MR/DD.
 Describe ways that teachers can help families cope with the
  presence of a child with MD/DD.
                Key Terms
 Adaptive behavior 適應性行為 The
  effectiveness or degree with which individuals
  meet the standards of personal independence and
  social responsibility expected for their age and
  cultural group.
 Amniocentesis A procedure for drawing a
  sample of amniotic fluid from a pregnant woman.
 Behavior modification 行為改變 A variety of
  techniques designed to reduce or eliminate
  nonadaptive behaviors and to increase the use of
  socially constructive behaviors.
 Central processing Classification of a stimulus
  using memory, reasoning, and evaluation.
 Classification The organization of information.
 Cooperative learning 合作學習 A set of
  instructional strategies that emphasize the use of
  groups for teaching problem solving and working
  constructively with others
 Contingent social reinforcement A system that
  uses tokens or other concrete objects to reward
  desired behavior.
 Developmental disabilities 發展性障礙 A term in
  your text that is used synonymously with mental
  retardation.
 Differential reinforcement 區分增強 Rewarding
  behaviors that are appropriate and ignoring target
  behaviors; variation provides rewards for increasing
  the time between unwanted behaviors.
 Differentiated instruction The most common
  instructional adaptation for students with mental
  retardation: each teacher adjusts the level of
  difficulty of tasks to fit the developmental level of the
  child.
 Down syndrome A chromosomal abnormality that
  results in mental retardation and a variety of hearing,
  skeletal, and heart problems.
 Encephalitis A virus that produces a high fever,
  which in turn can destroy brain cells.
 Executive function The decision-making element
  that controls reception, central processing, and
  expression.
 Expression The choice of a single response from
  a repertoire of responses.
 Extrinsic motivation Motivating students through
  positive self-esteem.
 Fetal alcohol syndrome Mental retardation
  caused by the mother’s drinking during pregnancy.
 Fragile X syndrome A chromosomal abnormality
  that leads to moderate or severe mental retardation.
 Information processing The way in which a
  person perceives or responds to stimuli.
 Intrinsic motivation Motivating students to complete
  a task by promising a reward.
 Karyotyping A process for making a picture of
  chromosomal patterns.
 Memory A central-processing function that is difficult
  for children who are retarded.
 Mental retardation Significantly subaverage general
  intelligence existing concurrently with deficits in
  adaptive behavior and manifested during the
  developmental period.
 Mild mental retardation A delay in mental
  development but with the capacity to develop
  academically, socially, and vocationally. The child who
  is mildly retarded needs special help in the
  educational program.
 Moderate mental retardation A limited ability to
  develop academically, socially, and vocationally. The
  child who is moderately retarded needs major
  adaptations in the educational program.
 Negative reinforcement The application of a
  negative stimulus or punishment.
 Phenylketonuria (PKU) A single-gene defect that
  can produce severe retardation.
 Positive reinforcement A reward that increases the
  likelihood of a wanted behavior.
 Primary prevention A program to reduce the
  number of children who are born mentally retarded or
  with conditions that could lead to mental retardation.
 Reception The visual or auditory perception of a
  stimulus.
 Reciprocal teaching A technique in which small
  groups of students and teachers take turns leading a
  discussion.
 Respite care The services of a trained individual to
  relieve, on a short-term basis, the primary caregiver of
  a child with disabilities.
 Rubella A virus that, if contracted by a mother during
  the first three weeks after fertilization, can cause
  mental retardation in the fetus. Also called German
  measles.
 Scaffolding A system designed to develop critical
  thinking and independent action by students with mild
  retardation.
 Secondary prevention A program to identify or change
  conditions that could lead to retardation.
 Severe and profound mental retardation A combination of
  handicaps that interfere with normal instructional procedures.
  The educational program for the child who is severely and
  profoundly retarded focuses on self-care skills.
 Social learning approach A method that builds lesson
  experiences around psychological and physical needs.
 Task analysis Breaking down a complex task into simpler
  subtasks.
 Teratogen A substance that adversely affects fetal
  development.
 Tertiary prevention A program of arranging the educational
  and social environment so that those who are retarded can
  achieve their maximum potential.
 Time out Physical removal of a child from a reinforcing
  situation for a period of time.

   Advanced Organizer of This Chapter


                                                          What contributes
Organic / Familial          What is mental
                             retardation?                          to mental            Toxic agents
                                                              retardation?               Infections
                         Adaptive behavior                                        Chromosomal abnormalities
                                                          Environmental factors
                      Intellectual functioning              Biological factors

             Prevention                   Identification process


                                                          What educational
                      What are common
                            characteristics?                  services are            LRE-inclusion
                           Language acquisition               appropriate?
                          Information processing          Learning environment
                              Social/emotional             Curriculum content       1. ________   2. ________
                                                                                    3. ________   4. ________
The definitions of mental retardation

 One definition of mental retardation comes
  from the American Association on Mental
  Retardation
 Mental retardation is characterized by
  significantly subaverage intellectual
  functioning existing concurrently with related
  limitations in two or more of the following
  applicable adaptive skills areas
 (1) communication, (2) self-care, (3) home
  living, (4) community use, (5) self-direction,
  (6) health and safety, and (7) functional
  academics, leisure, and work.
 This assessment looks at (1) cultural
  differences in individual circumstances, (2)
  community environments influenced by the
  development of adaptive skills, (3) relative
  strengths in various domains of
  development, and (4) appropriate supports
  to improve life functioning.
           Intelligence Tests
 Intelligence tests measure the specific skills
  in which children with mental retardation
  differ, namely, in using memory skills, in
  associating and classifying information, in
  reasoning, and in making sound judgments.
           Intelligence Tests
 Intelligence tests have historically been
  used as an assessment for referral. The
  most recent tests are the individual tests of
  intelligence developed by David Wechsler
  (1974).
Adaptive skills
Adaptive Skills
  Levels of Mental Retardation
 Familial: due to organic defect
 idiot, imbecile, and moron educable,
  trainable, and dependable  mild,
  moderate, severe, profound
 Another way of viewing individuals with
  mental retardation or developmental
  disabilities is to define the level or intensity
  of support necessary to allow the child to
  operate effectively : intermittent, limited,
  extensive, pervasive
                Genetic factor
 Research in genetics (McClearn, 1993) suggests
  that genes influence the proteins that are critical to
  the functioning of the organ systems that
  determine behavior.
 TBI (Traumatic Brain Injury); FAS (Fetal Alcohol
  Syndrome; PSA (Parental Substance Abuse); FXS
  (Fragile X Syndrome) all produce similar problems
  in low IQ, underachievement despite their various
  cause
Biological Factors that Contribute to
                MR
   Chromosmal Abnormalities
   Down Syndrome
   Phenylketonuria
   Fragile X Syndrome
   Toxic Agents
   Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
   Heavy Metals
   Infections
    Chromosmal Abnormalities
 4434 known genetic disorders, over 400 is
  related to MR
Down Syndrome
           Down Syndrome
 Occurs once every 600-900 live births
 Most instances have mild to moderate
  mental retardation and a variety of hearing,
  skeletal, and heart problems.
 More than 50% are born to mother older
  than 35 years old.
 Aminocentesis, alpha-fetoprotein, and
  ultrasonography can detect DS
            Phenylketonuria
 A kind of inborn errors of metabolism
 The absence of a specific enzyme in the
  liver leads to a buildup of the amino acid
  phenylalanine
         Fragile X Syndrome
 Recognize as one leading cause of mental
  and developmental disabilities
 1/1500 for males and 1/1000 for females
 With a slightly larger-than-normal head with
  large ears, a long, narrow faces, ….
              Toxic Agents

 Teratogen, such as alcohol and cigarette
       Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
 7/10000
 FAE may lead to distractibility, hyperactivity
 Recognize as a major cause of moderate to
  severe organic mental retardation
            Heavy mental
 Lead, mercury….
                 Infection
 Rubella
 Encephalitis
Environmental Factors That Affect
       Mental Retardation
 a close correlation between environmental
  conditions and a child’s intellectual
  performance.
 Sameroff identified a set of ten variables
  and determined that only in families with
  multiple risk factors was the child’s
  competence in jeopardy.
Characteristics of Children with
   Mental Retardation and
  Developmental Disabilities
 Ability to Process Information
 Many children with mental retardation have
  problems in central processing, the
  classification of a stimulus through the use
  of memory, reasoning, and evaluation.
 Problems also occur in the executive
  function
 IQ<50 may result from neurological defect
  that makes processing information difficult
     Ability to Acquire and Use
              Language
 Children with mental retardation have a
  general deficit in language development and
  specific problems using interpretative
  language
 Slower than nondisabled children
 When looking at developmental delays in
  language acquisition, one should always
  look for neurological and physiological
  causes as well.
Ability to Acquire Emotional and
           Social Skills
 emotional and social difficulties can create
  problems with vocational and community
  adjustment.
 Social competence involves not only the
  presence of social skills but the
  appropriate use of them in social situations
 There have been recent calls (Korinek &
  Polloway, 1993) to emphasize the
  development of social skills and social
  competence in the curriculum.
            Identification
 How do educators define mental retardation
  and developmental disabilities?
Prevention of Mental Retardation
Prevention of Mental Retardation
 Identifying Students with Mental Retardation
  or Developmental Disabilities
 Issues of Inclusion:How has inclusion
  influenced the education of children with
  mental retardation and developmental
  disabilities?
 Individual Education Programs
Prevention of Mental Retardation
   General Education Classroom
   Teacher Consultants or Facilitators
   How to Use the Resource Room
   Special Classes
   Adapting Curriculum
   Adapting Teaching Strategies
   Technology
                  Transition
  How can teachers prepare students with
   mental retardation and developmental
   disabilities to function in the workplace?
A. School to Work
B. Transition to Adulthood
C. Transition to community

								
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