Enlightenment_and_Revolution by xiagong0815


									                Enlightenment and Revolution
                                   Chapter 22
                                 Section 1
                                 CHAPTER 22
The Roots of Modern Science
   Medieval scholars have a geocentric view of the universe
   Greek philosopher Ptolemy
     Geocentric theory
        Earth is the center of the universe
        Christian taught that God placed the earth at center of universe
         because it was a special place which the great drama of life took

The Roots of Modern Science
   Exploration & New discoveries challenge old ideas & lead to the
    Scientific Revolution
      The Renaissance
         Inspired spirit of curiosity,
         Discoveries of classical manuscript led to realization that ancient
          scholars to realization that ancient scholars; Scholars often did not
          a g re e
         Scholars question traditional ideas
         Printing press spread new ideas

The Roots of Modern Science
       Age of Exploration
          Long sea voyages required better navigational instruments,
           which led to research in astronomy & mathematics.
          As scientists looked more closely at the world around them,
           they made discoveries that did not match ancient beliefs.
A Revolutionary Model of the Universe
 The Heliocentric Theory – sun center theory
    Nicolaus Copernicus is the father of the sun center theor y
       Published finding in 1543 in book On the Revolutions of the Heavenly
       Earth rotated on its axis
        Planets rotated around sun in a circular motion
     Johannes Kepler
        Mathematician who continued the work of astronomer, T ycho Brahe
        Planets rotated around the sun in an elliptical motion, not circular

A Revolutionary Model of the Universe
   Galileo’s observations & his laws of motion support the heliocentric
      Law of Pendulum
         Each pendulum swing takes the same amount of time
      Falling objects accelerate at a fixed rate
      1610 published the Starry Times
         Stated Jupiter has four moon
         Sun has dark spots; moon has rough uneven surface

The Scientific Method
 The scientific method is a logical procedure for gathering &
  testing ideas
 Francis Bacon urges scientists to draw conclusions about the
  world based on their won observations
 René Descartes believes that everything should be doubted until
  it can be proved by reason

Newton Explains the law of Gravity
   Newton’s law of gravity explains how the same physical laws govern
    motion on the earth & in the heavens
   Law of universal gravitation
      The same force-gravity- rules all matter on earth and space
      Every object in the universe attracts every other
      The degree of attraction is determined by mass and distance

The Scientific Revolution Spreads
   New tools & instruments help scientists make precise observations
     Microscope invented by Zacharias Janssseen
     Barometer invented by Evangelista Toricelli
     Thermometer invented by Gabriel Fahrenheit freezing at 32°
     Anders Celsius created celsius scale of freezing at 0°

The Scientific Revolution Spreads
   The study of human anatomy leads to a greater understanding of
    the body & disease
      Vesalius first to dissected human corpses
      William Henry showed that the heart worked as a pump to
       pump blood thru the body
      Edward Jenner invented first vaccine against small pox

The Scientific Revolution Spreads
   The use of the scientific method in chemistry leads to better understanding
    of matter
      Robert Boyle explained the relationship of volume, temperature, &
       pressure of gas
      Joseph Priestley in 1774 separated one pure gas from another
      Antoine Lavoisier discovered oxygen

            Chapter 22 Section 2
Two views on Government
 Hobes believes that people need a strong government to keep
    Social contract – give up rights to a strong ruler for law and
 Locke Believes that people have a natural ability to govern
    Natural rights – rights born with; life, liberty, & property

The Philosophers Advocate Reasons
   The five important philosophical concepts are
     Reason – truth could be Discovered through reason or logical thinking
     Nature – good and reasonable; believe there were natural laws of
      economics & politics
     Happiness – well-being on earth and believed it was possible
     Progress- human kind could be perfect
     Liberty – society could be set free

The Philosophers Advocate Reasons
   Voltaire fights intolerance through his writing
     Believed in tolerance, reason, freedom of thought, expression religious
      belief and fought against prejudice and Superstition
   Montesquieu believes a government should be divided into different
      Advocated speraration of powers & checks and balances; to keep any
       individual or group from gaining complete control of government
The Philosophers Advocate Reasons
   Jean Jacques Rousseau believes governments should be formed through
    the agreement of free individuals
      Committed to individual freedom; viewed government as an agreement
       among free individual to create a society guided by the “general will” ;
       believed that civilization corrupted people’s natural goodness &
       destroyed freedom and equality
The Philosophers Advocate Reasons
   Beccaria’s ideas about the justice system promote criminal
      Believed laws existed to preserve social order; advocated a
       criminal justice system based on fairness and reason
Women and the Enlightenment
   Women writers argue for more education for women and for women’s
    equality in marriage
      Mary Wollstonecraft – believed that women need education to become
       virtuous & useful; argued for women rights to become & participate in
   Wealthy women spread Enlightenment ideas through social gatherings

Impact of the Enlighenment
 People have confidence that human reason can solve social
 A more secular outlook emerges as scientific thinking replaces
  superstition, fear and intolerance
 The individual becomes important as people use their own
  ability to reason and Judge
   Philosophers, writers, artists, scientists, & others gather regularly to discus
    new ideas
      Paris Salons
   Diderot creates an encyclopedia
      Spread enlightened thinking in all areas
   Enlightenment ideas spread to intellectuals and the middle class
    throughout Europe
      By newspapers, pamphlets & political song

Art and Literature in the Age of Reason
   The new artistic style in simple and elegant
      neoclassical
   Haydn, Beethoven, and Mozart are among the great music composers
    from this period
      Haydn, wrote sonets and symphony
      Mozart set new standards for elegance and originality
      Beethoven exhibited great range in his works
   Novels presenting entertaining stories written in everyday English appeal
    to the middle class
      Samuel Richardson wrote the first English novel

Enlightenment and Monarchy
   Frederick II of Prussia committed himself to the goal of
    reforming and strengthening his country; granted many religious
    freedoms, reduced censorship, improved education and the
    justice system, and abolished torture; considered that the king
    should be “first servant of the state”
Enlightenment and Monarchy
 Joseph II abolished serfdom, initiated legal reforms, introduced
  freedom of the press, supported freedom of religion.
 Catherine tried to modernize and reform Russia according to the
  writings of the philosophers, accomplished limited reforms
                SECTION 4
American Revolution: The Birth of a Republic
   England angers the colonists by expecting them to pay the costs of the
    French & Indian war
   Colonist protest England’s harsh taxes and begin to organize for war
   Colonial leaders use Enlightenment ideas to justify independence and to
    write the Declaration of Independence
   Americans are victorious because they were motivated to fight, among
    other reasons
Americans Create a Republic
   To protect their authority, the 13 states create a weak national
    government, which fails
   Constitutional Convention delegates create a new system of government
    based on Enlightenment ideas
   The new government system is made up of three separate branches
   The Bill of Rights is created to further protect the rights of individual

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