Leading to Civil War Compromise of 1850 - In 1848, gold was discovered in California, creating mass migration. - In 1850, California requested statehood as a free state. - This would again create an imbalance in the free and slave states. - Congress agreed to a compromise. - California would become a free state. - Congress passed stronger Fugitive Slave Laws, meant to stop underground railroad. Leading to Civil War Kansas-Nebraska Act - In 1854, U.S. decided whether territories would be free or slave. - What about Missouri Compromise? - Congress decided to create 2 territories, Kansas territory and Nebraska territory. - Each territory’s slave policy would be decided by popular sovereignty. - Nullified the Missouri Compromise. - Angered the free soilers. Led to “Bleeding Kansas”. Leading to Civil War Dred Scott case. - Dred Scott was a slave who sued for his freedom in the Supreme Court (Dred Scott v. Sanford) - His case was based on the fact that he and his wife Harriet were slaves, but had lived in states and territories where slavery was illegal, including Illinois and Wisconsin. - Courts Decision - Living in a free state does not make you free. - Slaves cannot sue in federal court. - Slaves, former slaves, and descendants can never be citizens. - The decision was 6-3. 6 of the 9 justices were from slave states. Leading to Civil War Bleeding Kansas - Opposing sides: - pro-slavery towns: Atchison, Leavenworth, Lecompton - anti-slavery towns: Topeka, Lawrence, Manhattan - Sack of Lawrence - Pottawatomie Massacre - John Brown and “Free-State” men kill 5 slave supporters. - Battle of Black Jack (1856) - John Brown and “Free-State” men capture 23 slave supporters and hold them for ransom. - Marais des Cygnes (1858) - Border ruffians kill 5 “Free-State” men. Leading to Civil War Bleeding Kansas - Caning of Charles Sumner - Senator Charles Sumner gave a speech in Congress criticizing Southerners for the violence in Kansas. - A few days later, a southern congressman, Preston Brooks, walks into the Senate and beats Sumner with a cane. Sumner would not return for 3 years. Leading to Civil War Bleeding Kansas - Two constitutions - When Kansas applied for statehood, it needed to vote to determine whether it would be slave or free. - The first vote was in favor of slavery. Likely due to illegal voting by Missouri residents. The new document was called the “Lecompton Constitution”. Congress believed the election was rigged. - The second vote was boycotted by “Free-Staters.” - The third vote was won “2 to 1” by the “Free-Staters.” The “Wyandotte Constitution” made Kansas a free state on January 29, 1861. Leading to Civil War Election of 1860 - Abraham Lincoln is elected president. - Main cause of southern secession.
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