Leading to War by xiagong0815

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									                        Leading to Civil War
Compromise of 1850
   - In 1848, gold was discovered in California, creating mass migration.
   - In 1850, California requested statehood as a free state.
   - This would again create an imbalance in the free and slave states.
   - Congress agreed to a compromise.
        - California would become a free state.
        - Congress passed stronger Fugitive Slave Laws, meant to stop
        underground railroad.
                        Leading to Civil War
Kansas-Nebraska Act
   - In 1854, U.S. decided whether territories would be free or slave.
         - What about Missouri Compromise?
   - Congress decided to create 2 territories, Kansas territory and Nebraska
   territory.
   - Each territory’s slave policy would be decided by popular sovereignty.
   - Nullified the Missouri Compromise.
   - Angered the free soilers. Led to “Bleeding Kansas”.
                           Leading to Civil War
Dred Scott case.
         - Dred Scott was a slave who sued for his freedom in the Supreme
Court (Dred Scott v. Sanford)
         - His case was based on the fact that he and his wife Harriet were
slaves, but had lived in states and territories where slavery was illegal,
including Illinois and Wisconsin.
            - Courts Decision
                     - Living in a free state does not make you free.
                     - Slaves cannot sue in federal court.
                     - Slaves, former slaves, and descendants can never be
citizens.
            - The decision was 6-3. 6 of the 9 justices were from slave states.
                       Leading to Civil War
Bleeding Kansas
        - Opposing sides:
                  - pro-slavery towns: Atchison, Leavenworth, Lecompton
                  - anti-slavery towns: Topeka, Lawrence, Manhattan
        - Sack of Lawrence
         - Pottawatomie Massacre - John Brown and “Free-State” men kill 5
slave supporters.
         - Battle of Black Jack (1856) - John Brown and “Free-State” men
capture 23 slave supporters and hold them for ransom.
        - Marais des Cygnes (1858) - Border ruffians kill 5 “Free-State” men.
                       Leading to Civil War
Bleeding Kansas
        - Caning of Charles Sumner
                   - Senator Charles Sumner gave a speech in Congress
criticizing Southerners for the violence in Kansas.
                  - A few days later, a southern congressman, Preston Brooks,
walks into the Senate and beats Sumner with a cane. Sumner would not return
for 3 years.
                         Leading to Civil War
Bleeding Kansas
         - Two constitutions
                - When Kansas applied for statehood, it needed to vote to
determine whether it would be slave or free.
                  - The first vote was in favor of slavery. Likely due to illegal
voting by Missouri residents. The new document was called the “Lecompton
Constitution”. Congress believed the election was rigged.
                   - The second vote was boycotted by “Free-Staters.”
                - The third vote was won “2 to 1” by the “Free-Staters.” The
“Wyandotte Constitution” made Kansas a free state on January 29, 1861.
                       Leading to Civil War
Election of 1860
        - Abraham Lincoln is elected president.
        - Main cause of southern secession.

								
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