PIES

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					PIES
                   PIE DOUGH
• 3-2-1 Dough
  – Ratio refers to the
    weight of the three
    parts
     • Three parts flour
     • Two parts fat
     • One part water
   UNDERSTANDING HOW THE
     INGREDIENTS WORK
         TOGETHER
• Dough is made from pastry flour because the
  high gluten content in bread flour absorbs most
  of the liquid. This makes the dough tough and
  rubbery. Pastry flour has enough gluten to keep
  the dough together so it can be rolled out.
  (Remember that pastry flour is between bread
  flour and cake flour—all purpose flour is close to
  pastry flour and easy to purchase.)
  UNDERSTANDING HOW THE
    INGREDIENTS WORK
      TOGETHER (cont.)
• Butter or vegetable shortening is used to
 make dough. Because vegetable shortening has
 a high melting point (90 degrees F.-100 degrees
 F.) and it has a consistent quality, it is the best
 fat for pie dough. THE SHORTENING SHOULD
 BE CUT INTO THE FOUR. The size of the fat
 particles in the dough determines the flakiness
 of the pie dough.
   UNDERSTANDING HOW THE
     INGREDIENTS WORK
       TOGETHER (cont.)
• Water or milk at 40 degrees F. or colder is
  added to the dough to form gluten when mixed.
  OVERMIXING THE DOUGH WILL MAKE IT
  TOUGH! The cold temperature of the water is
  important so that the fat in the dough firms up.
  The crust will fall apart if not enough liquid is
  added. But, the crust becomes tough if too much
  liquid is used, because too much gluten
  develops.
   UNDERSTANDING HOW THE
     INGREDIENTS WORK
       TOGETHER (cont.)
• Salt tenderizes the gluten and enhances flavor
  of the dough. Be sure the salt is evenly
  distributed =
  – Dissolve the salt in the water before mixing
             >>or <<
  – Sift the salt with the flour
MIXING
WRAP AND CHILL
DUST WITH FLOUR AND PUT ON
 LIGHTLY FLOURED SURFACE
DUST ROLLING PIN WITH FLOUR
 AND ROLL IN ALL DIRECTIONS
ROLL IN CIRCLE LARGER THAN
           PIE PAN
TYPES OF
PIE DOUGH

• FLAKY
  – Flour not completely blended with fat—long flake or
    short flake
  – Long-flake– the fat is about the size of walnuts—
    creating a flaky crust—this crust is used for pie top
    crust
  – Short-flake—the fat is about the size of peas—used
    for two crust pies
     TYPES OF PIE DOUGH
• MEALY – resembles coarse cornmeal; fat
  is blended into the flour more completely
  than flaky dough; requires less water or
  milk; flour particles more highly coated
  with fat and will not absorb as much liquid;
  thus it will not become soggy and is good
  for custard and fruit pies.
    MIXING THE PIE DOUGH
• Sift the flour
• Make sure liquid is ice cold (use ice cubes) in
  the liquid
• Cut the fat into the flour with pastry cutter
• NEVER OVER MIX THE DOUGH
• USE ONLY ENOUGH LIQUID TO HOLD
  DOUGH TOGETHER
• Wrap in plastic wrap and chill before rolling---
  best overnight; can be frozen and defrosted
  overnight
SHAPING THE PIE DOUGH
• BE SURE DOUGH IS CHILLED—IF THE
  DOUGH IS TOO COLD, ALLOW IT TO
  SOFTEN SLIGHTLY BEFORE WORKING
• SCALING—for a 9-in. top crust, use 7-oz.
  of dough for a 9-in. bottom crust, use 8-
  oz. of dough. Add 1 oz. to the top crust
  and 2 oz. to the bottom crust for each
  additional inch of crust diameter.
 SHAPING THE DOUGH
• Dusting the bench and rolling pin with
  flour –be careful not to use too much flour
  because it will make the dough tough
• Rolling out the dough– it should be 1/8
  in. thickness all over; roll from center to
  edges in all directions; check occasionally
  to be sure it isn’t sticking to the surface (lift
  and turn); when finished it should be
  perfectly round
 SHAPING THE DOUGH
• Panning the dough– fold in half or roll
  carefully around the rolling pin to lift it
  without breaking; be careful not to stretch
  the dough, press it into the sides of the pie
  pan; be sure no air bubbles between pan
  and dough
 SHAPING THE DOUGH
• Fluting single crust pies– gives a nice
  finish, it is a manner of decorating the
  edge of the pie crust; fold under the extra
  dough extending beyond the edge of the
  pan and bring it above the pan rim, even
  with the rim then press thumbs together
  diagonally to make a ridge around the
  dough.
 SHAPING THE DOUGH
• Sealing and fluting two crust pies– put
  bottom crust into pan—do not trim– place
  cold filling into pan– then place top crust
  on top of the filling; use a small amount of
  water or egg wash (beaten egg) to
  moisten the edge of the bottom crust
  and seal the two crusts together. Tuck the
  edge of the top crust under the bottom of
  the crust; then flute the crust and apply
  egg wash on top of crust for shiny crust.
            BLIND BAKING
• Sometimes pie shells need to be baked
  before placing the filling inside the shell—
  this is BLIND BAKING —it is done to pies
  with cooked fillings or solid fillings that will
  not be baked in the pie crust– to blind
  bake after crust is in pan and fluted,
  DOCK (place holes with a fork) all over the
  bottom and sides of the crust, then weight
  with another pan weighted with dried
  beans to prevent blisters or bubbles
                   PIE FILLINGS
•   Fruit
•   Cream
•   Custards
•   Soft pie
•   Chiffon pies
                 Fruit Fillings
• Can be purchased ahead of time or made on
  premises
• The cooked juice method or the cooked fruit and
  juice method– the pie filling is cooked and
  cooled before putting into the unbaked shell and
  then the pie is baked at 400 -425 degrees F.
  until crust is even, golden brown
• Uncooked fruit will have a starch to thicken fruit
  juice – put into unbaked shell and baked at 400-
  425 until golden brown; cooled and fruit juice will
  thicken
     TYPES OF STARCHES
• Variety of starches are used to thicken
  pies
• Remember to always add starch to sugar
  before adding liquid– avoids lumps
  – Cornstarch – sets up a gel that allows the fillig
    to hold its shape when sliced
  – Modified starch (waxy maize) is a type of corn
    product used in fruit pies that will be frozen;
    makes a clear, soft paste instead or a gel;
    does not breakdown when frozen.
TYPES OF STARCHES (cont.)

– Tapioca or flour starches are less often used
  because they cloud the pie filling
– Pregelatinized starch is precooked; is good to
  use if fruit does not need to be cooked before
  filling the pie shell
      CREAM PIE FILLINGS
• Flavored pastry cream, thickened with egg
  custard; cornstarch thickens the cream
  filling
• Cooked on the range and poured into pre-
  baked pie shell
• Often topped with a meringue (sugar and
  stiffly beaten egg whites– piled on top of
  filling and browned in oven)
• Examples: coconut, lemon, chocolate
              CUSTARDS
• Filling made with eggs; poured into
  unbaked pie shell; when baked the egg
  protein firms the pie
• The secret is not to over cook the filling;
  always preheat oven to 400-425 degrees
  F. bake 10 minutes to set the crust, then
  reduce the oven temperature to 325-350
  degrees F. until filling is set
              SOFT PIES

• Similar to custard pies; also have eggs to
  firm the pie when baking in unbaked pie
  shell
• Example is Pecan Pie
             CHIFFON PIE
• Based on either cooked fruit or cream
  filling
• Stabilized with gelatin that is added to the
  hot filling
• When filling is cool, meringue is folded into
  the filling; then the filling is placed in pre-
  baked shell and chilled
            BAKING PIES
• Always preheat oven
• For the first 10 minutes pies should be
  baked at 400-425 degrees to help set the
  bottom crust so it will not soak up the
  moisture in the filling and become soggy
• To keep from over baking then turn oven
  to 325-350 to continue baking
  DETERMINING DONENESS
• Custard or soft pies – gently shake – if no
  liquid shakes it is done
• Pie continues to cook after removed from
  oven—soft centers will firm up
• Can test with knife inserted in the center—
  comes out clean – done
• For fruit pies – follow guidelines in
  individual recipe/formulas; crust should be
  golden brown
    STORING AND SERVING
• Cool before cutting!!!!!
• To prevent bacterial growth– custard and
  cream pies must be refrigerated
• Fruit pies can be kept at room temperature
• Unbaked pie shells and unbaked fruit pies
  can be frozen 2 months; baked fruit pie
  does not freeze well
Slide presentation prepared by
      Janet Murray, 2004

				
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