Part 2 - Interviews_ IS Updates_ Resources by xiagong0815



                             hotel, and my cousin worked as a              she had to go back a few times to get
                             waitress. We also did some work in            them to provide the tickets, but eventually
                             another bar when Carnival started, but        they did pay for our tickets home.
                             all this had to be done without the hotel
                             owner finding out. Our lawyer filed a
                             labour lawsuit against the hotel owner.
                             She told us that our working contracts           When we arrived back in Brazil,
                             stipulated that we had to continue               there was nothing waiting for us.
                             working in the hotel and living in the           We came back and there was no
Frans Nederstigt is          hotel ownerûs house, and that we                 compensation and no formal
the director of
                             shouldnût break the contract for the             assistance waiting for us. My family
Projeto Trama,                                                                and friends helped me a lot, though,
where he works               remaining time (nine months). This was
fulltime as an               because in a labour case in Spain, it is         and were very supportive, and we
international lawyer
                             important to work the entire contract to         managed, through an aunt, to get
and is responsible                                                            in touch with a lawyer who had
for networking.              give standing and credit to your case and
Frans trained as a           not be accused of breach of contract. In         handled another trafficking case.
lawyer in The
                             fact, the work that I got as a cleaner was       She took the responsibility to assist
Netherlands,                                                                  my cousin and me legally, and she
specializing in              only for a week, and then I didnût work
human rights,                for a long time since we had to continue         and the centre where she worked
childrenûs rights,
                             working as dancers because we shouldnût          in Rio de Janeiro tried to help us
international                                                                 as much as we needed at the
relations,                   break the contract. We received no
immigration law              assistance during this time, and had to          beginning.
and development.
He has also                  survive on almost nothing. We were a
undertaken a                 little afraid to remain living in the hotel
Masterûs in Political        ownerûs home and working in his hotel,        They advised us to file complaints against
Development at the
University of                but we were under police protection and       the female trafficker following threats she
Manchester (United           so he couldnût harm us at that time.          made to us. This was used in the
Kingdom) and is                                                            subsequent court case to prove that ours
currently attending          After staying in Spain for another nine
Brazilian law school                                                       was a trafficking case. The case got a lot
at night with the            months to work the remainder of our           of press in both Spain and Brazil.
aim of becoming a            contracts, my cousin and I returned to
practicing lawyer in         Brazil. We were able to return to Brazil      The people at the centre went with us to
Brazil by the end of
2007.                        even though we had no money, because          make several statements but didnût
                             my cousinûs mother knew about our             actually provide legal representation. Our
                             situation and got in touch with the family    lawyer did not enter as an assistant of
   Alliance News July 2006

                             of the Brazilian woman who had invited        the public prosecutor, which is a very
                             us to come and dance in Spain. She            good way to monitor public cases and
                             contacted the traffickerûs family and told    which provides the victim with a voice,
                             them that they had to provide tickets         nor propose launching a civil claim after
                             home for my cousin and I and that she         the female trafficker went through her
                             would do whatever it took to make sure        final appeal process.
                             this happened. It took some time and

This has been my experience. I was
surprised at a recent Consultation to find     A lawyer from Spain explained that
that I got very upset and emotional when       Cátiaûs case occurred eight years
giving my declaration, because quite a         ago when Spain did not have anti-
lot of time has passed since it happened.      trafficking laws or methods for
It has made me really want to talk with        dealing with people who had been
the psychologist at Projeto Trama, the         trafficked. Trafficking cases were
NGO that I recently asked to look into         not common, and no special
my case since I have not been able to          attention was paid to them. This
contact my previous lawyer. It has been        is why Cátia and her cousinûs
a long time, yes, but it seems things were     received such limited legal and              Gerardine is an
maybe caught up or held in that I have                                                    Australian Youth
                                               other assistance.                           Ambassador for
to let out. I didnût receive any assistance,                                                  Development
aside from legal assistance, at any point      While the situation has improved          (AYAD) currently
in my experience, and yet I do feel the                                                on assignment with
                                               vastly in Spain, many countries still   GAATW. She has a
need for it.                                   do not assist trafficked persons            Bachelor of Arts
                                               adequately. Yet it is clear to see       degree majoring in
The struggle isnût over yet. I had a friend    from Cátiaûs experience, and from                 Economics,
from my neighbourhood in Brazil who                                                     Managerial Studies
                                               her story about her friend, that                and Political
went to Israel as a dancer around the          assistance is absolutely essential.             Science, and
time that I went to Lanzarote. She left a                                                     post-graduate
2-year-old child behind. When she got                                                        qualifications.
                                                                                             Gerardine is a
there, she was forced into prostitution                                                      member of the
and locked up by the traffickers. She                                                     Communications
couldnût ask for help. She finally                                                     Unit of the GAATW
managed to get in touch with someone                                                     Secretariat, and is
and ask them for help. The mafia                                                        responsible for the
discovered that she fled, and then the                                                   publication of the
                                                                                             Alliance News
police and mafia found her and killed                                                  among other things.
her. She didnût get help in Israel from
an NGO and came back dead in a coffin.
This made me even more determined to
continue to fight for our rights. My
friendûs mother is left without any
compensation and without any justice.
                                                                                                     Alliance News July 2006

It was a case that my cousin and I could
not do anything to help with, and it really
shocked us. That drives me to keep
fighting for justice in my own case and
for all others.


                          My Story - From Nepal to
                          India and Back
                                                                  Interviewed by Gerardine Daniels
                                                                     Translated by Shyamali Larsen

                                      I was trafficked at the age of    clients coming. The only way we could
                                      11. My stepmother used to         tell that a year had passed was because
                                      treat me very badly, so I was     of Diwali, the Festival of Lights which
                                      very unhappy at home. A man       comes along once a year. Every time
                          and his wife in the village told me that if   Diwali came around, I knew another year
                          I left the village and went to town, I        had passed.
                          could get domestic work there and have
                          a good income. So they took me from           After four years, we were rescued in a
                          the village to a town, which was also in      raid by the Indian government and stayed
                          Nepal, and kept me locked in a room.          in a shelter for six months, because
                          After a while they explained that domestic    apparently the Nepal government did not
                          work was not very good work,                  agree to have us back. We had no papers
                          particularly in Nepal, but if they took       to prove which country we belonged to,
                          me to India then maybe I would get more       and no one wanted us. We were ùdamaged
                          money. Not knowing what I was getting         goodsû in the eyes of the society. Officials
                          into, I agreed.                               asked us what we wanted to do and we
                                                                        said we would like to go back home to
                          The man, his family and I went by train       Nepal and somehow survive, so
                          to India, though I wasnût sure if I was       eventually some agreements were reached
                          going to India or somewhere else. Two         between the two countries and we came
                          days after our arrival, another woman         back.
                          came and said that I would have to start
                          working. Even then I didnût understand        In Nepal, I lived in an NGO shelter for a
                          what kind of work it was, but she             few years, at first because I did not know
                          explained to me that it was prostitution      the name of my village or the name of
                                                                        the district. Eventually, the NGO helped
Alliance News July 2006

                          and I would have to sleep with clients. I
                          was only 11 years old.                        me find out the village I was from, but
                                                                        when I went there I found that my father
                          This was my life for four years. We           and my stepmother had moved.
                          could never tell the difference between
                          night and day because there were always


     Finally, I met my parents again but                  that my condition, my situation, was not
     my father refused to accept me and                   as bad as I thought. She took me to a
     refused to sign the papers for my                    mental hospital and showed me mentally
     citizenship1. I explained to him                     disturbed people, and to another place
     and I pleaded with him and                           where there were disabled people, and
     eventually he did help me, but no                    told me to look at these people who were
     one at the district level believed                   far worse off than I. She asked why I
     him when he told them that I was                     was behaving as I was, and told me to
     his daughter because I had not been                  take my life in my hands and move on.
     in the village for so long. But                      While at the shelter home I also got a
     maybe they wanted a bribe which                      chance to go to Bangladesh to participate
     we obviously could not afford to                     in a meeting on trafficking where I met
     pay.                                                 many people working on this issue and
                                                          also other women who had gone through
In the end, the NGO staff took me to a                    similar experiences to me.
district officer who after a lot of trouble
helped and completed all the paperwork                    After I came back, I learnt that WOREC
and I finally got my citizenship.                         (an organisation working in several parts              Shyamali is a member
                                                                                                                           of Australian
                                                          of Nepal on trafficking, migration and                             Volunteers
I continued to stay at the NGO shelter                    womenûs health) was organising a 10-day                  International, and is
in Nepal. They offered me a place to                      training session. They invited me as well                  responsible for the
live and tried to teach me a few skills,                                                                             administrative and
                                                          as all the other women who had returned                 financial functions of
but I was not ready to learn them because                 to Nepal to attend as participants. It                       the International
I was very upset by the way life had                      was after the training that I understood                          Secretariatûs
treated me. I was very disillusioned and                                                                          operations. Shyamali
                                                          about the problem of trafficking.                          taught biology and
unhappy. Life was hell in India but my                    Following the training my friends and I                    math at the higher
future looked bleak too. I didnût know                    decided to come together and form a                       secondary level for
what I should do with my life, so I did                                                                                  many years in
                                                          group, and that is how Shakti Samuha                     Australia, and has a
not leave my room much - all I did was                    was formed.                                            Master of Arts degree
cook for everyone, eat and sleep. I stayed                                                                      in Social Anthropology
like this for about three years. But there                I briefly went back to the village, but                    from University of
was a nurse at the shelter who was very,                  could not stay there because I felt that
very good. She tried to explain to me                     all eyes were on me and everyone was
                                                                                                                                 Alliance News July 2006

    Nepali girls who have been trafficked do not have any proof of their nationality when they return to
    Nepal because they were trafficked earlier than the period they can get citizenship (in Nepal citizenship
    is provided only after 18 years of age). Women applying for a passport or other citizenship papers
    need the approval of male relatives such as their fathers or brothers. Shakti Samuha worked with
    other GAATW members (ATWAIN, WOREC) and got some of them to lend their names for the
    registration of their group. They also continue to struggle against the rule requiring women to get
    approval from male family members to get identification papers.


                             looking down on me. My family seemed                 an offer to work with street children who
                             ashamed of me, and being poor they were              take drugs because they said there was a
                             more vulnerable to the comments of                   need for a gentle person such as myself.
                             people around us. Somehow my story                   I had started the work with them and we
                             had been published in the local                      had a routine going, but then I also
                             newspaper with many exaggerations. It                received an offer from Shakti Samuha to
                             was impossible to live there, and I also             work in the newly set up hostel2. I was
                             needed work. So I returned to Kathmandu              very happy to get both offers. I felt that
                             but had no money and nowhere to go. I                my work was well appreciated, but was
                             went and sat in a temple by myself. A                confused and had trouble deciding which
                             friend of mine and her mother were                   one to take. The people who offered me
                             passing by late at night, and when they              the first position gave me one week to
                             met me and heard my story, they offered              make up my mind, but the others advised
                             to share their room with me. After                   me to think of long term possibilities. I
                             staying with them for a while, I got a               felt that Shakti Samuha is my life, I had
Gerardine is an              job. It was a very low-paying job; it only           worked so much with all my friends and
Australian Youth
Ambassador for               paid me 1200 rupees per month of which               they all have very similar histories to
Development (AYAD)           I spent almost 800 rupees on transport               mine, and so I eventually returned to
currently on                 alone. But still, I was sharing a room               Kathmandu and started working at the
assignment with
GAATW. She has a             with other people and I was not alone.               hostel.
Bachelor of Arts
degree majoring in           In time, I contacted Shakti Samuha again
Economics, Managerial
Studies and Political        and they invited me to come and work                 A Recipient Becomes a
Science, and                 with them again. I rented a very small               Provider
post-graduate                room nearby, and started doing small
Gerardine is a member        scale work with them. They liked me                  Shakti Samuha3 provides a range of
of the Communications        very much and eventually I heard about               assistance. We currently have four district
Unit of the GAATW            a three-year training course in another
International                                                                     centres and we do a lot of work on
Secretariat, and is          city in Nepal. The training was a life-              prevention. When a woman first comes
responsible for the          changing experience for me because I                 to the hostel, we take her case history
publication of the           learned how to talk, how to eat, how to
Alliance News among                                                               and then assess her needs to see what
other things.                behave with others and so on. I also                 kinds of things she wants - counselling,
                             gained the self confidence to live                   medical support or anything like that. If
                             independently after the three years                  she does need medical support, we refer
                             beautician training.                                 her to a doctor or the hospital. We also
   Alliance News July 2006

                             After my training, everyone was very                 have a discussion with the woman about
                             impressed with my performance. I got                 the kinds of skills that she has and if
                                                                                  there are other skills she needs to re-

                                 The hostel is a shelter for trafficked women who have returned to Nepal.
                                 For more information on Shakti Samuha, please visit their website at:


                              Shakti Kendra opening cerenoy

establish herself. After giving her all           them to think they have a friend
the different options, we advise her to           because our main problem was that
choose skills that have market value.             we felt there was no one there to
Once she has made a decision, we refer            help us. So I would like to extend
her to an NGO or private organisation             my friendship.
that can provide that kind of skills. If
she is a little educated, that is useful.      My life today... I am getting married,
We do provide simple literacy skills,          and I still want to take Shakti Samuha
particularly for those who are completely      forward because Shakti Samuha is more
illiterate.                                    than just my work. Many of my friends
                                               and I have been rejected by our families,
Counselling is provided on a needs-basis.      but we have formed strong bonds with
Sometimes very intensive counselling is        each other and have stood by each other.
required, but it is done in informal           We are like family. I personally want to
sessions, in informal conversations,           create a network of trafficked/returned
because I like presenting myself as a          women so that they can lead their lives
friend. In this non-threatening situation,     freely and get support from each other
the woman can open up and discuss her          because there continue to be problems
                                                                                            Alliance News July 2006

problems with me. I also do follow-up          in living normal lives. Even I have a
visits to women who leave the shelter          problem at this stage. I have told my
voluntarily and go and find work in other      fiancé about my past, but he has not
areas of Kathmandu.                            mentioned this to his parents. If they
                                               find out, they may ask him to leave me.
   I like to keep in touch with them           So I think a network of trafficked persons
   for two reasons. One is to find out         providing support to each other would
   if theyûre all right. Two, I like           be very good.

                          My Story-Dominican Republic
                                                           Interviewed by Nerea Bilbatua while in
                                                             the Dominican Republic for the Latin
                                                               American & Caribbean Consultation
                                                                     Translated by Nerea Bilbatua

                                     In My Own Words, I                Sometimes the owners of the brothels
                                     Am...                             marry a Dominican so she can guard the
                                                                       others. The owner forced me to have sex
                          I am an extraordinary woman. The             with the men he selected. I could never
                          mother of three wonderful children. I        choose.
                          love life, I love animals. My favourite      It is not easy that somebody uses your
                          rose is the çflor del solé. To me,           body as he would use a car.
                          butterflies represent freedom. This is
                          what I am.
                                                                       My Escape
                          My Experience
                                                                       By the time I escaped, I had been in Spain
                                                                       for one year and they already trusted me
                          I was trafficked to Spain a few years ago.   a bit. A client who was a sailor helped
                          It was a very sad experience. I was the      me to run away. I escaped as a stowaway
                          first returnee to the Dominican Republic.    on the ship where he worked. I couldnût
                          At that time there were no networks,         take anything with me. Only he and
                          there was nothing.                           another sailor knew that I was on board.
                          I was very young when I was trafficked.      I donût know how long the trip lasted. I
                          My dream was to have a home, a nice          could not say whether it was day or night.
                          family, but after you have been deceived     I was really afraid but I knew it was the
Alliance News July 2006

                          you only have sorrows. But you have to       only chance for me to escape.
                          stand up and continue walking. This is
                          what I have always done. And this is         My Return
                          what I continue to do.
                          In the brothel I was trafficked into there   When I arrived back in the Dominican
                          were other Dominican women.                  Republic, I reported the trafficker. I even


looked for him in the hotel where he                        Any person that kills or steals goes
had contacted me. I donût know if he                        to jail, serves a sentence and gets
went into hiding (these people have a                       released, but I will never complete
lot of money), but he was never found. I                    my sentence in my familyûs eyes.
feel that the only person who benefited                     Having a family that rejects me,
from the entire experience was him. He                      thatûs my ongoing punishment.
took all that was supposed to be mine. I
worked for a year and I never saw any
money. I never knew what happened to
the other women who were trafficked                     Once someone told me çwords go away
with me.                                                with the windé and I replied çyes, but
                                                        the mark words leave in your soul stays
After I came back I was rejected by my                  foreveré. I donût care anymore what other
family. I lost my children and I had to                 people think about me. I only care about
fight very hard to bring them back with                 my childrenûs opinion. I have three
me. You know, I was like a wolf                         children. They are 20, 19 and 15 years
defending her cubs.                                     old. A beautiful cat is my other treasure.
                                                                                                        Nereaûs background is
After knowing that I had been a prostitute                                                              in Human Rights both
in Spain my family looked at me                         The Assistance I Received                           from academic and
differently. I come from a poor family,                                                                  practical perspectives
                                                                                                       including working with
but my family had always placed great                   When I arrived, I thought that if I had       victims of human rights
value in the concept of honrados. In other              done it (being a sex worker) before I could           violations from a
words the sexual purity of women is of                                                                             psychosocial
                                                        also do it here and at least I would see           perspective. Nerea
utmost importance to uphold the moral                   the money I earned. I did not care about              works within the
standard of the family. Now they consider               anything. I started working in a billiard      Programme Unit of the
me the familyûs black sheep.                                                                             GAATW International
                                                        hall (type of brothel) and after some                Secretariat further
                                                        months a health messenger1 from COIN                    developing the
                                                        came. That was 12 years ago.                       European and Latin
     Even though I have proved to them                                                                     American regions of
     that I could overcome what happened...                                                           alliance and working on
     and I tell you, I am an extraordinary              She told me about COIN and what they              the Access to Justice
     woman. Why am I extraordinary?                     were doing and invited me to their                               theme.
     Because I have put aside all my desires            meetings. I went to some of them with
     and ambitions as a woman to be a                   other women and little by little I got more
     mother to my children. And I have                  interested in their work. They also started
                                                                                                                        Alliance News July 2006

     fought, I have struggled, and I still              asking me about my case and my
     do. And now I am a professional with               experiences. In the beginning I never
     skills.                                            spoke in their meetings. I was very afraid.
                                                        But one day I decided to break the silence.

    COIN uses the term ùhealth messengerû to refer to their peer facilitators.


                          The injustices and mistreatment I suffered     The Impact of Assistance
                          were what made me start talking. Also
                          the help I received from COIN. I began         Assistance helped me as a human being.
                          to be more and more involved in their          It helped me as a woman. It helped me
                          activities. This made me feel important.       to empower myself, to gain control over
                          At the beginning I would only attend their     my life, over my body. It helped me to
                          trainings. Afterwards I became a trainer       realise that my body belongs to me,
                          myself.                                        because at that time I felt that my body
                          The most valuable part of the assistance       belonged to other people, not to me. When
                          I received was the truth (the honesty).        someone tells you that your body is yours
                          COIN is not like other places where they       this is very important because then it is
                          promise a lot but you donût get anything.      up to you to decide how to use it. I felt
                          They donût make promises but you get           that I was worthless but they taught me
                          everything.                                    that I am very worthy. They taught me
                                                                         to accept myself as I am.
                          I got medical, psychological, working
                          skills, and other types of assistance. I       I also learnt that violence is not only
                          could continue working in the billiard         physical. I was very violent at that time,
                          hall and afterwards come to COIN and           especially when I thought about all the
                          work as a health messenger. At that time       people that had caused me harm.
                          I was responsible for a womenûs group          I decided to quit the billiard hall because
                          in one of the zones of Santo Domingo.          I felt that I was able to do much more.
                          When a new woman (sex worker) arrived,
                          I would teach her how to use a condom          I could find myself.
                          etc. Then I became very interested in
                          nursing and COIN helped me to study.           I now work in COINûs health area. I am
                          They paid for my studies. They have been       the nurse in charge of the vaccines area
                          the facilitators of the process. I love what   and I also help the doctors working here.
                          Iûm doing. Itûs my life. And I still go to     I am the nurse of COIN but also of the
                          the brothels to provide check-ups for the      neighbourhood. Today, tomorrow and
                          women working there.                           forever.
                          I only received assistance from COIN.          If I have to define the assistance I received
                          At that time there were no programmes          from COIN I would say at first it felt
                          from the government. Now this has              like I was on a bed of needles, because
Alliance News July 2006

                          changed. Sex workers have gained               yes, the process of healing can also be
                          respect. There are health programmes,          painful. But now I feel like a sunflower.
                          they are invited to speak on TV... but
                          this is the result of years of work from
                          COIN and of the respect they have gained
                          doing a quality job. Nothing was given
                          for free.

                                    COINûs Health Area

On Empowerment                                 disbelief. And then a moment comes
                                               when the butterfly takes to her wings
Empowerment means gaining control              again. The world is hers, once again! That
over what is mine, my body, my sexuality.      is how it has been for me.
It means knowing that I can decide how         Can you imagine the moment when my
many children I want and whom I want           children will graduate from university
to have sex with. It is to know that I can     (two of them are at the university now),
tell my partner where I like to be touched     and I will be there? I canût imagine that
or not, but above all it means that I can      moment! It will be the biggest thing in
respect myself, and this is the most           the world for me.
valuable thing of all.
You know, the process Iûve been going
through, of first receiving assistance and
afterwards providing assistance, is like
what a butterfly would experience if it
has been trapped in your hands--you open
your hands, the butterfly starts fluttering
her wings, slowly and tentatively in
                                                                                            Alliance News July 2006


                          My Story - From Thailand
                          to Switzerland
                                                              Interviewed by Jiraporn Saetang via
                                                                             email and telephone
                                                                   Translated by Jiraporn Saetang

                                     I am 32 years old, and come      took my photo and sent it to a job agency
                                     from the Mahasaakham             in Switzerland, and later arranged a 3-
                                     Province of Thailand. My         month tourist visa for me and sent me to
                                     father is a farmer, and I have   a massage parlour in Switzerland. She
                          an older brother who married and moved      told me that the women working in the
                          to another town with his family. I am       parlour have the option of doing massages
                          the only daughter, and am fully             only, and guaranteed that I would earn
                          responsible for my parents. I migrated      about 80,000-100,000 baht (approximately
                          to Bangkok for work when I was quite        US$2,095-2,615) per month.
                          young and sent money back home
                          regularly to support my parents.            In Switzerland I quickly realized that all
                                                                      the information I got from the agent was
                          I decided to migrate to Switzerland         false. I was forced to provide sex and
                          because I had to pay off the debts of my    that was the only service the clients came
                          parents and my ex-husband. I had            for. No one came for a Thai massage
                          married a Thai man and we had a             only as I was told.
                          daughter, but after her birth my husband
                          became very irresponsible, drinking and     At first, I told myself to tolerate it and
                          gambling every day. I divorced him          save some money for my family. I was
                          when my daughter was very young and         under their control; I was not allowed to
                          he has not given me any financial support   call home or to go out. For most of the
                          since. Instead, I have had to pay back      time, I was confined in the bedroom. The
                                                                      agent always insulted and threatened me
Alliance News July 2006

                          all the debts he accrued when we were
                          together.                                   when I refused clients. They later
                                                                      confiscated my travel documents, and said
                          At the time, I worked as a cashier in a     they would not send me back to Bangkok
                          big company in Bangkok. Then, one of        until I paid off the amount that they paid
                          my friends who had migrated abroad          the agent in Bangkok.
                          introduced me to an agent. The agent


After I had been in the massage parlour        staff. In the town where I was, there is
for one month, I decided to escape with        only one Thai staff so when a woman
another Thai woman who was lured to            had problems or needed help, she had
the same massage parlour. We ran to            to make an appointment with the Thai
the main road and met a woman who              staff one week in advance. This system
later brought us to stay with her friend.      might not meet the needs of women who
While I was there, I also contacted one        are in a really serious situation.
of my clients from the parlour who had
been willing to help me.                          When I returned to Thailand, I went
                                                  to my home town and stayed with
A week later, the friend contacted FIZ,           my family for a few months. I had
an NGO in Switzerland, to provide                 left home with big dreams and high
assistance to us. I was very happy to             hopes and now I was back as a
meet the FIZ staff member who was                 failure. My family shared my
originally from Thailand. I could                 disappointment but they were                      Jiraporn (June)
communicate easily with her and she also                                                        Saetang has been
                                                  supportive and understanding. We              working with the
helped me to call my family in Thailand.          stood together as a family and              GAATW Secretariat
We were accommodated in the FIZ safe              somehow found strength to face the          since 1999. Starting
house for two months. FIZ also helped                                                         out as a researcher
                                                  community. It is not easy to stand                  in the Action
us to do fundraising activities such as           the rude comments of the                    Research Project of
selling Thai food to try to raise sufficient      community which derides those                    Foundation for
funds to pay for our return airfares and                                                      Women in the early
                                                  who do not succeed. After a few           90s, June has worked
some of our debt to the agent. Although           months I came back to Bangkok to                 on the issue of
our fundraising did not raise enough              look for a job.                                   trafficking and
money to cover all financial needs, I was                                                   migration for over 10
                                                                                                   years now. She
really impressed by the concept. I was                                                      currently liaises with
being given an opportunity to do               FIZ had made contact with GAATW                     GAATWûs self-
something to help myself.                      Secretariat and had advised me to meet          organized member
                                                                                             groups and provides
                                               them. I was not sure if I should do that.          support to them
I appreciate the assistance and support        I did not know GAATWûs work. I did           where necessary, and
which I got from FIZ and I think that          not know anyone who knew them. I was                     coordinates
other women who got support from them                                                          GAATWûs work in
                                               apprehensive. I feared that they might                      Thailand.
would also agree with me. As a trafficked      be inquisitive and ask me too many
woman, I was able to choose whether I          questions to probe into my past. I worried
wanted to return home immediately or           that they would judge me. While still in
                                                                                                            Alliance News July 2006

stay for a while as my visa had not yet        Switzerland I had met someone from Italy
expired. I did not feel that they were         and I was planning to marry him. I was
only interested to send me back home as        not sure how a NGO like GAATW would
quickly as possible.                           react to such plans of mine. Would they
I think the programme of FIZ would             advise me against it? I needed some
improve if they take on some more Thai         financial help and support to complete


                          my training in Thai massage and yoga.        my new life fast. I work as a Thai
                          But I did not want to accept conditional     traditional masseur and also teach yoga.
                          help from anyone.                            I like my work.
                          I was pleasantly surprised by GAATW          Should I end my story here by saying
                          staff. They were respectful, discreet and    that I am happy in my new life? But real
                          caring. GAATW does not have an               life stories do not end with just a happy
                          assistance programme and because I did       ending. As long as one lives, happiness
                          not need any emergency assistance nor        and sorrows, dreams and disappointments
                          was thinking of pressing charges in court,   will always be mixed. I am able to send
                          we decided not to approach any other         some money back home every month, but
                          NGO. Staff of GAATW treated me like a        our earnings are insufficient for me to
                          sister and helped me as they would do        visit my family in Thailand. My daughter
                          for a friend or sister. I stayed with one    from the previous relationship still lives
                          of their staff until I completed my          with my parents in the northeast of
                          intensive training in yoga and massage. I    Thailand. I long for the day when she
                          met many people in their office when I       can join me. I donût know when that day
                          had time. Their attitude made me feel        will arrive. I miss her a lot. What does
                          like a normal, confident person once         she think about her mother who is far
                          again.                                       away? Does she think about me at all?
                          Simultaneously I was looking for a job       But that is not all. Recently, someone who
                          and eventually the company that I had        I thought of as a friend did something
                          worked in before took me back. I stayed      which affected me deeply and made me
                          in touch with FIZ, GAATW and many            think of the so-called assistance
                          other people who had stood by me in          programmes for trafficked women.
                          my difficult time. It took much longer       Someone who had helped me in the past
                          for my marriage plans to materialize and     recently decided to share my story
                          after nearly 2 years I returned to           publicly without respecting my need for
                          Switzerland.                                 privacy. May be she was trying to raise
                                                                       awareness of people but why did she not
                          I live in Switzerland now. My husband        think of my life? Will people respect me
                          is a good man, an Italian computer           if they know of my past? I donût think
                          professional who lives in Switzerland.       so. Most people are prejudiced. I am also
                          We have a little daughter. We often visit    worried about my security. If the brothel
                          my husbandûs family in Italy. I am
Alliance News July 2006

                                                                       owner knows my whereabouts she may
                          learning new languages and adapting to       not leave me in peace.


I have a word of advice to people       To the women like me, I would like to
who provide assistance to trafficked    say that it is extremely important for us
women. The success of a                 to be strong. With our families and with
programme could be measured by          society. We need to be realistic in your
how many women have been                plans and trust that we can create our
helped to get back to ordinary,         own future, we can change our own lives.
everyday life. And for some of us       No one, no programme, no organisation
it may take very long to get back       can stand by us forever. We need to learn
to an ordinary life. Programme          new skills and trust that things will
givers may think that our fears are     change.
unfounded but they are real. We
do need someone to talk to about        A final thought. Although my writing
our feelings and our problems.          skills are limited, each of my words is
Someone who understands our             imbued with my feelings and my
problems and who is non-                experiences, and I do hope that my story
judgmental about our past. But          can be of some use for others, both those
please do not rush to publicize our     who have had similar experiences and
lives without consulting us.            those who offer assistance to such people.

                                                                                     Alliance News July 2006


                          Sandiya thi pan Womenûs
                          Centre - Providing
                          Assistance to the
                                                                     Translated by Jiraporn Saetang

                                     The Sandiya thi pan Womenûs        space, and runs an outreach programme
                                     Centre in Mae Sot, Thailand,       offering mobile health care which reaches
                                     is run by Burmese migrant          out to communities and workplaces such
                                     women who are representative       as brothels. The Womenûs Centre also
                          of their community. They have                 provides direct assistance to women who
                          experienced the same problems as other        have been abused or suffer serious health
                          women in the community, and hence the         problems, and produces and disseminates
                          women trust them because they                 information on womenûs health, migration
                          understand their problems and can give        and the work situation in Mae Sot.
                          practical advice and workable solutions.
                                                                        The women who work in the Centre have
                          The Womenûs Centre runs a drop-in             all received some type of social assistance
                          centre, provides health care and              in the past. These are their thoughts on
                          treatments (herbal remedies), offers          how their current position of assistance
                          counselling sessions, gives women a safe      provider has impacted their lives.
Alliance News July 2006


Everyone including us also has this     Working at the Womenûs Centre
story, so they feel comfortable         has changed my attitude toward
talking to us. I can help women         womenûs problems, especially on
who come from the same place and        the issue of sex workers. In the
background as me. I can exercise        past, when I was in Burma, sex
my knowledge - both what I knew         workers were badly discriminated
before and what Iûve learned - to       against and I believed that was
help others. I hope that one day I      right. But since Iûve come here, I
can go back home when it is safe        see this is just one pattern of life
and good to return and use these
                                                                               Alliance News July 2006

                                        and I accept it.


                          The Womenûs Centre is working         Providing assistance has meant that
                          to make women understand more,        I get more respect from the
                          and we start with our families. I     community, and I feel more
                          talk to my mother about our           confident. Other than that, I
                          activities and issues like gender -   observe that when I have more
                          she never understood these things     respect from the community, my
                          before, and how strong the link is    husband is more careful with me.
                          between gender, society and the       Before, he was very bad, shouting
                          way we are treated. Providing         and yelling at me anytime,
                          assistance means we teach women       anywhere. Since Iûve become a
                          how to understand their problems      peer facilitator, however, he
                          holistically and how to fight for     wouldnût dare to do that in front of
                          themselves.                           everyone.
Alliance News July 2006


Since working at the Womenûs
Centre, I am more accepted in my
community. The knowledge I have
been given has helped me to
improve my skills as a traditional
birth attendant, and these improved
skills mean women respect me
more when I assist them.
I also view my life differently.
When things happened to me
before, I just thought it was my life
                                                                                         Jiraporn (June)
and accepted everything. After                                                       Saetang has been
coming to the Centre and becoming                                                    working with the
a peer facilitator, I question more                                                GAATW Secretariat
                                                                                   since 1999. Starting
and donût just accept that this is                                                 out as a researcher
my life without questioning ùwhyû.                                                         in the Action
I feel more a part of the community                                                Research Project of
                                                                                        Foundation for
because I feel I am making a              I can do something for the people        Women in the early
contribution. Respect from the            who share the same experiences         90s, June has worked
community is also an important                                                          on the issue of
                                          that I do and I can fulfil something           trafficking and
result of working in the Centre.          that is missing in my life.            migration for over 10
What I have gotten from this                                                            years now. She
experience is a lot more than I           What has changed since the             currently liaises with
                                                                                        GAATWûs self-
expected.                                 Womenûs Centre opened is my               organized member
                                          belief in myself. Before, I never       groups and provides
                                          imagined that I could stand and do           support to them
                                                                                 where necessary, and
                                          things at this kind of level for                   coordinates
                                          myself and others, and have               GAATWûs work in
                                          confidence in my life.                                Thailand.
                                                                                                 Alliance News July 2006

                          UPDATES FROM THE SECRETARIAT

                            The Expanded Secretariat

                                             The Secretariat has been
                                             rejuvenated and is now work-
                                             ing with a full complement of
                                             staff. We have had new people
                                 join the Communications and Programme
                                 Units, and although we work within our
                                 individual units, we also work as a
                                 As you might have read in previous
                                 eBulletins, there are three units within
                                 the IS: Communications & Information,
                                 Finance & Administration, and
                                 Programme. Here are snippets on the
                                 people who are fundamental components
                                 of each of these teams. If you are
                                 interested in finding out more, you can
                                 read the longer text on our website at
                                 OR, you can call or email us and get to
                                 know us directly!
Alliance News July 2006


                                                                                                           Program Unit

                                                                    Communication &
                                                                    Information Unit
                                                                                                     Aneeqa Ahmad - Bangladesh
                                                                                                      Aneeqaûs background is in
                                    Finance &                                                          Gender and Development
                                 Administration Unit                                                Studies and Sociology, with an
                                                                                                    emphasis on identity, minority,
                                                                                                        and migration issues.

                                                                Alfie Gordo-The Philippines
                                                                  Alfie has been with the
                                                                GAATW IS since 2005, and is
                                                                       the core of the
                                                                     Communications &
                                 Apivart (Nong) Chaison-              Information Unit.
                               Nong is the Office Manager-                                           Eleanor Taylor-Nicholson-
                               cum-book keeper, as well as                                                    Australia
                              the most senior staff member                                           Eleanor is a lawyer with a
                                of the IS given she starting                                        background in migration law
     International                 working here in 1998.                                                 and human rights,
      Coordinator                                                                                   particularly womenûs rights.

 Bandana Pattanaik - India       Naetima Kosolsaksakul-           Gerardine Daniels-Australia         Jiraporn (June) Saetang-
Bandana has been with the               Thailand               by way of South Africa Gerardine                Thailand
   Secretariat since 1999      Naetima joined GAATW in              is an Australian Youth         June has been working with
  working in the areas of      2004, and works as a part-        Ambassador for Development       GAATW Secretariat since 1999,
   research, training and      time consultant on finance      (AYAD) currently on assignment     and has worked on the issues
  documentation, and is          and accounting matters.                 with GAATW.              of trafficking and migration for
currently the International                                                                              over 10 years now.

                                                                                                       Michelle Taguinod-The
                               Shyamali Larsen-Australia                                                     Philippines
                                     by way of India                                                Michelle has been involved in
                                 Shymali is a member of                                              migration studies in Asia,
                              Australian Volunteers Inter-                                          particularly on topics dealing
                              national, and is responsible                                             with migration policies,
                               for the administrative and                                             migration and the family.
                                financial functions of the          Isabel Vadivu Govind-
                               International Secretariatûs                 Singapore
                                       operations.             Isabel is a professional social
                                                                   worker withan advocacy
                                                                                                                          Alliance News July 2006

                                                                   background in womenûs
                                                                 rights, disability rights and
                                                                        animal welfare.

                                                                                                        Nerea Bilbatua-Spain
                                                                                                      Nereaûs background is in
                                                                                                      Human Rights both from
                                                                                                       academic and practical
                                                                                                       perspectives, including
                                                                                                      working with victims of
                                                                                                    human rights violation from a
                                                                                                      psychosocial perspective.

                          UPDATES FROM THE SECRETARIAT

                            January to June-An Overview
                            From January to June, the GAATW IS
                            had a full calendar.

                                      Training                            America, CordAid (a Dutch donor NGO),
                                                                          and representatives from Proyecto
                                                                          Esperanza from Spain and La Strada
                            In the first quarter of the year, June from   International from The Netherlands.
                            the IS provided evaluation and refresher      During the meeting, Fanny Polania, a
                            training for the coordinator and three peer
                            facilitators at Sandiya thi pan Womenûs       GAATW Board Member, facilitated the
                                                                          workshop on GAATWûs Human Rights
                            Centre in Mae Sot, Thailand. Sandiya          and Trafficking in Persons Handbook
                            thi pan is one of GAATWûs self-organised      while La Strada International gave a
                            group members. She also provided              workshop on Networking in Latin
                            training on participation, empowerment,
                            and organisational development to nine        America. A consensus was reached to
                                                                          come up with a LAC Chapter within
                            members of SEPOM, a self-organised            GAATW and create a Coordinating
                            group of Thai women who have returned
                            from Japan after having worked in the         Committee. The Secretariat will work
                                                                          closely with the Committee in order to
                            entertainment industry there.                 strengthen the newly created chapter, and
                                                                          we are pleased that our network
                                                                          continues to grow and thrive and build
                                                                          critical mass in all parts of the world.
                            Latin American and
                            Caribbean Consultation

                            From 25 to 30 April, 23 participants from
Alliance News July 2006

                            16 organisations attended the GAATW
                            Latin American and Caribbean (LAC)
                            Consultation held in the Dominican
                            Republic. Nerea and Bandana
                            represented the GAATW Secretariat and
                            met with organisations from Latin


Global Fund for Women                      seven working groups that will facilitate
(GFW) Summit on Human                      further collaborative action. On May 3,
                                           GFW and the Council on Foreign
Trafficking                                Relations U.S.A co-organized a
                                           Symposium on Human Trafficking in
                                           three consecutive sessions. The first panel
Bandana attended the Summit on Human       sought to provide an overview of the main
Trafficking: Critique and New Strategies   conceptual and pragmatic issues while
held from May 1-2, 2006 at the Open        the second panel focussed on the
Society Institute in Manhattan. The        intersection of trafficking and health and
summit, sponsored by the Global Fund       security. The final session was a lunch
for Women (GFW), aimed at addressing       with Ambassador John Miller, the point
the approach of the US government to       person on trafficking from the US State
human trafficking and evaluating the       Department. Kavita Ramdas, President
current understandings about human         and CEO of the Global Fund for Women
trafficking within a broad framework of    moderated a conversation with
                                                                                         Alliance News July 2006

labour migration, human rights, womenûs    Ambassador John Miller on U.S. policies
rights, HIV/AIDS and globalisation.        on human trafficking. The audio tapes
                                           and rush transcripts of the May 3
The two-day meeting was attended by a      Symposium can be accessed at the CFR
select group of anti-trafficking, human    website
rights, labour rights, health rights and   10603/us_foreign_policy_and_women_
womenûs rights advocates and academics.    symposium.html
The summit resulted in the creation of
                          UPDATES FROM THE SECRETARIAT

                            2nd Annual Consultation                      Nepal and Thailand. All participated fully,
                            of Self-Organised Group                      sharing their work, experiences,
                                                                         challenges, and achievements while also
                            Members of GAATW                             receiving education and training sessions
                                                                         on a number of health and organisational
                                                                         development topics.
                            The 2nd Annual Consultation of Self-
                            Organised Group (SOG) members was            Participants then discussed their
                            held in Suphanburi, Thailand from May        individual capacity-building needs, and
                            22-29, 2006. Organised to continue to        developed a collective plan of action to
                            build the cooperation between the various    address the identified needs. Delegates
                            SOG members of GAATW and develop             determined that capacity-building on
                            their strength in a number of areas          leadership skills (and the related skills
                            identified at the first meeting, the theme   of verbal and written communication) was
Alliance News July 2006

                            of the meeting was çGetting Our Voices       their priority. The next steps are for the
                            Heardé.                                      GAATW-IS to float the idea to donors
                                                                         and then inform participants of their
                            Participants from six SOG members            feedback. If the idea has traction, the
                            attended, representing migrant workers,      GAATW-IS will draft a proposal for
                            survivors of trafficking and sex workers     funding and send it to all SOG members.
                            in four countries - Cambodia, Hong Kong,     Members have committed to respond


with feedback by the end of July, at which   possibilities for undertaking a common
time the proposal will be finalised and      regional report and strengthening the
sent to interested donors. The GAATW-        coordination between the IS and the
IS hopes to receive an answer on the         European members.
proposal by the end of the year, leaving
sufficient time to plan the training for
2007.                                        Access to Justice Global
Informal Meeting with
some GAATW European                          GAATW organised a meeting of human
Members                                      rights lawyers, victim-protection NGOs,
                                             police, prosecutors and survivors of
                                             human trafficking from 10 countries
A one-day informal meeting with some         (Thailand, Cambodia, India, Spain,
                                             Ukraine, Russia, Nigeria, Brazil, Mexico
                                                                                             Alliance News July 2006

of the GAATW European member
organisations was organised following        and the United States) in Bangkok in early
other external meetings scheduled in         June. The goal of the consultation was
Europe. It was an occasion for sharing       to work towards adopting a common plan
information between the IS and the           of action to realise a vision of equal access
participants, discussing common issues       to justice for all victims of trafficking.
for future advocacy, discussing

                          UPDATES FROM THE SECRETARIAT

                            The highlight of the event was having a     The consultation concluded with the
                            great diversity of voices from around the   participants arriving at shared goals and
                            world sharing experiences from their        strategies for increasing access to justice
                            different perspectives, and particularly    for victims of trafficking. Deliverables
                            hearing from survivors of trafficking who   following the consultation include a press
                            displayed extraordinary courage and         release, a report on the consultation and
                            determination in their efforts to seek      a short ùcommon paperû outlining the
                            justice. Although teams came from           findings and advocacy goals. At the same
                            different social and legal contexts, they   time, the IS will begin creating an online
                            sought to find common ground and it         database to facilitate the sharing of
                            was clear that they had the same ideals     information, cases, contacts and key
                            and frustrations.                           documents on access to justice, to which
                                                                        all members will contribute.
Alliance News July 2006


Falling Short of the Mark:                  Stolen Smiles - a summary
An International Study on                   report on the physical and
the Treatment of Human                      psychological and health
Trafficking Victims                         consequences of women
The Future Group (2006)                     and adolescents trafficked
                                            in Europe
                                            London School of Hygiene &
This study evaluates a number of            Tropical Medicine (2006)
developed countries, namely Australia,
Canada, Germany, Italy, Norway, Sweden,
the United Kingdom and the United
States, on the progress they have made      The report, written by Cathy Zimmerman,
towards implementing their international    Mazeda Hossain, Kate Yun, Brenda
obligations to protect victims of human     Roche, Linda Morison, and Charlotte
trafficking. The report describes and       Watts, addresses the gap in quantitative
grades each countryûs initiatives towards   evidence about the health needs of women
providing residence, support, and           trafficked in Europe. Looking at both
investigation measures to affected          the physical and psychological health
persons, and also assesses the treatment    needs of women recently escaped from
given to victims by these countries         trafficking situations, the report gathers
compared with international best            statistical evidence on these needs to
practices. These international best         enable organisations and countries to
practices may provide readers with input    create better policies and strategies for
for advocacy initiatives within their       the care of trafficked women. It aims for
countries to improve treatment of           such development in policies and
trafficked persons.                         strategies to improve the ability of affected
                                            persons to regain their health and well-
                                            being. The report is available in soft       copy from the www.childtrafficking
              Fallingshortofthemark.pdf     website:

                                                                                            Alliance News July 2006



                          Child-friendly Standards                     Guidelines for the Opera-
                          & Guidelines for the                         tion of Care Facilities for
                          Recovery and Integration                     Victims of Trafficking and
                          of Trafficked Children                       Violence Against Women
                          International Labour Organisation            and Girls. Rationale, Basic
                          (2006)                                       Procedures and Require-
                                                                       ments for Capacity Building
                                                                       Planète Enfants (2005)
                          Following a review of existing shelter-
                          based rehabilitation services in Nepal,
                          Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Indonesia and
                          Thailand, which revealed inadequate          This report provides a wealth of
                          systems and harmful practices, ILO-IPEC      information on procedures/actions for the
                          found there was a critical need to develop   care of adolescent and adult victims of
                          standards and guidelines specifically for    trafficking and violence against women
                          the recovery and integration of trafficked   and girls, which meet the international
                          children. This report highlights the         minimum standards and guidelines for
                          required and desired measures, as well       the operation of care facilities. Planète
                          as those which should not be undertaken,     Enfants intends the document to be used
                          at each stage of the recovery and            in the capacity-building of care facilities,
                          integration process. ILO recommends          and as such has included the underlying
                          these guidelines for practitioners, care     organisational and personnel require-
                          providers, shelter managers and staff,       ments for providing such care.
                          social workers, NGOûs, INGOûs,               Topics covered include administration
                          government officials and policy makers.      and staff, confidentiality and privacy,
                          Both a summary sheet and the full report     protection, first response, intake, and
                          are available on the ILO website.            assessment (covering protection, medical,
                                                                       psychological, legal, social, literacy/skills,
                          Summary sheet (PDF, 61 KB) - http://         participatory future plan, and family and
                           community assessment). Case planning
                              asro/bangkok/library/download/           and referral, social environment, health
                                                 pub06-04s.pdf         care and nutrition, care for accompanied
                                                                       children, legal support, psychosocial care,
Alliance News July 2006

                                      Full report (PDF, 985 KB) -      education and recreation, occupational
                           training and placement, social
                                   region/asro/bangkok/library/        reintegration (life skills) training, pre- and
                                          download/pub06-04.pdf        post-reintegration activities and physical
                                                                       facilities are also covered. Finally, the
                                                                       document includes the Universal


Minimum Standards in Annex II. The             Protocol for the
report is available in soft copy from the      Identification and website at:
                                               Assistance to Trafficked
                                               Persons and Training Kit         Anti-Slavery 2005
                                               Anti-Slavery created this kit to be used
                                               as a resource that can grow over time
                                               with new learnings and developments.
A Life of Oneûs Own:                           The manual is a practical guide on how
Rehabilitation of Victims                      to identify trafficked persons, and was
of Trafficking for Sexual                      developed in collaboration with The
                                               Police Academy in the Netherlands, On
Exploitation                                   The Road (Italy), Eaves Housing for
Bjerkan, Lise (ed.) (2005)                     Women (UK) and STV (NL) with the
                                               intent that it be used by practitioners. It
                                               provides people working on the front-
The report is the result of a collaboration    line with a background on the relevant
between the Victimology Society of             international instruments, a list of
Serbia, and Sor-Trondelag University           indicators, check lists and recommended
College and Fafo Institute for Applied         questions when interviewing an affected
International Studies in Norway. The           person, an introduction to the difficulties
three organisations undertook a year-long      of identifying trafficked persons, and
research project that looked at the            recommendations for assistance to
rehabilitation of victims of trafficking for   trafficked persons.
sexual exploitation, in order to find and
disseminate research-based information
on this aspect of the trafficking process.         The manual is available in soft copy
In particular, the report shares the                    from the Anti-Slavery website:
researchersû findings on the contents and
effects of rehabilitation of victims in                                resources/PDF/
Serbia. The aims of the report are two-            Protocoltraffickedpersonskit2005.pdf
                                                                                             Alliance News July 2006

fold: first, to assess the mechanisms and
processes involved in the identification,
rehabilitation and reintegration of victims
of trafficking; and second, to determine
whether this process addresses victims
needs and expectations.

                          National Referral                           WHO Ethical and Safety
                          Mechanisms - Joining                        Recommendations for
                          Efforts to Protect the                      Interviewing Trafficked
                          Rights of trafficked                        Women
                          Persons: A Practical                        World Health Organization,
                          Handbook                                    London School of Hygiene &
                          Organization for Security and Co-           Tropical Medicine, Daphne
                          operation in Europe Office for              Programme of the European
                          Democratic Institutions and Human           Commission 2003
                          Rights (OSCE/ODIHR) (2004)

                                                                      Written by Cathy Zimmerman and
                          Taking a rights-based approach, this        Charlotte Watts of the London School of
                          handbook provides guidance on the           Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, this
                          design and implementation of                publication is three years old and has
                          mechanisms and structures against           been highlighted in the Resources section
                          human trafficking and in support of         of a previous edition of the Alliance
                          victims, inclusive of their monitoring,     News. However, it is a valuable resource
                          capacity-building, and sustainability.      for those providing direct assistance and
                          Within the handbook, these measures         as such is being included again. The
                          take the form of National Referral          publication provides 10 guiding principles
                          Mechanisms (NRM), which are a practical     to ensure that trafficked women do not
                          tool for OSCE countries and others to       suffer additional trauma in the interview
                          use to address the issue of human           process.
                          trafficking. Examples of countries that
                          have already designed and implemented            It is available to order in hard copy
                          such mechanisms are included to provide          from:
                          a practical perspective and share             documents/order_form/en/index.html
                          learnings on their efficacy in facing the              Alternatively, the guidebook is
                          challenge of trafficking in human beings.                  available in soft copy from:
                                                 odihr/2004/05/       final%20recommendations%2023%20oct.pdf
Alliance News July 2006



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