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Published by the Institute on Community Integration (UCEDD) & Research and Training Center on Community Living
                                                                                                                             Feature Issue on Postsecondary
                                                                                                                             Education and Students with Intellectual,
                                                                                                                             Developmental and Other Disabilities

                                                                                                                             Volume 23 · Number 3 · Autumn/Winter 2010/11

                                                                                                                             From the Editors
                                                                                                                             Postsecondary education is a primary goal for the
                                                                                                                             majority of high school students with transition
                                                                                                                             plans, according to the National Longitudinal
                                                                                                                             Transition Study–2. However, according to that
                                                                                                                             same study, only about 3 in 10 young adults
                                                                                                                             with disabilities have taken postsecondary
                                                                                                                             education classes since high school. And among
                                                                                                                             those with the lowest rates of participation
                                                                                                                             are students with intellectual disabilities. This
                                                                                                                             Impact issue explores what we know, and what
                                                                                                                             we still need to know, about what works to
                                                                                                                             support increased participation of students with
                                                                                                                             disabilities, especially those with intellectual
                                                                                                                             disabilities, in postsecondary education and why
                                                                                                                             that participation is important. It includes stories
                                                                                                                             about students with disabilities succeeding in
Micah Fialka-Feldman on his first day of living in the dorm at Oakland University in Rochester, Michigan. See story below.
                                                                                                                             higher education, strategies for families and
                                                                                                                             school personnel to use in supporting planning
What’s a Parent to Do? Micah’s College Dream                                                                                 for postsecondary education during high school,
                                                                                                                             research findings and historical overviews on our
by Janice Fialka                                                                                                             national journey to support full participation
                                                                                                                             in all areas of life – including education – for
My father proudly graduated from the University of Michigan in 1948, the first in his
family of 11 children. Little did he know he established a generational pattern for the                                      individuals with intellectual and other disabilities,
important men in my life. My two brothers, several cousins, and my husband all claim                                         and explanations of the education laws that can
the same “maize-and-blue.” At the age of 5, our son, Micah, attended his first U of M                                        undergird that participation. It’s our hope that
football game and was immediately awestruck by the “Go Blue!” spirit. I sensed he felt                                       readers of this issue will find new ways of thinking
destined to follow in the footsteps of his Papa, father, and uncles. He didn’t have the                                      about the role of post-high-school education in
words to express this dream – words did not come easily to him then – but his dream                                          the lives of young people with disabilities, and
was deepened with every U of M game he attended.
    We as parents wanted both our children, Micah and Emma, to have dreams.                                                  about the benefits to those young people as well
Dreams motivate our spirit, drive us forward, stretch us in new directions, and compel                                       as our communities and nation.
us to try new things. We wanted our children to gradually feel the pull of passion and
purpose. But what if their dreams are met with words like “unrealistic,” “impossible,”                                       What’s Inside
“out of reach,” “can’t do that,” “unheard of,” or simply “Why would he do THAT…..?”                                          Overviews
Those were some of the very words we heard when Micah talked about his college                                               How-To Articles
dream. “Look at the facts,” we were told, even by well-meaning people who cared                                              Personal Profiles
about Micah. Fact # 1: Micah has a cognitive impairment with a low I.Q. score. Fact #2:                                      Resources
Micah didn’t read or write (though he could sign his name after years of practice.) Fact
#3: There were no fully inclusive college programs in our community. Fact #4: Youth
like Micah, with an IEP, go to community-based programs after high school, not col-
lege! What’s a parent to do?
                                                                                    [Fialka, continued on page 24]
    2           Overview

          Students with Disabilities in Higher Education:
          Participating in America’s Future
          by David R. Johnson and Derek Nord

           Ensuring that high school students                                        public and private vocational training                                        There is also growing concern regard-
           with disabilities have access to and                                      programs, has intensified for both stu-                                   ing student persistence and the success-
           can fully participate in postsecondary                                    dents with and without disabilities.                                      ful completion of programs of study for
           education has been identified as one of                                       Policies related to transition plan-                                  those who do enroll in postsecondary
           key challenges in the future of second-                                   ning have been put in place to support                                    education. Access is only a first step
           ary education and transition for such                                     students with disabilities in achieving                                   in a larger challenge of persisting and
           students (Luecking & Gramlich, 2003).                                     postsecondary education and other                                         succeeding within the postsecondary
           As the American economy becomes                                           post-high-school goals. The Individuals                                   education environment, completing
           increasingly more knowledge-based,                                        with Disabilities Education Act of 2004                                   a program of study and graduating,
           attaining a postsecondary education                                       (IDEA) amendments specifically draw                                       and, ultimately, achieving meaning-
           is more critical than ever (Carnevale &                                   attention to postsecondary education                                      ful employment following program
           Desrochers, 2003). Projections for the                                    as one of several critically important                                    completion. Because of the high stakes
                                                                                     post-school goals for youth with dis-                                     involved, exploring the conditions that
                                                                                     abilities that needs to be addressed in                                   contribute to postsecondary success and
     Postsecondary education is a                                                    the young person’s IEP/Transition meet-                                   persistence has been a focus of educa-
                                                                                     ings. The National Longitudinal Transi-                                   tional psychology research for the past
         primary goal for more than                                                  tion Study–2 (NLTS2) has found that                                       three decades. Some researchers have
                                                                                     postsecondary education is a primary                                      noted as students are actively engaged
  four out of five secondary school                                                  high school goal for more than four out                                   in learning, they are more likely to
                                                                                     of five secondary school students with                                    participate in college (Gardner, 1998),
   students with transition plans.                                                   transition plans (Cameto, Levine &                                        whereas, others emphasize the role
                                                                                     Wagner, 2004). Perhaps reflecting this,                                   student involvement in out-of-class ex-
However, only about 3 in 10 young                                                    youth with disabilities increasingly are                                  periences plays in students persistence
                                                                                     taking rigorous academic courses in                                       (Kuh, 1991). No single variable explains
adults with disabilities have taken                                                  high school, including college prepara-                                   persistence. What we know is that of the
                                                                                     tory classes such as math and science
  postsecondary education classes                                                    (Wagner, Newman, & Cameto, 2004).
                                                                                     However, the NLTS2 has also revealed
                                                                                                                                                                    As the American economy
              since leaving high school.                                             that only about 3 in 10 young adults
                                                                                     with disabilities have taken postsecond-
                                                                                     ary education classes since leaving high
                                                                                                                                                                    becomes increasingly more
                                                                                     school (Wagner, et. al., 2005). This cur-
           next decade suggest that the strongest                                    rent rate of attending postsecondary
                                                                                                                                                                    knowledge-based, attaining
           job growth will be in occupations requir-                                 school is less than half of their peers in
           ing postsecondary education. Further,                                     the general population, with students
                                                                                                                                                                    a postsecondary education is
           analyses exploring the relationship                                       with intellectual disabilities among
           between educational attainment and                                        those with the lowest rates of enroll-
                                                                                                                                                                    more critical than ever.
           earnings have, over the past 25 years,                                    ment. Attainment of a postsecondary
           found that the gap in earnings between                                    education credential opens opportuni-
           the different educational levels has wid-                                 ties in the labor market for individuals                                  53% of high school graduates who enter
           ened. For example, in 1975, those with                                    with and without disabilities, including                                  a four-year college directly from high
           an advanced degree earned 1.8 times as                                    higher earnings, benefits, and opportu-                                   school, only 35% graduate with a college
           much as high school graduates; by 1999,                                   nities for career advancement. In short,                                  degree. Findings are even more dismal
           the disparity had increased to 2.6 times                                  it has increasingly become a ticket to an                                 for students who enroll in two-year com-
           as much (Day & Newburger, 2002). The                                      individual’s future economic self-suffi-                                  munity and technical colleges, with only
           need for knowledge attainment and skill                                   ciency. Yet, students with disabilities are                               one-third of students who enroll full-
           development through two-year and four-                                    still very much in the minority in post-                                  time in community colleges successfully
           year colleges and universities, as well as                                secondary education.                                                      completing their programs of study and

        Retrieved from the Web site of the Institute on Community Integration, University of Minnesota ( Citation: Weir, C., Fialka, J., Timmons, J., Nord, D., & Gaylord, V. (Eds.). (Autumn/
        Winter 2010/2011). Impact: Feature Issue on Postsecondary Education and Students with Intellectual, Developmental and Other Disabilities 23(3). [Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, Institute on Community Integration].
                                                                                                                                                                               Overview               3

    graduating (Tinto, Russo, and Kadel,          education and employment. And we                                                Postsecondary Education:
    1994). Even among those who enroll            need to apply that emerging knowledge
    with a goal of earning a degree or certifi-   in ways that make it possible for stu-                                          A National Priority
    cate, fewer than half actually complete       dents with intellectual, developmental,
    a credential of any kind (Silverberg,         and other disabilities to successfully                                          President Obama, in his February 2009
    Warner, Fong, & Goodwin, 2004).               enter and complete post-high school                                             speech to the Joint Session of Congress, laid
    These findings do not bode well for           educational programs through which
                                                                                                                                  out his administration’s goals and vision for
    young people with disabilities because        they gain the knowledge and skills
    there is virtually no data that suggests      necessary to participate in our nation’s                                        postsecondary education participation in
    that their experiences are any different.     workforce, and to be engaged citizens in                                        America. Among his comments were these:
    While more youth with disabilities are        our communities and society.                                                        In a global economy where the most valu-
                                                  References                                                                          able skill you can sell is your knowledge, a
                                                  Cameto, R., Levine, P. & Wagner, M. (2004). Transition planning for stu-            good education is no longer just a pathway
                                                  dents with disabilities: A special topic report of findings from the National
                                                  Longitudinal Transition Study-2. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International.                 to opportunity – it is a pre-requisite. Right
We need a better understanding                    Carnevale, A. & Desrochers, D. (2003). Standards for what? The economic
                                                  roots of K- 12 reform. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service.                  now, three-quarters of the fastest-growing
     of what it takes to support                  Day, J. C., & Newburger, E. (2002). The big payoff: Educational attain-
                                                  ment and synthetic estimates of work-life earnings. In Current Popula-
                                                                                                                                      occupations require more than a high
                                                  tion Reports (23-210). Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau.                          school diploma. And yet, just over half of
   students with disabilities to                  Gardner, J. (1998, November). The changing role of developmental educa-
                                                  tors in creating and maintaining cultures of success. Keynote address at            our citizens have that level of education. We
                                                  the College Reading and Learning Association Conference, Salt Lake
                                                  City, UT.                                                                           have one of the highest high school dropout
successfully enter and complete                   Kuh, G. D. (1991). Involving colleges: Successful approaches to fostering
                                                                                                                                      rates of any industrialized nation. And half
                                                  student learning and development outside the classroom. San Francisco:
   post-high-school education.                                                                                                        of the students who begin college never
                                                  Luecking, R. & Gramlich, M. (2003). Quality work-based learning and
                                                  postschool employment success. Information Brief, 2(2). [Minneapolis:               finish. This is a prescription for economic
                                                  University of Minnesota, National Center on Secondary Education and
                                                  Transition].                                                                        decline, because we know the countries
                                                  Silverberg, M., Warner, E., Fong, M., & Goodwin, D. (2004). National
                                                  assessment of vocational education: Final report to Congress: Executive             that out-teach us today will out-compete
    enrolled in two-year community and            summary. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved
                                                  July 12, 2007, from                   us tomorrow. That is why it will be the goal
    technical colleges than in other types of     naveexesum.pdf
    postsecondary schools, there is no infor-                                                                                         of this administration to ensure that every
                                                  Tinto, V., Russo, P., & Kadel, S. (1994). Constructing educational com-
    mation currently available on their rate      munities. Community College Journal, 64(4), 26-29.                                  child has access to a complete and competi-
                                                  Wagner, M., Newman, L., & Cameto, R. (2004). Changes over time in
    of postsecondary education completion.        the secondary school experiences of students with disabilities. A report of         tive education – from the day they are born
    But given the additional barriers to par-     findings from the National Longitudinal Transition Study (NLTS) and the
                                                  National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2). Menlo Park, CA: SRI               to the day they begin a career...
    ticipation that they encounter in many        International.
    postsecondary settings (i.e., program-        Wagner, M., Newman, L., Cameto, R., Garza, N., & Levine, P. (2005)                  It is our responsibility as lawmakers and
                                                  After high school: A first look at the post school experiences of youth with
    matic, support service, accessibility,        disabilities. A report from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2            educators to make [our educational] system
                                                  (NLTS2). Menlo Park, CA: SRI International. Retrieved 12/12/10 from
    financial etc.), their opportunities for                          work. But it is the responsibility of every
    success are likely more limited than stu-                                                                                         citizen to participate in it. And so tonight,
    dents without disabilities.                                                                                                       I ask every American to commit to at least
        Seventy percent of students with dis-     David R. Johnson is Director of the
                                                  Institute on Community Integration, and                                             one year or more of higher education or ca-
    abilities identified some type of employ-
    ment as a goal for the years after second-    Associate Dean for Research in the College                                          reer training. This can be community college
    ary school in their IEPs according to the     of Education and Human Development, at                                              or a four-year school; vocational training or
    NLTS2 (Wagner, et. al., 2005). Their          the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.                                           an apprenticeship. But whatever the train-
    future employability and opportunity to       He may be reached at                                               ing may be, every American will need to
    become economically self-sufficient is,       or 612/624-6300. Derek Nord is a Research
                                                                                                                                      get more than a high school diploma. And
    as for all students, linked to the attain-    Associate at the Institute. He may be reached
                                                  at or 612/624-0386.                                                dropping out of high school is no longer an
    ment of increased levels of knowledge
    and skills gained through participation                                                                                           option. It’s not just quitting on yourself, it’s
    in postsecondary education and voca-                                                                                              quitting on your country – and this coun-
    tional preparation programs. We need                                                                                              try needs and values the talents of every
    a better understanding of what it takes                                                                                           American.
    to support students with disabilities
    – especially those with the lowest par-                                                                                       Excerpted from the Address to joint session of Congress, Tuesday,
                                                                                                                                  February 24th, 2009. Washington DC: The White House. Retrieved
    ticipation rates – in postsecondary                                                                                           12/2/10 from

     4          Overview

           A Prelude to Progress: Postsecondary Education
           and Students with Intellectual Disabilities
           by Meg Grigal, Debra Hart and Sharon Lewis

           Given the current activity and recent                                     is, “I want to go to college, but there is                                 implementing evidence-based practices,
           coverage in some mainstream media                                         nothing available in my community.                                         cultivating common standards with
           around the issue of postsecondary                                         Can you help me? Do you know of any                                        which to measure and research such
           education for individuals with intel-                                     programs in my area?” Data from the                                        practices, and generating supportive
           lectual disabilities, it would be easy to                                 National Longitudinal Transition                                           policies at the federal, state, and local
           assume that this area is well established                                 Study-2 (NLTS-2) indicate that only 2%                                     levels will require significant amounts
           in terms of common values, philosophi-                                    of out-of-school youth with intellectual                                   of time and resources. As we look to this
           cal foundations, data-driven practices,                                   disabilities in 2009 were enrolled in any                                  next realm of adult life – higher educa-
           and widely available existing services.                                   kind of postsecondary education institu-                                   tion – with the intent to build upon
           Evidence of progress abounds. There                                       tion (National Longitudinal Transition                                     what’s been achieved and determine
           are now specific provisions support-                                      Study – 2, 2009). These recent findings                                    what might be possible for people with
           ing college access for individuals with                                   demonstrate that for the majority of stu-                                  intellectual disabilities, we must bear in
           intellectual disabilities in a federal law;                               dents with intellectual disabilities in our                                mind that as a field of study this is one
           unprecedented access to some forms of                                     country, college is still not considered a                                 that is in its infancy. History shows us
           financial aid; a recent State of the Art                                  viable or realistic option.                                                that change takes time.
           2010 national conference with over 300                                        Therefore, the markers of progress                                         It is not that long ago that a student
           participants; a Web site with databases                                   may be a bit misleading as they in some                                    with an intellectual disability did not
           on literature and existing programs;                                      ways reflect the potential for a new real-                                 have access to a public education, let
           and, as a sign of the times, a Facebook                                   ity more than our current reality. We                                      alone college. In fact, some states had
           and Twitter presence. These are all posi-                                 cannot assume that the existence of                                        laws that explicitly excluded children
           tive accomplishments and surely serve                                     some research, some online or print                                        with certain types of disabilities, includ-
           as significant markers toward progress.                                   resources, and a relatively small number                                   ing students with “mental retardation,”
                                                                                     of programs means that our work here                                       from attending public school. In the
                                                                                     is done. The progress achieved thus far                                    1970s, parents in 26 states had to resort
                                                                                     has allowed our field to begin a conver-                                   to litigation to assert their children’s
                                                                                                                                                                right to attend public schools (National
  We are entering a new phase of the                                                 sation that will likely need to last a very
                                                                                                                                                                Council on Disability, 2000). Large
                                                                                     long time. And we should expect to hear
                                                                                                                                                                numbers of people with intellectual dis-
     conversation when the questions                                                 conflicting opinions regarding what
                                                                                                                                                                abilities languished in state institutions
                                                                                     can and should be possible for students
                                                                                                                                                                where their basic needs were barely met.
 focus less on, “Should students with                                                with intellectual disabilities in the con-
                                                                                                                                                                The thought of educational or rehabili-
                                                                                     text of postsecondary education. If, as
                                                                                                                                                                tation services was not even considered,
intellectual disabilities go to college?”                                            Mohandas Gandhi observed, healthy
                                                                                                                                                                certainly not as we know these services
                                                                                     discontent is the prelude to progress,
                                                                                                                                                                today. The medical community often
and more on, “How can students with                                                  then we are certainly in the prelude
                                                                                                                                                                counseled parents to institutionalize
                                                                                     phase of this conversation. Perhaps as
                                                                                                                                                                their children so they could get the
intellectual disabilities go to college?”                                            we celebrate these recent, and yes, im-
                                                                                                                                                                “care” they needed and be “kept safe.”
                                                                                     portant markers of progress we should
                                                                                     also take a look back at the journey thus                                      With the passage of the Education
                                                                                     far to acknowledge and inform the long                                     For All Handicapped Children Act (PL
               However, for a young person with                                      road ahead.                                                                94-142) in 1975 (now known as the
           an intellectual disability in a town or                                                                                                              Individuals with Disabilities Education
           state where the choice of going to col-                                                                                                              Act – IDEA), Congress finally cleared the
                                                                                     A Historical Perspective                                                   way for children with disabilities to have
           lege does not exist, these markers have
           little impact. In fact they may serve as                                  This topic of conversation, postsecond-                                    the opportunity to learn and to succeed
           a frustrating reminder of the paucity                                     ary education for students with intellec-                                  in public school. Initially, the law was
           of available options. A constant refrain                                  tual disabilities, brings with it important                                about creating access to a free, appro-
           from students with intellectual disabili-                                 and complex questions about research,                                      priate public education as well as indi-
           ties and their families across the country                                policy, and practice. Developing and                                       vidualized planning and least restrictive

         Retrieved from the Web site of the Institute on Community Integration, University of Minnesota ( Citation: Weir, C., Fialka, J., Timmons, J., Nord, D., & Gaylord, V. (Eds.). (Autumn/
         Winter 2010/2011). Impact: Feature Issue on Postsecondary Education and Students with Intellectual, Developmental and Other Disabilities 23(3). [Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, Institute on Community Integration].
                                                                                                                                                     Overview             5

learning environments. In the 35 years          As IDEA evolved to reflect higher                            been the Americans with Disabilities Act
since 1975, our public education system      expectations for youth with disabilities                        (ADA). This year was the 20th anniver-
has responded to new expectations for        transitioning out of high school, this new                      sary of the ADA. Remarkable progress
these students and developed teacher         emphasis was reflected in the hundreds                          has been made: We now know what
training programs, standards and qual-       of projects funded by the Office of                             quality services are and that they must
ity indicators, and regulatory oversight     Special Education Programs (OSEP), U.S.                         be designed to support people with
mechanisms. Much of this work was            Department of Education, focused on                             intellectual disabilities in deciding what
funded by the U.S. Department of             demonstrating and researching transi-                           they want to do, when, and where. Peo-
Education in the form of personnel           tion practices in the 1980s and 1990s                           ple with intellectual disabilities have the
preparation, model demonstration, and        (OSEP, 2010). A similar level of interest                       right to try, take risks, fail, and succeed.
field-initiated research projects.           in postsecondary education for students                         The rights of students with intellectual
    This view of history allows us to put    with intellectual disabilities, and corre-                      disabilities afforded under the ADA
the current status of postsecondary          sponding funding from federal agencies,                         (Office for Civil Rights, 2010) must not
education access into perspective. It has    will be required to expand the current                          only be protected but fully implemented
been only two years since the passage        foundation of practice and to guide                             so that the goals of the law – equality of
of the Higher Education Opportunity          future research and policy agendas.                             opportunity, across all aspects of adult
Act amendments (PL 110-315), the law            Another pivotal piece of legislation                         life, including higher education – are
that supported access to higher educa-       that has had a major impact on the lives                        fully realized for each person with an
tion and federal aid for students with       of people with intellectual disabilities has                    intellectual disability.
intellectual disabilities. Consider for a                                                                                  [Grigal, continued on page 26]
moment the status of public school ac-
cess for students with disabilities two
years after the passage of the Educa-
tion for All Handicapped Children Act.        Postsecondary Education for Students with Intellectual
What was the level and consistency of
services, the existence of standards to       Disabilities: An Overview of Current Program Types
guide best practice, and the research
                                              There are currently three main models of postsecondary education programs that admit students with
supporting evidence-based practices
and outcomes for special education            intellectual disabilities: mixed or hybrid, substantially separate, and totally inclusive. Within each
students that existed two years after this    model, a wide range of supports and services is provided. Each model is described here in the order of
ground-breaking piece of legislation?         prevalence:
The policies and practices of that time
                                               •	 Mixed/hybrid model: Students participate in social activities and/or academic classes with
reflected the knowledge base and values
of the time, and provided a foundation            students without disabilities (for audit or credit) and also participate in classes with other students
for future expansion and innovation. For          with disabilities (sometimes referred to as “life skills” or “transition” classes). This model typically
example, the notions of least restrictive         provides students with employment experience on- or off-campus.
environment, community integration,
                                               •	 Substantially separate model: Students participate only in classes with other students with
and individualized planning have been
present in disability, special education,         disabilities (sometimes referred to as a “life skills” or “transition” program). Students may have the
and rehabilitation legislation for many           opportunity to participate in generic social activities on campus and may be offered employment
years; yet the manner and extent to               experience, often through a rotation of pre-established employment slots on- or off-campus.
which these notions have been imple-           •	 Inclusive individual support model: Students receive individualized services (e.g., educational
mented in practice has evolved signifi-
                                                  coach, tutor, technology, natural supports) in college courses, certificate programs, and/or degree
cantly over time. Self-contained special
education classrooms, sheltered employ-           programs, for audit or credit. The individual student’s vision and career goals drive services. There
ment workshops, and group homes were              is no program base on campus. The focus is on establishing a student-identified career goal that
at one time “state of the art” in their           directs the course of study and employment experiences (e.g., internships, apprenticeships, work-
respective fields of education, employ-           based learning). Built on a collaborative approach via an interagency team (adult service agencies,
ment, and community living. However,              generic community services, and the college’s disability support office), agencies identify a flexible
as our expectations evolved about what
                                                  range of services and share costs.
people with intellectual disabilities
could achieve in terms of learning,           Excerpted with permission from Hart, D., Grigal, M., Sax, C., Martinez, D. & Will, M. (2006). Postsecondary education
working, and living with people without       options for students with intellectual disabilities, Research to Practice, 45. Boston: Institute for Community Inclusion,
disabilities, so did our practices.           University of Massachusetts. Retrieved 12/21/10 from
6           Profile

      How College Benefits Us: Students with
      Intellectual Disabilities Speak Out
      compiled by Maria Paiewonsky

       Staff from the Institute for Community                                         signs were, if they even had Braille                                  Learning New Things
       Inclusion, at the University of Massachusetts                                  signs at the campus. I got some help                                  Many students talked about what they
       Boston, asked 50 students with intellectual                                    from my mobility instructor. She                                      are learning in their courses, and were
       disabilities who have participated in inclu-                                   helped me learn routes around the                                     especially eager to talk about courses that
       sive college experiences to share how they                                     campus and reminded me to listen                                      are related to their interests:
       perceive they have benefited from attending                                    for new sound cues like the hum of
       college. Below are some of their comments on                                   the vending machines in the student                                    •	 I’m	taking	a	course	called	“Music	of 	
       six different aspects of college life.                                         lounge. I do it on my own now.                                            the 20th Century.” We talked about
                                                                                      – Roberto, 19                                                             Richard Strauss and we listened to his
                                                                                                                                                                Alpine Symphony. We talked about
       Overcoming the First Day Jitters                                                                                                                         Louis Armstrong. We listened to Elvis
       Several students admitted that even                                       Realizing the Differences Between                                              Presley, the king of rock and roll, and
       though they were excited about going                                      High School and College Courses                                                we also listened to Ella Fitzgerald. A
       to college, the first few days were a little                                                                                                             whole variety of music and jazz.
                                                                                 A strong theme in the students’ respons-                                       – Michael, 20
       nerve-wracking. In addition to talking                                    es was the realization they came to that
       about how they felt at the time, three stu-                               the college courses they take are much
       dents talked about how they overcame                                      more rigorous than classes they took in
       their fears:                                                              high school, and that they are meeting                                         My best class is my Choral Class.
        •	 At	first,	I	didn’t	know	how	to	be	in	a	                               higher academic expectations:
           college classroom. It’s scary in there.                                •	 When	you’re	still	in	high	school,	                                         It really helped me find my voice.
           Cuz I just started. It was my first time                                  when you’re taking math, for ex-
           going to college. When you start new                                      ample, you think you’re taking a hard                                      Not just my singing voice. I’m
           things, you’re not sure you can do                                        class. Then, after you finish high
           it. Then you just say in your head, “I                                    school and you sign-up for a math                                          speaking up for myself now in
           think I can” and then you just do it.                                     class at college, okay, that’s actually a
           – Adrian, 19                                                              hard math class. – Cassidy, 21                                             many different situations.
                                                                                  •	 College	is	okay.	It’s	kind	of 	like	high	
                                                                                     school but different. The class is
In college, the professors don’t                                                     harder. In high school, you can come                                    •	 I	took	a	mythology	class	last	semester	
                                                                                     in late. Here at college if you call your                                  and even found a mythology Web
    baby you like they do in high                                                    professor, you can come in late, but                                       site for the class that lists the gods in
                                                                                     they don’t accept excuses. They tell                                       alphabetical order and by country. At
 school. You’re responsible for                                                      you that. It’s up to you. Class starts                                     first the professor was skeptical about
                                                                                     on time and you have to be there. It’s                                     letting a student with disabilities
       your own work. I like that.                                                   your responsibility. That’s what they                                      take the class. Then he realized I had
                                                                                     tell us. – Fabiola, 19                                                     already read an older version of the
                                                                                  •	 For	me,	when	I	was	in	high	school,	I	                                      textbook he was using for the class
                                                                                     didn’t have the chance to take classes                                     and changed his mind. – Crystal, 21
        •	 It	was	tough	being	in	a	new	place	and	                                                                                                            •	 I	love	my	painting	class	and	my	favor-
                                                                                     with regular kids. Now, in college, I’m
           all, but I got by. I joined a club pretty                                                                                                            ite painting is “The Egg.” I put lots of
                                                                                     having to learn to do harder work. In
           quick and made a lot of friends.                                                                                                                     shadow into it, light, dark. My other
                                                                                     high school I didn’t have homework
           – Antony, 21                                                                                                                                         painting,“The Green Bottle,” it was
                                                                                     a lot. In college the professors don’t
        •	 Getting	around	the	campus	was	so	                                         baby you like they do in high school.                                      part of the college’s Student Art Show.
           difficult at first. It was so hard figur-                                 You’re responsible for your own                                            I went to the artist’s reception. I feel
           ing out where everything was. Like                                        work. I like that. – Grace, 21                                             great that I had three paintings in the
           where the entrances were, what floor                                                                                                                 art show! – Allison, 20
           my class was on, and where the Braille

    Retrieved from the Web site of the Institute on Community Integration, University of Minnesota ( Citation: Weir, C., Fialka, J., Timmons, J., Nord, D., & Gaylord, V. (Eds.). (Autumn/
    Winter 2010/2011). Impact: Feature Issue on Postsecondary Education and Students with Intellectual, Developmental and Other Disabilities 23(3). [Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, Institute on Community Integration].
                                                                                                                                           Profile                7

•	 I	learned	a	lot	in	this	class.	We	read	        who quit college and don’t want to         Survey Findings on College
   Stephen Covey’s book, The Seven Hab-           get an education. Last year I thought      Programs for Students with
   its of Highly Effective People, and we         about quitting, but I didn’t. I said to
   learned about multiple intelligences.          myself that the work might be hard,        Intellectual Disabilities
   I know now I am an interpersonal               but I know I can do it. And I did it.
   worker. That means I like to work with         – Stephan, 20                              In 2009, Think College conducted a national online
   people, not by myself. – Adrian, 19                                                       survey of postsecondary education programs to
                                                                                             identify existing services for students with
                                               Some Advice About College                     intellectual disabilities. There were 149 program
Appreciating More Freedom and                                                                respondents f rom 37 states. Key findings included
                                               When asked what advice they have for
                                               younger students who have not thought         the following (the number of respondents is in
Nearly all the students commented on           about college or are anxious about try-       parentheses – response rate varied by question):
how much they appreciated the freedom          ing college, the students had a number
                                                                                             Types of Programs
and independence they felt at college:         of encouraging responses:
                                                                                             •			50%	were	at	four-year	colleges	or	universities,	
•	 There’s	more	freedom	at	college,	more	      •	 Motivate	yourself.	Believe	you	can	go	         40%	at	two-year	colleges,	and	10%	at		trade/
   independence. It doesn’t matter if it’s        to college. You don’t have to be the           technical schools ( N=135)
   after class, or on the weekends. You           world’s smartest student. You just         •			45%	served	only	adults,	26%	served	dually-	
   come to college and find things to do.         have to try. – Grace, 21                       enrolled	students,	and	29%	served	both	groups	
   In college, it’s okay to hang out when      •	 You	know	the	thing	is,	students	are	           (N=118)
   you’re not in class any time you want          thinking that college is going to be
   to. – Joey, 21                                                                            Admissions and Fees
                                                  tough for them in their future, but        •	 60%	indicated	students	with	intellectual	
•	 I	like	having	time	to	work	out	at	the	         you know what? College is more                disabilities were formally enrolled (N=143)
   fitness center. You can meet people            fun for people. They can take more
   there, get a work out, just hang out.          different classes then they were tak-      •	 	56%	had	special	entrance	criteria	(N=149)
   – Antony, 21                                   ing back in high school. And get           •		 71%	indicated	students	do	not	take	the	college	
•	 I	like	spending	free	time	at	the	library	      everything done in college, not just           course placement test (N=132)
   so I can check sports Web sites and my         be lazy. None of this, I don’t want to     •		 78%	did	not	charge	students	or	families	fees	
   email. – Wilson, 21                            do this, I don’t want to do this, I want       for additional services related to students with
                                                  to listen to music… No! Go to college          intellectual disabilities (N=129)
                                                  and get your education done through
Becoming a Changed Person                         college. That’s what students have to      Course Access
                                                  understand. – Arielle, 19                  •		 75%	offered	other	instruction	or	social	events	
Several students described how they have                                                         specifically for students with intellectual
changed as a result of going to college:       •	 Taking	college	classes	and	looking	for	
                                                                                                 disabilities (N=129)
                                                  work when you are still in school isn’t
•	 Here’s	what	college	has	taught	me	             easy. First of all, you have to work a     •		 75%	indicated	students	with	intellectual	
   about myself: (1) I’ve learned how to          lot. And you might miss your friends           disabilities participate in group instruction
   be more aware; (2) I learned more              from school and the classes you had            or activities only with other students with
   about who I am as a person; (3) I’ve           there. It’s hard to manage your new            intellectual disabilities (N=129)
   learned how to be an independent and           schedule. And there are always go-         •		 53%	indicated	students	access	courses	through	
   responsible person; and (4) I’m learn-         ing to be transportation problems. I           the typical registration process (N=130)
   ing to be more focused. – Grace, 21            worry about working it all out. But if     Access to Disability, Housing and Other
•	 My	best	class	is	my	Choral	Class.	It	          you’re thinking is it all worth it? Yes,   Services and Supports
   really helped me find my voice. Not            I think it is. – Adrian, 19                •		 58%	received	services	from	the	college’s	disability	
   just my singing voice. I’m speaking                                                           office (N=128)
   up for myself now in many different         Maria Paiewonsky is the Participatory
   situations. I was quiet before but now,                                                   •		 39%	offered	residential	options	(N=123)
                                               Action Research Coordinator for Think
   here I am, talking about college. It’s      College, Institute for Community Inclusion,   •		 49%	indicated	students	had	person-centered	
   like, bam! I’ve got everything under        University of Massachusetts, Boston. She          planning (N=115)
   control. – Arielle, 19                      may be reached at maria.paiewonsky@           Note: These findings represent only the programs that responded
•	 I	feel	different	now	because	I’m	getting or 617/287-7697.                      to the survey, and are not representative of every program
                                                                                             serving students with intellectual disabilities in the U.S. Also,
   an education and meeting new people.                                                      responses indicated that programs vary considerably in terms of
   College might be hard, but you can get                                                    level of student integration, access to typical courses, services,
   through it. I know plenty of people                                                       and the level of involvement of disability services, if at all.
                                                                                             Contributed by Debra Hart, Meg Grigal, and Cate Weir, Think
                                                                                             College, Institute for Community Inclusion, University of
                                                                                             Massachusetts, Boston. For more see
      8           Overview

            Federal Legislation Increasing Higher Education
            Access for Students with Intellectual Disabilities
            by Judy L. Shanley

             In 2008, the Federal legislation that                                     New Projects Using Diverse Strategies                                         included; staffing projects with career
             regulates higher education policy was                                     The Transition Program for Students                                           center staff; and creating roles for
             reauthorized. The legislation, known                                      with Intellectual Disabilities (TPSID)                                        employers, business leaders, and
             as the Higher Education Opportunity                                       Model Demonstration Projects are                                              Department of Labor agencies and
             Act (HEOA) (PL 110-315), includes two                                     required to support students through                                          workforce development systems in the
             major provisions that have the potential                                  a focus on academic, social, employ-                                          delivery of instruction and develop-
             to facilitate entry into higher educa-                                    ment, and independent living strategies.                                      ment of courses related to careers and
             tion for more students with intellectual                                  Twenty-seven five-year grants started                                         employment.
             disabilities. First, through Title VII of                                 on October 1, 2010 and offer hetero-                                        • Independent Living/Residential Strate-
             the legislation, the U.S. Department                                      geneous strategies and supports (see                                          gies: Creating inclusive residential
             of Education, Office of Postsecondary                                                                       options for students; offering life and
             Education (OPE), awarded five-year                                        index.html). The range of strategies                                          independent living skill coursework;
             grants to two- and four-year institu-                                     implemented by these grantees sug-                                            and addressing content related to
             tions of higher education and consortia                                   gests that there is not a one-size-fits-all                                   community activities such as trans-
             to implement model demonstration                                          model for program implementation.                                             portation, money management and
             projects. These projects will provide the                                 Grant outcomes are expected to result                                         budgeting, consumerism, and com-
                                                                                       in improved understanding of varying                                          munity participation.
                                                                                       strategies used across programs, en-                                        • Social Strategies: Ensuring that in-
                                                                                       hanced learning regarding the resources
 The Higher Education Opportunity                                                      required to use these strategies, and,
                                                                                                                                                                     formation about campus clubs and
                                                                                                                                                                     social activities reaches students with
                                                                                       to the extent possible, extended under-
   Act includes two major provisions                                                   standing of how particular strategies
                                                                                                                                                                     intellectual disabilities; providing ac-
                                                                                                                                                                     cess to institutional processes such as
                                                                                       may affect student performance and
  that have the potential to facilitate                                                success in higher education, and student
                                                                                                                                                                     obtaining a college identification card,
                                                                                                                                                                     and ensuring that students with intel-
                                                                                       outcomes. The following illustrates the
entry into higher education for more                                                   broad range of strategies used by transi-
                                                                                                                                                                     lectual disabilities have access to rec-
                                                                                                                                                                     reation events such as purchasing ath-
                                                                                       tion programs for students with intellec-
students with intellectual disabilities.                                               tual disabilities:
                                                                                                                                                                     letic event tickets; inviting students
                                                                                                                                                                     with intellectual disabilities to serve
                                                                                        • Academic/Instructional Strategies:                                         in leadership positions within clubs or
                                                                                           Using peer tutoring and mentoring                                         organizations; and educating student
                                                                                           by students without disabilities, and                                     campus leaders about students with
             infrastructure for 27 institutions or con-                                    educational coaching; implement-                                          intellectual disabilities attending the
             sortia to establish or extend programs                                        ing Universal Design for Learning;                                        college and encouraging outreach and
             for students with intellectual disabilities                                   enhancing faculty skill to provide                                        communication strategies that invite
             in postsecondary education settings.                                          supports through their involvement                                        a diverse range of students to partici-
             Second, the Title IV regulations of the                                       in advisory functions for the project;                                    pate in social activities.
             HEOA enable eligible students to receive                                      engaging disability student service
             Federal financial aid if they are enrolled                                    professionals; and sharing informa-                                      These transition programs for stu-
             in an approved comprehensive transi-                                          tion with higher education faculty                                    dents with intellectual disabilities require
             tion and postsecondary program. These                                         and staff at professional develop-                                    students to be socially and academically
             two pieces, made possible through the                                         ment forums.                                                          integrated with students without dis-
             HEOA, are expected to create increased                                                                                                              abilities to the maximum extent possible,
             opportunities for students with intel-                                     • Employment/Career Strategies: Provid-
                                                                                           ing inclusive practicum and intern-                                   evidenced by providing students with
             lectual disabilities to attend higher                                                                                                               choices to enroll in regular college
             education.                                                                    ships; inviting participation of voca-
                                                                                           tional rehabilitation professionals;                                  classes, live in inclusive residences,
                                                                                           raising awareness of campus career                                    develop employment and career skills
                                                                                           center events and ensuring that stu-                                  through integrated work experiences,
                                                                                           dents with intellectual disabilities are                              and participate in social activities, clubs,

          Retrieved from the Web site of the Institute on Community Integration, University of Minnesota ( Citation: Weir, C., Fialka, J., Timmons, J., Nord, D., & Gaylord, V. (Eds.). (Autumn/
          Winter 2010/2011). Impact: Feature Issue on Postsecondary Education and Students with Intellectual, Developmental and Other Disabilities 23(3). [Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, Institute on Community Integration].
                                                                                                                         Overview          9

and recreation with college peers with-          The Individuals with Disabilities           a high school diploma or its equivalent,
out disabilities. Programs incorporate       Education Improvement Act of 2004               and to pass an ability-to-benefit test. One
educational supports and instructional       (IDEA) (PL 108-446) requires transition         use of this test is to assist higher educa-
delivery methods, such as educational        planning for students with disabilities         tion professionals to determine the in-
coaching, peer tutoring, academic and        that includes a coordinated set of activi-      structional needs of incoming students.
social mentors, universal course design      ties in a results-oriented process focused      The HEOA includes waivers to these two
(Hart & Grigal, 2010; Zeff, 2007), and       on improving the academic and func-             provisions, thus, if an institution choos-
Universal Design for Learning (Rose          tional achievement of the student with          es, and they participate in Federal student
& Meyer, 2002; Shaw, 2010) to facili-        a disability to facilitate their movement       aid programs, the institution can apply
tate student retention, advancement,         from high school to post-school activi-         to Federal Student Aid to have its com-
and success (Thoma, Bartholomew, &           ties, including postsecondary education,        prehensive transition and postsecondary
Scott, 2009). Programs also use varying      vocational preparation, and integrated          program approved. With the approval,
methods of person-centered planning,         employment (U.S. Department of                  students with intellectual disabilities who
including individualized career plans, to    Education, 2007). Students with intel-
ensure that students have a voice and a      lectual disabilities may receive these
choice in planning their coursework,         services, if they are identified in the
selecting social opportunities, and          individualized educational program                 The HEOA has provided an
deciding upon career and employment          (IEP), in higher education settings.
goals. Educators suggest that under-         The differences across secondary and               impetus for transition planning
standing individualized academic, so-        postsecondary settings such as campus
cial, and career-related needs of students   size, variety of classes, and the increased        and building transition
with disabilities and encouraging equal      opportunities that students have to plan
opportunity, full participation, indepen-    their own learning and social experi-              infrastructures across K-12 and
dent living, and economic self-sufficiency   ences, require early transition planning
are important to raising expectations for    (Getzel & Wehman, 2005). Educators in              postsecondary education.
student outcomes (Turnbull, Turnbull,        K-12 settings can invite higher education
Wehmeyer, & Park, 2003).                     program staff and students with intel-
    Another key feature of the transi-       lectual disabilities to visit schools to help
tion programs for students with intel-       raise awareness regarding the possibili-        are eligible to participate in Federal
lectual disabilities is the expectation      ties of attending higher education; offer       student aid, based on financial need,
for cross-setting collaboration and          summer programs in which middle and             may be eligible to receive Federal Pell
linkages across K-12 settings, and across    high school students with intellectual          Grants, Federal Work-Study (FWS),
employment and community settings.           disabilities attend the college program;        and Federal Supplemental Educational
Characteristics related to collaborating     and offer family events at which parents        Opportunity Grants (FSEOG). (Informa-
across secondary and postsecondary           of students with intellectual disabilities      tion about the process by which institu-
education settings and transition plan-      can receive information about post-             tions update their Federal application to
ning are linked to improved post-school      secondary education programs. These             Federal Student Aid is available at
outcomes for students with intellectual      strategies are often linked to improved
disabilities (Neubert & Redd, 2008). In      post-school outcomes for students with          062110TitleIVEligibility.html).
some projects, transition personnel may      disabilities (Halpern, Yovanoff, Doren,
sit on advisory committees at the higher     & Benz (1995).
                                                                                             Making Use of the HEOA Provisions
education institution and may plan and
co-teach classes. In other projects, busi-                                                   The HEOA has not only provided op-
                                             New Regulations Open Up Federal
ness leaders, employers, and vocational                                                      portunities for students with intellectual
                                             Student Financial Aid
rehabilitation professionals are part of                                                     disabilities to access higher education,
the planning, implementation, and ad-        Students with intellectual disabilities         the legislation has provided an impetus
visory functions of the program. As the      and their families cite the high cost of        for transition planning and building
evidence supports, when students have        higher education as a barrier to partici-       transition infrastructures across K-12
access to a range of community-based         pation in postsecondary education               and postsecondary education. Transition
instruction, work-based learning, and        (Grigal & Hart, 2010). Prior to the             personnel can learn about the programs
a focus on career-development (Izzo &        HEOA, students with intellectual dis-           that may be available in their area, and
Lamb, 2003) improved post-school out-        abilities were unable to participate in         can offer to provide information and
comes are realized.                          Federal aid programs because of re-             resources regarding program develop-
                                             quirements for students to have attained        ment to students and their transition
                                                                                                        [Shanley, continued on page 27]
   10           Profile

          “What Do You Want to Be When You Grow Up?”:
          A College Graduate
          by Claire Bible

           “What do you want to be when you grow                                         I can’t remember a time from 12 on                                    When I flew home for the holiday I took
           up?” A question that is timeless through                                  up when I didn’t think about going to                                     a meeting with the program. I had found
           the ages. When I was little, growing up                                   college. I kept daydreaming about it even                                 the door with the talking door knob
           in Wisconsin, the response was simple,                                    in high school. In high school I took the                                 at long last! In 2008, I graduated from
           automatic: I wanted to be a writer. When                                  ACTs, and applied to colleges. Since I                                    Threshold with a certificate in early
           asked the same question in middle school                                  have a learning disability in math I didn’t                               childhood, a few transferable credits,
           my response was, “To go to college.”                                      take the regular set of math classes (this                                and moved home to an opportunity that
              I daydreamed about college. In the                                     wasn’t for lack of trying). I took both                                   I felt lucky to have.
           realm of daydreams I would minor in                                       pre-algebra and algebra 1 my freshmen                                          The differences between the two pro-
           one or two areas of study, double-major                                   and sophomore years, and after that I                                     grams hit me right away. While I respect
           graduate with a Bachelor of Arts, go on                                   took life skill math classes. Because of                                  the Threshold Program, it’s an older
           to graduate school to get my Masters.                                     this not many colleges were open to me.                                   model. Threshold gives you the funda-
                                                                                     I even got two rejection letters from the                                 mental education, which is important; it
                                                                                     same school.                                                              gives you a solid foundation. Where it is
                                                                                          Then I found the Threshold Program                                   lacking is in giving you the wings to fly.
    I daydreamed about college. In                                                   at Lesley University in Boston. Threshold
                                                                                     is an independent living curriculum that
  the realm of daydreams I would                                                     shares the Lesley campus and facilities.
                                                                                     I moved to Boston and began college in
minor in one or two areas of study,                                                  the Threshold Program in 2006 and was
                                                                                     there for two years. They had their own
    double-major graduate with a                                                     dorms for us, their own agenda of what
                                                                                     was important, and a curriculum that
Bachelor of Arts, go on to graduate                                                  had us hopping from nine in the morn-
                                                                                     ing to seven, sometimes eight or nine, at
                school to get my Masters.                                            night. After a time I began to get steadily
                                                                                     frustrated. I wasn’t getting anywhere in
                                                                                     the arts (my main area of interest); they
                                                                                     offered only three extra-curricular class-
           These daydreams were fueled by the fact                                   es in the arts. I picked one of the two                                   While the goal of living independently
           that my oldest cousin was at the time                                     available majors, Early Childhood, kept                                   is well and good, your 20s should be the
           going off to college. I was inspired by it                                up with my classes, and began to look                                     time of pursuing your dreams, making
           all. I wanted to go myself. I even thought                                for that small talking doorknob out of                                    mistakes, finding out who you are. In
           occasionally of stuffing myself into a                                    Alice in Wonderland that could lead me                                    Threshold, “our 20s” are your mid-40s.
           duffle bag so that he would have to take                                  somewhere different. In the meantime,                                         Cutting Edge puts the student in
           me with him. Unfortunately for me there                                   I involved myself on my campus. I went                                    the college classroom with the motto
           wasn’t a duffle bag that I could fit into.                                to every event, cause or otherwise. I saw                                 that everyone that wants a postsecond-
               I’ve always loved to learn; I was a                                   fantastic plays, many comedians, and                                      ary education can get one. Instead of
           curious kid. Learning didn’t always come                                  heard and saw so many bands that way.                                     focusing on independent living, Cutting
           easy to me (I have a learning disability                                  I would spend weekend nights, or any                                      Edge spends only five hours a week on
           in math). Despite that, I loved school.                                   time when I didn’t have anything else                                     independent living, and the rest is made
           This love of learning and my childhood                                    pressing, at the student center, some-                                    up of the classes you’re taking, study-
           curiosity helped me in high school. I saw                                 times to the witching hour of five in the                                 ing, and living life. No college is ever a
           homework as recreation and I loved it, I                                  morning, working on my novels. And my                                     breeze to get through, and Cutting Edge
           thrived on it. Many evenings were spent                                   poetry found a voice at the open mike.                                    is no exception. But, if you work hard
           reading books and cuddling with Domi-                                         It was around Christmas that I learned                                you’ll find that Cutting Edge is that fairy
           no or Stella (whichever cat preferred me                                  of the Cutting Edge program at Edge-                                      godmother that you dreamed of as a
           at that moment) while listening to music.                                 wood College in Madison, Wisconsin.                                       child, along with Tinkerbell who holds

        Retrieved from the Web site of the Institute on Community Integration, University of Minnesota ( Citation: Weir, C., Fialka, J., Timmons, J., Nord, D., & Gaylord, V. (Eds.). (Autumn/
        Winter 2010/2011). Impact: Feature Issue on Postsecondary Education and Students with Intellectual, Developmental and Other Disabilities 23(3). [Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, Institute on Community Integration].
                                                                                                                                                                           Profile             11

the fairy dust that if shaken liberally can              is a large part of it. My advice for teach-                 important; the money has to come from
give you the wings to fly.                               ers is to inspire and challenge all your                    somewhere. Apply for grants, think
     I’ve benefited greatly from being                   students, those with disabilities and                       creatively: yard sales, lemonade stands,
within the Cutting Edge environment.                     without. When you ask that question,                        food drives, book drives, clothing drives,
Now I don’t feel unrealistic in what I’m                 “What do you want to be when you grow                       the list is endless. Sit down and start
shooting for. I’ve been able to take fan-                up?” really listen; don’t say it’s an unre-                 listing ways. Decide on what kind of op-
tastically challenging classes with amaz-                alistic dream, and dream big with them.                     portunity you want to give; do you have
ing professors. I have found another                     You could be the teacher that student                       goals for it? Come up with a philosophy.
stage for my poetry; in the past year I                  remembers forever for saying “yes you                       If you’re applying for bank loans, they’re
took second in the talent show. I also                   can.” Every child wants to be believed in.                  going to want, and most likely need to
took second out of the entire English                    Use your resources, make lists, and help                    see, a business plan and how you plan to
department with one of my poems that                     them begin to achieve their dreams even                     apply it as well.
I had submitted to the writing contest. I                if it might take years. The time you take                       Oh, and always keep asking that
have also have been living on campus in                  will make a difference. Attend IEP meet-                    question that is timeless through the
the dorms going on three years.                          ings with good listening skills; listen                     ages: “What do you want to be when you
    My advice for kids with disabilities is              with an open heart to the parents, and                      grow up?” I guarantee the answers you’ll
to keep dreaming. Never let anyone tell                  the student. For people wanting to pro-                     get will always surprise you.
you that you can’t; anything can happen                  vide an opportunity for postsecondary
– it’s a long life. Keep fighting for what               education for students with disabilities,                   Claire Bible is a student in the Cutting Edge
you want, speak up, let the world hear                   my advice is to not make promises you                       program at Edgewood College, Madison,
your voice, even if it’s the tiniest of roars            can’t keep. Don’t hawk an opportunity                       Wisconsin.
keep roaring, working hard, and just be-                 if it’s not something you can actually
ing you. Advocating as loudly as you can                 provide. Fundraising for the program is

Postsecondary Programs for Students with Intellectual Disabilities:
Emerging Standards, Quality Indicators and Benchmarks
The growth of postsecondary education programs           experiences to support positive outcomes for                students with intellectual disabilities, and to assure
for people with intellectual disabilities over the       individuals with intellectual disabilities. Further, the    alignment with requirements in the HEOA. In this
past decade, coupled with important changes to           standards, indicators, and benchmarks are aligned           way, the standards will assist programs in applying
the Higher Education Opportunity Act (HEOA), have        with the definition of a comprehensive postsecondary        to be an “eligible program” under the HEOA and
led to a need for a more standardized approach to        and transition program for students with intellectual       therefore be eligible for financial aid for its students.
determine the efficacy and quality of such programs.     disabilities contained in the HEOA in an effort to assist      By mid-2011 the final validated standards,
Therefore, in 2008, the National Institute on            with compliance with these parameters.                      quality indicators, and benchmarks will be
Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR) and          The resulting standards, quality indicators, and         posted on the Think College Web site (www.
the Administration on Developmental Disabilities         benchmark tool includes eight overarching standards as a resource for new and existing
funded research to determine a set of standards,         that have been identified as critical areas of focus for    programs, eventually available on the Web site
quality indicators, and benchmarks that could be         postsecondary education programs for students with          as a downloadable guide. In addition, an online
used by existing and new programs. The Institute for     intellectual disabilities. They are: Academic Access,       self-assessment tool will also be developed that will
Community Inclusion at University of Massachusetts       Career Development, Social Networks, Fostering              allow those who are implementing a postsecondary
Boston, in partnership with TransCen, Inc., received     Self-Determination, Integration with College Systems        education program to rate their practices with those
funding to complete this research, and the process to    and Practices, Coordination and Collaboration,              reflected in the standards. For those establishing
develop a validated set of standards commenced in        Sustainability, and Evaluation. These eight standards       a new postsecondary program, the standards will
2009. The ongoing research is resulting in a validated   represent the key areas that those establishing and/        provide guidance on what is promising practice in
set of practices that can be used by institutes of       or improving these programs should consider. Each           the field and what is required by the HEOA.
higher education to create, expand or enhance            represents an area that is vital to establishing a
                                                                                                                     Contributed by Cate Weir, Debra Hart and Meg Grigal, of Think College,
high-quality, inclusive postsecondary education          comprehensive, inclusive educational experience for         Institute for Community Inclusion, University of Massachusetts, Boston.
                                                                                                                     To learn more see
12           Profile

        The Power of Inclusion:
        Personal Reflections on Creating Change
        by Shea Howell

        What then would be our reason for institut-                               ments for change. Micah has a keen                                         used was to develop some options for
        ing a program for students whose goal is not                              interest in politics; he was among the                                     Micah so that he could select among
        degree completion? The participation of stu-                              most-informed students in the class and                                    ideas. While it was often difficult for
        dents with cognitive disabilities on our cam-                             participated fully in discussions. During                                  him to generate new topic areas, once he
        pus indicates that we have a broader view of                              the class he was the first to have seen                                    grasped a direction he was able to move
        our institution as a center for learning...The                            Milk, a film about gay activist Harvey                                     forward.
        liberal arts tradition maintains that higher                              Milk of San Francisco. He encouraged                                           His final speech presentation in the
        education is more than preparation for a                                  classmates to see it and talked about                                      course, on the use of the word “retard-
        specific career or profession. It is about the                            how important it was for people to un-                                     ed,” required research and organization-
        continual quest for deeper understanding,                                 derstand the struggles individuals faced.                                  al skills that challenged him. Working
        richer life experiences, and personal growth;                             This kind of contribution was typical of                                   with his parents and another student,
        in short, the overused term – life-long learn-                            Micah’s participation, offering resources                                  Micah crafted and delivered an excellent
        ing. If we accept this as the role of higher                              and insights to others.                                                    presentation, earning one of the highest
        education, then we must believe that this is                                  Grades in that course depended on                                      grades in the class. More importantly,
        our mission toward all individuals.                                       papers discussing some aspect of social                                    the speech touched off a discussion with
        – Virinder Moudgil, Senior Vice President                                 movements. The only modification I
        for Academic Affairs and Provost, Oakland                                 made was to allow Micah to substitute
        University, delivered at Options Graduation                               video interviews for written papers.
        Ceremony, April 19, 2010                                                  This did require giving him some clear                                          Adapting classes to meet the
                                                                                  direction in how to frame questions and
        Micah Fialka-Feldman graduated from                                       approach issues. Generally, it was helpful                                      needs of students with cognitive
        Oakland University in the spring of                                       for me to develop a few ideas and present
        2010, completing six years in a program                                   them to Micah so that he could chose                                            disabilities took minimal effort.
        designed to provide a fully inclusive uni-                                among them. He followed the same
        versity experience to young people with                                   assignment schedule and handed in his                                           As a community we grew
        intellectual disabilities. With the support                               interviews along with everyone else’s
        of Micah, his family, and visionary edu-                                  papers. He worked with another student                                          tremendously because of it.
        cational professionals, Oakland Univer-                                   on their final presentation, analyzing his
        sity opened its doors for full inclusion.                                 effort to overturn a university ruling pre-
        In the course of this experience I was                                    venting him from living in the dorm.
        able to observe the power of inclusion to                                     The second class, Public Speaking,                                     students saying how much they appreci-
        transform institutions and individuals.                                   also drew on Micah’s strengths. During                                     ated Micah’s perspective and how he
            I taught Micah in two classes during                                  high school, he spoke to groups about                                      made them think about things they had
        his final semester. He was in a public                                    people with disabilities. By the time he                                   never considered. The experience of in-
        speaking class and I directed his cap-                                    came to the university he had established                                  viting people to think more deeply and
        stone course. A year earlier Micah also                                   a record of speaking events. Micah not                                     to rethink old ideas are important gifts
        took my class Persuasion and Social                                       only spoke on campus, but traveled local-                                  of inclusion to the campus community.
        Movements. I was involved in his course                                   ly and nationally to make presentations                                        For the capstone course, Micah
        selection throughout his academic ca-                                     to gatherings large and small. Depending                                   worked with Sarah Vore, a student do-
        reer. I was able to watch Micah grow as                                   primarily on Power Point™ presenta-                                        ing a capstone in writing. Together, they
        an individual and to observe the impact                                   tions to provide structure, Micah was                                      produced a film about Micah’s experi-
        he had on other students.                                                 comfortable as a speaker. In a class with                                  ences at Oakland. Sarah and Micah met
            My first classroom experience with                                    mostly freshman and sophomores he                                          with Micah’s family at their initiation
        Micah was in Persuasion and Social                                        was among the most natural, organized,                                     and with Micah’s permission. This
        Movements. This class fit his strengths.                                  and effective speakers. Micah’s main                                       proved to be an important support in
        His family members are well-known                                         challenge was to move beyond material                                      developing the project. Micah’s parents
        activists and he has spent a lifetime                                     that he had presented and to explore new                                   helped Sarah understand how to work
        surrounded by people engaged in move-                                     ideas. Here, too, the primary strategy I                                   with him to get his best ideas. They

     Retrieved from the Web site of the Institute on Community Integration, University of Minnesota ( Citation: Weir, C., Fialka, J., Timmons, J., Nord, D., & Gaylord, V. (Eds.). (Autumn/
     Winter 2010/2011). Impact: Feature Issue on Postsecondary Education and Students with Intellectual, Developmental and Other Disabilities 23(3). [Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, Institute on Community Integration].
                                                                                                                                                  Profile              13

encouraged Sarah to not only help him            A primary benefit for Sandra was the       meetings we were able to make adapta-
frame questions for interviews, but to           sense of social awareness because          tions that enriched the class experience
be willing to challenge him. Having high         of the project. Sandra describes           for everyone. We recognized no one
expectations and not settling for less           working with Micah as “a wonder-           strategy fit all students or all classes, but
were important for their success in the          ful experience.” Over the weeks that       through open communication and at-
project. Sarah wrote in her capstone             they worked together, she says, she        tention to the goal of full participation,
paper about the experience:                      acquired a greater appreciation for
   Having never given much thought               individuals with disabilities: “I now
   to higher education for this select           have a better understanding of some
   group of individuals, my experiences          of the frustrations encountered by              Through open communication
   with Micah have completely opened             many individuals with cognitive
   my eyes to the academic and social            impairments.” At the same time,                 and attention to the goal of
   enrichment capabilities of those who          Micah not only benefited from the
   are classified as “intellectually dis-        experience in terms of communica-               full participation, we were able
   abled.” (p. 3)                                tive growth, but also from the social
                                                 interaction, citing the social nature           to find ways to meet the needs
Earlier Sarah described her first meet-          of the sessions as the most beneficial
ing with Micah and how she was able to           aspect. (p. 214)                                of all students.
confront her own stereotypes:
                                              Micah’s visible presence on campus res-
   I felt both a sense of intrigue and en-    onated with other students with disabili-
   thusiasm as we easily made conversa-       ties. In a moving article in the Oakland
   tion. It was during that moment that                                                     we were able to find ways to meet the
                                              Post, Shawn Minnix (2010) wrote:              needs of all students. Adapting classes
   my prior myths associated with intel-
   lectual disabilities were dispelled.          I thought I would take a minute to         to meet the needs of students with cog-
   (p. 1)                                        congratulate all of the seniors on         nitive disabilities took minimal effort.
                                                 their upcoming graduation. There is        As a community we grew tremendously
    Sarah’s reaction to Micah was not un-        one person that I wish to acknowl-         because of it.
usual. By his senior year he was among           edge separately, and that would be
the most recognized students on the              Micah Fialka-Feldman, or as we just        Kitchens, M. & Dukhie, S. Chapter 9: Speech-to-text: Peer tutoring,
campus. In chronicling the highlights of         know him Micah. Micah has a cogni-         technology, and students with cognitive impairments. In R. Day Babcock
                                                                                            & S. Daniels (Eds.), Writing centers and disability (pp. 193-222).
the graduating class, the Oakland Post,          tive disability, and is set to get his     Unpublished manuscript.
the student newspaper, listed ground-            certificate at the end of this semester,   Minnix, S. (2010, April 13). Underdogs succeed at Oakland. Oakland Post.
                                                                                            Retrieved 12/8/10 from
breaking for new buildings, a 9% tuition         finishing his odyssey and complet-         perspectives/underdogs-succeed-at-oakland/
hike, a faculty strike, and “After covering      ing his education. I look at Micah         Moudgil, V. (2010). Unpublished remarks delivered upon the completion
                                                                                            of the Options program, Oakland University, April 19, 2010.
his story for over a year, Micah Fialka-         and what he has accomplished and           Return the favor, rise up; If you stay or go, improve what was left for
Feldman won his personal battle to live          smile. He inspires us all to do greater    you: Staff editorial. (2010, April 14). Oakland Post. Retrieved 12/8/10
on campus...” (“Return the favor,” 2010).        things. I should know. In some ways,       favor-rise-up-if-you-stay-or-go-improve-what-was-left-for-you/
This is perhaps my greatest lesson from          I used to BE Micah. I was placed in a      Vore, S. (2010). Micah Fialka-Feldman. Unpublished senior capstone
                                                                                            project (WRT 491 Internship), Oakland University, Rochester, Michigan.
this experience with Micah and efforts           school for the emotionally impaired
at inclusion. It is not only important for       when I was 6 years old, and I stayed
the growth of the individual, but it radi-       there until I was 14 and it was hell       Shea Howell is Professor of Communica-
cally challenges and changes the stereo-         from the start. I was told by my own       tion at Oakland University, Rochester,
types of others.                                 principal that I would never finish        Michigan. She may be reached at howell@
    Even in the earliest days of the pro-        high school.                      or 248/370-4120.
gram, the potential for altering thinking
was clear. In a book chapter co-written          The full inclusion of Micah and other
by Marshall Kitchens, the director of the     students required professors who were
Writing Center, and one of his students,      willing to think creatively about what
Sandra Dukhie, about tutoring Micah           would enable students to contribute and
on the use of assistive technologies, they    learn in classes. The single most impor-
noted the benefit to Micah’s increased        tant source of these strategies emerged
confidence, but went on to say:               from meetings with Micah, with his
                                              administrative support team of profes-
                                              sionals, and with his family. Out of these
14           Overview

       Key Roles in Planning the Transition to
       College and Careers
       by Margo Vreeburg Izzo

       Students with disabilities have the most                                   The IEP is developed to prepare the                                       school is paid work experience in high
       important role in planning their own                                       student for postsecondary education                                       school. Gaining the skills to maintain
       transition from high school to postsec-                                    and employment. Once students reach                                       employment is critical even if a student
       ondary education, employment, and                                          the age of 16, they assist the IEP team                                   wants to go to college. Ultimately, em-
       independent living. However, parents,                                      to develop measurable postsecondary                                       ployment is the goal of both high school
       educators, and adult services person-                                      goals. Examples of such goals are: “After                                 and college programs.
       nel also have crucial roles in the teams                                   high school, Liz will obtain a two-year                                       Finally, the IEP must include a state-
       that work with the students to prepare                                     degree in Allied Health’s Patient Care                                    ment of the interagency responsibilities
       for post-high school life. This article                                    Program” and “After high school, Juan                                     or any needed linkages. For example, a
       provides an overview of some of the                                        will attend classes at Independence                                       rehabilitation counselor may support a
       key roles of those adults in assisting stu-                                Community College and work part-time                                      summer work experience by funding a
       dents to explore, plan for, and move into                                  on campus in the bookstore or student                                     job developer and coach to work with
       further education and career prepara-                                      center.” Once these measurable post-                                      a student. By including descriptions of
       tion opportunities after high school.                                      secondary goals are developed, the IEP                                    both educational and adult services in
                                                                                  team writes annual goals and identifies                                   the IEP, a coordinated set of transition
                                                                                  transition services needed to prepare                                     services leading to postsecondary educa-
       The Role of the IEP Team                                                   students to reach their postsecondary                                     tion and careers is more likely to occur.
       Federal legislation provides very clear                                    goals. Since students’ postsecondary
       guidance on how educators and par-                                         goals guide what types of annual goals
                                                                                                                                                            The Role of Transition Services
       ents must design special education and                                     and transition services are delivered, it
       related services to prepare students                                       is essential to identify postsecondary                                    Transition services are designed to fa-
       with disabilities for further education,                                   goals that students are motivated to                                      cilitate movement from school to adult
       employment, and independent living.                                        achieve. For example, if a student wants                                  settings including college, vocational
       The Individuals with Disabilities Educa-                                   to go to college but doesn’t currently                                    education, employment, continuing
       tion Act (IDEA) of 2004 requires school                                    have the study habits and educational                                     and adult education, adult services,
       personnel to begin planning transition                                     track record to make that a realistic goal,                               independent living, and community par-
       services with the student, parents, and                                    then teachers and parents need to share                                   ticipation. IEP teams consider students’
       other agency representatives prior to                                      their concerns with the student. They                                     strengths, preferences and interests
       the student’s 16th birthday, or younger                                    need to give him or her an opportunity                                    when planning these services. Transi-
       if determined appropriate. The Indi-                                       to take steps toward better preparation                                   tion services are provided by teachers
       vidualized Education Program (IEP)                                         to achieve that goal or to revise the goal.                               and related services personnel such
       team must review the IEP annually and                                      Going to college will require attending                                   as occupational therapists, transition
       update the:                                                                classes, doing homework, and receiving                                    specialists, and rehabilitation counsel-
           (aa) “appropriate measurable post-                                     grades. If a student does not like these                                  ors. These school and adult services
           secondary goals based upon age-                                        tasks, perhaps the student could look                                     personnel provide instruction and
           appropriate transition assessments                                     at alternative forms of post-high-school                                  community experiences to develop the
           related to training, education, em-                                    education, such as attending non-credit                                   skills students need to navigate college
           ployment, and, where appropriate,                                      adult learning classes through the local                                  and employment settings. Bridge pro-
           independent living skills;                                             adult and community education pro-                                        grams located on college campuses, but
                                                                                  gram where participants do not have to                                    designed for high school students, are
           (bb) transition services (including                                    complete homework or take tests.                                          becoming increasingly popular. These
           courses of study) needed to assist the                                     The IEP team is also involved in plan-                                programs give students opportunities to
           child in reaching those goals.”                                        ning community experiences with the                                       navigate college settings with their age-
           (IDEA of 2004, Section 614, d, VIII)                                   student to confirm potential employ-                                      peers without disabilities, enroll in or
                                                                                  ment and postsecondary goals and to                                       audit college classes, and move toward
       The IEP team meets on an annual basis
                                                                                  explore various work and college set-                                     employment and adult participation in
       to discuss the student’s vision for the
                                                                                  tings. Research indicates that the best                                   the community.
       future, present levels of performance,
                                                                                  predictor of employment following high
       transition services, and annual goals.

     Retrieved from the Web site of the Institute on Community Integration, University of Minnesota ( Citation: Weir, C., Fialka, J., Timmons, J., Nord, D., & Gaylord, V. (Eds.). (Autumn/
     Winter 2010/2011). Impact: Feature Issue on Postsecondary Education and Students with Intellectual, Developmental and Other Disabilities 23(3). [Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, Institute on Community Integration].
                                                                                                                                                                      Overview             15

The Role of Rehabilitation Services             that may reduce or eliminate an employ-                                         Creating a Transition Portfolio
The Rehabilitation Act was reauthorized         ment impediment, prosthetics, employ-
                                                                                                                                The transition portfolio is a collection of
under the Workforce Investment Act              ment-related transportation, related
of 1998 to consolidate, coordinate, and         personal services, interpreter services,                                        documents students prepare to help develop
improve employment, training, literacy,         and rehabilitation technology.                                                  their postsecondary goals and their plans
and vocational rehabilitation services.             Several studies have reported that                                          to achieve those goals. Students print out
The act mandates that vocational reha-          students with intellectual and develop-                                         and place these documents in a binder and
bilitation (VR) counselors participate in       mental disabilities who participate in                                          save them electronically for easy updating
transition planning for students served         postsecondary education have increased                                          in the future. Many of the documents can be
under IDEA, at the very least, in the           their earnings (Grigal & Dwyre, 2010).
                                                                                                                                developed in English or technology classes to
form of consultation and technical as-          Despite this, not all VR counselors will
sistance (National Council on Disability,       include the costs for college as a VR                                           meet required academic standards and course
2009). Students with disabilities are           service in the IPE. However, many pro-                                          objectives. The following items are suggested
eligible for VR services if they meet the       fessionals and parents can attest to the                                        for inclusion in the portfolio:
following three criteria:                       significant growth in employability skills                                      •	 PowerPoint™ presentation outlining results
 •	 Their	physical	or	mental	impairment	        that occurs when young adults with
                                                                                                                                   of students’ transition assessment surveys,
    constitutes or results in a substantial     disabilities are participating in college
                                                classes with their age-peers. The skills of                                        careers of high interest, postsecondary
    impediment to employment.
                                                being a good student overlap consider-                                             goals, and transition activities they will im-
 •	 They	can	benefit	from	VR	services	in	       ably with those skills needed for success-                                         plement to prepare for college and careers.
    terms of an employment outcome.             ful employment.                                                                 •	 Job	comparison	chart	outlining	the	nature	of	
 •	 They	require	VR	services	to	prepare	for,	
    secure, retain or regain employment.                                                                                           work, working conditions, salary and educa-
                                                Conclusion                                                                         tion needed to enter their top two careers.
However, not all eligible students can be
served by VR due to a lack of funds.            In summary, professionals and parents                                           •	 College	comparison	chart	outlining	the	
    Vocational rehabilitation counselors        should encourage high school students                                              costs, size, residential options, majors and
provide direct services to help transi-         with intellectual disabilities to take the                                         supports available at two or three colleges
tion-age youth gain the educational and         lead in exploring the skills and educa-                                            of high interest.
vocational skills needed to transition          tion needed to transition to college and
to living, working, and participating           careers of interest. Students must take an                                      •	 Career	narrative	explaining	their	postsec-
as adults in community life. The VR             active role in developing their IEPs and                                           ondary plans.
counselor works with eligible youth and         be comfortable talking about the nature                                         •	 Measurable	postsecondary	goals	for	em-
the IEP team to develop an Individual           of their disabilities with both educators                                          ployment and education or training that
Plan for Employment (IPE) designed to           and other professionals. Encouraging                                               students and their IEP team can consider
assess, plan, develop and provide VR            students to advocate for necessary ac-
                                                                                                                                   including in the IEP.
services to prepare for, and engage in,         commodations in the high school setting
gainful employment (National Council            will prepare them for college. Finally, em-                                     •	 Short-term,	annual	goals	students	can	
on Disability, 2009). An IPE contains           powering students to embrace their fu-                                             complete this year to help them meet their
the specific employment outcome that            tures with the self-determination needed                                           long-term postsecondary goals.
is chosen by the eligible individual, and       to set goals and make adjustments on a
                                                                                                                                •	 Resumé	and	cover	letter	for	students	to		
any services provided by VR listed and          daily basis will help ensure their success.
                                                                                                                                   attach to a job or college application.
described in the IPE must be focused
toward securing a reasonable employ-                                                                                            •	 Completed	job	and	college	applications	to	
                                                Grigal, M. & Dwyre, A. (October 2010). Employment activities and
ment outcome. VR counselors provide             outcomes of college-based transition programs with students with                   use as samples for future applications.
                                                intellectual disabilities. Insight, 3. Retrieved 1/12/11 from http://www.
services to enable youth with disabilities                                          •	 Written	interview	with	a	professional	from	
to leave high school, attain postsecond-        Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act, 20 U.S.C. §1400
                                                et seq. (2004).                                                                    their chosen career area.
ary education and training, and achieve         National Council on Disability (2009). National disability policy: A progress
employment rates and levels of wages            report. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved 5/24/09 from http://www.ncd.          •	 Checklist	of	tasks	that	must	be	completed	
comparable to their peers without dis-                                                                                             to reach their postsecondary goals.
abilities. Services provided through the        Margo Vreeburg Izzo is Associate Director                                       •	 Bookmarks	listing	Web	sites	that	have	been	
IPE to youth and adults eligible for VR         and Program Director of Special Education                                          helpful in clarifying the students’ career
include assessment, counseling and              and Transition at the Nisonger Center, The                                         goals and transition plans.
guidance, referral, job-related services,       Ohio State University, Columbus. She may be
corrective surgery, therapeutic treatment       reached at 614/292-9218 or                                      Contributed by Margo Izzo, Associate Director and Pro-
                                                                                                                                gram Director of Special Education and Transition at the
                                                                                                                                Nisonger Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus.
    16           How-To

           Preparing Students with Intellectual Disabilities
           for College: Tips for Parents and Teachers
           by Beth Swedeen

           Last year while attending our state’s                                      resulting in a lack of skills needed for                                  regardless of disability – for the success
           transition conference, my 17-year-old                                      postsecondary and employment success.                                     of students in college.
           daughter told me she wanted to speak                                       In addition, they are not forming the
           at the conference this coming year. Over                                   relationships through which so many of                                    Beginning in Middle School
           the summer we developed and submit-                                        us learn about opportunities. How many
           ted a proposal that tells her story: how a                                 high school students learn about a job or                                 During 6th and 7th grade, the following
           student with developmental disabilities                                    become interested in a college through                                    preparations for college can begin:
           fully participates in family, school, and                                  their connections with a friend or rela-                                    •	 Talk	with	the	student	about	a	range	
           community life. I was both proud and                                       tive? For this to happen, those relation-                                      of careers and necessary preparation.
           a bit surprised when the proposal was                                      ships need to be taking place.
           one of the few chosen for a very limited                                       Developing family, school, and com-                                     •	 Use	person-centered	planning	tools	
           number of breakout sessions. However,                                      munity expectations that individuals                                           (e.g., PATH, MAPS, Essential Life-
           it also saddened me that her experiences                                   with disabilities will participate across                                      style Plans) to identify the student’s
           are so unusual: She takes almost all                                       the lifespan in their schools, on the job,                                     strengths, interests, motivators, con-
           general education courses (with modifi-                                    and in their communities is essential in                                       nections, and potential resources.
           cations) in a large, comprehensive high                                    creating both the opportunities and re-                                     •	 Look	at	different	postsecondary	pro-
           school where she participates in extra-                                    lationships necessary for students with                                        grams online with the student.
           curricular clubs and leadership opportu-                                   intellectual disabilities to develop goals                                  •	 Attend	college	sports	activities,	plays,	
           nities; has started and maintains a small                                  and achieve their dreams. While some                                           or other events together if you live
           jewelry business with her sister; and is                                   families have paved the way in creating                                        near a college or university.
           active in volunteer and other commu-                                       the expectation that students with intel-                                   •	 Encourage	the	student	to	use	the	
           nity service work. She also is on the local                                lectual disabilities can and should attend                                     Internet to conduct searches about
           “speaking circuit” to college students                                     college, many other families who have                                          careers and postsecondary options.
           and parent groups.                                                         experienced years of low expectations
                                                                                      from schools and other professionals                                        •	 Encourage	the	student	to	make	
                                                                                      may need support to develop that vision.                                       choices and his or her own purchases
                                                                                          As for any young adults, preparation                                       at stores, restaurants, movie theaters.
Preparation for college for students                                                  for college for students with intellectual                                  •	 Have	the	student	sign-in	or	check-in	
                                                                                      disabilities needs to begin years before                                       for doctor and dentist visits.
          with intellectual disabilities                                              those application forms are filled out                                      •	 Make	sure	the	student	has	a	library	
                                                                                      and a tuition down payment is made.                                            card. Libraries are a great resource
   needs to begin years before those                                                  Students with intellectual disabilities                                        for practice making choices and per-
                                                                                      may benefit from even more exposure                                            forming independent transactions.
application forms are filled out and                                                  and practice than their peers in making                                        Students also begin to learn respon-
                                                                                      choices, exploring options, developing                                         sibility for keeping track of the card
  a tuition down payment is made.                                                     self-advocacy skills, and learning to navi-                                    and checked-out resources.
                                                                                      gate their communities. Sadly, most are                                     •	 Include	and	involve	the	student	in	
                                                                                      getting far fewer, if any, opportunities                                       general education courses.
                                                                                      compared with their peers.
               In reality, even 35 years after the                                        Here are some ways families and                                         •	 Encourage	use	of 	technologies	other	
           passage of legislation opening up public                                   schools can begin early in encouraging,                                        students use (Internet, iPods, email),
           school experiences for our children,                                       providing, and supporting those critical                                       as well as assistive technology such as
           students with intellectual disabilities                                    experiences and opportunities that                                             voice to text programs.
           often remain on the fringes of school                                      help students with intellectual disabili-                                   •	 Discuss	with	the	student	extra-	
           and community life. They continue to                                       ties prepare academically, form social                                         curricular and other community
           experience lower levels of involvement                                     connections, develop self-advocacy                                             opportunities that match his or her
           in activities, organizations, and life expe-                               skills, and increase independence. These                                       interests.
           riences compared with their peers, often                                   four components are all necessary –

         Retrieved from the Web site of the Institute on Community Integration, University of Minnesota ( Citation: Weir, C., Fialka, J., Timmons, J., Nord, D., & Gaylord, V. (Eds.). (Autumn/
         Winter 2010/2011). Impact: Feature Issue on Postsecondary Education and Students with Intellectual, Developmental and Other Disabilities 23(3). [Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, Institute on Community Integration].
                                                                                                                         How-To         17

•	 Discuss	and	set-up	necessary	sup-            and participating in the IEP process      •	 Further	facilitate	discussion	and	ex-
   ports for the student to participate in      (e.g., welcoming participants, shar-         ploration of career options through
   extra-curricular activities.                 ing favorite experiences from the            career fairs, job shadows, in-school
•	 Involve	the	student	in	aspects	of 	the	      school or a new interest discovered).        and community volunteer experi-
   IEP process (e.g., display or discuss     •	 Discuss	possible	summer	activities	          ences, and service learning.
   the student’s portfolio of work, talk        that align with the student’s career      •	 Begin	to	fade	the	use	of 	one-on-one	
   about goals for the coming year,             and academic interests, such as vol-         supports. Encourage connections
   decide who to invite).                       unteer opportunities, interest camps         with peers for support, such as
                                                and recreation programs, and part-           peer-tutoring, mentoring, and study
                                                time work.                                   groups.
During Eighth Grade                                                                       •	 Help	the	student	learn	to	identify	
                                             •	 Continue	to	explore	with	the	student	
Parents and teachers can support prepa-         technologies teens use to connect and        when he or she needs help, and then
ration for postsecondary education by           communicate (e.g., Facebook, cell            ask peers for support when needed.
doing the following while the student is        phones, texting, instant messaging).      •	 Support	the	student	to	learn	appro-
in 8th grade:                                •	 Reflect	with	the	student,	toward	the	        priate self-regulation and classroom
•	 Continue	to	discuss	with	the	student	        end of the year, on school and com-          behaviors (e.g., asking for a break,
   possible career paths and interests.         munity experiences in which he or she        asking for help from a peer, not inter-
                                                participated during middle school.           rupting classroom discussion).
•	 Administer	age-appropriate	transi-
                                                Evaluate what went well, what sup-        •	 Discuss	ways	that	the	student	can	be-
   tion assessments, including person-
                                                ports were helpful, and what activities      gin to take ownership for daily chores
   centered planning tools.
                                                are worth pursuing in high school.           at home (e.g., making lunch, clean-
•	 Connect	the	student	to	possible	lead-                                                     ing room, adhering to a medication
   ership opportunities (e.g., 4-H, self-                                                    schedule).
   advocacy training, school leadership      Beginning in 9th Grade
   teams).                                                                                •	 Encourage	establishment	of 	a	bank	
                                             Among the steps parents and teachers            account and use of a debit card and/
•	 Work	with	the	student	to	develop	         can take to further prepare a student for       or checkbook.
   high school class schedules aligned to    postsecondary education beginning in
   his or her transition path and course     9th grade and continuing through the
   of study, with a priority on general      remainder of high school are these:          Conclusion
   education courses with accommoda-
   tions/modifications as needed.            •	 Continue	discussions	with	the		           My daughter’s presentation for the
                                                student about his or her interests,       conference is a work in progress. She
•	 Discuss	the	value	of 	extra-curricular	
                                                aptitudes, and motivators through-        continues to work on new skills. These
   activity involvement and encourage
                                                out high school.                          include using her planner every single
   the student to identify and partici-
                                             •	 Continue	using	age-appropriate		          day and getting a ride home from a
   pate in at least one activity during
                                                transition assessments.                   friend after school, then letting herself
   freshman year.                                                                         into the house with her key and calling
•	 Include	a	high	school	teacher	on	the	     •	 Provide	opportunities	to	encourage	       me to say she got home. It seems like
   8th grade transition IEP team.               development of self-advocacy and          the set of skills to learn is endless, but
                                                other self-help skills through typical
•	 Set	up	a	high	school	tour	and	spend	                                                   having those opportunities to practice
                                                high school experiences (e.g., field
   some time in the high school setting                                                   problem-solving and take some risks are
                                                trips in which the student makes
   as part of the 8th grade transition                                                    what growing up is all about. And they
                                                his or her own lunch and incidental
   process, if needed.                                                                    certainly increase any young person’s
                                                purchases, learning to ride the city
•	 Consider	peer	mentors,	as	opposed	                                                     chances of success in college.
                                                bus, buying items at the school store,
   to adult supports, as guides, tutors,        signing up for peer tutoring, etc.).
   or supports when possible.                                                             Beth Swedeen is Executive Director with the
                                             •	 Provide	support	for	the	student	to	       Wisconsin Board for People with Develop-
•	 Encourage	participation	in	programs	         keep and use a daily planner.             mental Disabilities, and former Transition
   and activities that have an overnight
                                             •	 Work	with	the	student	to	design	a	        Specialist with the Waisman Center at the
   component, such as Scouting and
                                                class schedule based on ability, in-      University of Wisconsin, Madison. She may
   other camps, recreation programs,
                                                terests, and postsecondary options,       be reached at
   sleep-overs with friends, etc.
                                                prioritizing general education classes
•	 Provide	opportunities	for	the	student	       with appropriate accommodations
   to have some ownership in planning           and modifications as needed.
 18           How-To

        Using Individual Supports to Customize a
        Postsecondary Education Experience
        by Cate Weir

         With special programs for students with                                   in mind (for example, those with labels                                    provide the student with a document to
         intellectual disabilities now in place on                                 of autism) and then students with this                                     share with the college that explains the
         approximately 200 college campuses in                                     label are directed into that program, in-                                  best learning and teaching strategies for
         the U.S., the opportunities for people                                    dividual supports start with the unique                                    this student’s success. In some instances,
         with intellectual disabilities to attend                                  needs and desires of the student. A key                                    when a student is under the age of 21
         college as part of an organized program                                   difference between programs and indi-                                      and still eligible for their school district’s
         are greater than they have ever been.                                     vidual supports is the level of choice one                                 support, tutoring, transportation or
         While a program may offer classes and                                     has of which college to attend. Another                                    classroom assistance may be provided
         social events specifically for students                                   critical distinction is that individual                                    by the district on the college campus.
         with intellectual disabilities, and for                                   supports utilize existing college sup-                                         In planning for individual supports
         many individuals this may be the route                                    port systems, perhaps supplementing                                        for attending college, the person with
         they would like to go, others may want                                    those with additional services such as                                     an intellectual disability – whether still
                                                                                   vocational rehabilitation and other adult                                  in high school or post-high school – and
                                                                                   support agencies; but it does not create a                                 a team of people representing both
                                                                                   special support system designed only for
It is still possible for people with                                               program participants.
                                                                                                                                                              professional and personal relationships
                                                                                                                                                              meet to identify challenges the student
                                                                                       The essence of individual supports is
intellectual disabilities to attend                                                person-centeredness – the student her
                                                                                                                                                              may face in college and to plan for sup-
                                                                                                                                                              ports for those areas. Collaboration and
                                                                                   or himself is determining the process,
a college of their choice, even if a                                               and supports are coordinated by the stu-
                                                                                                                                                              person-centered planning are both key
                                                                                                                                                              features of individual supports for col-
                                                                                   dent or a person that student picks. This
  special program does not exist.                                                  may be a friend, a case manager, a high
                                                                                                                                                              lege. The person is supported to attend
                                                                                                                                                              regular college classes and activities, and
                                                                                   school teacher, a vocational rehabilita-                                   supports are provided in much the same
                                                                                   tion counselor or a staff person from an                                   fashion as supports are provided to any
         to go a different route. They may want                                    adult support agency. This method re-                                      student who requires assistance. Key
         to attend a college that is near to their                                 quires good communication among the                                        considerations in creating individual
         home or one that offers the courses they                                  people involved in supporting the stu-                                     supports include the following:
         are interested in even though it does not                                 dent, and that all parties be knowledge-
                                                                                   able about how college supports work.                                       •	 Resource mapping: Identify all re-
         have a program specifically for them.
                                                                                                                                                                  sources available to the person that
         It is still possible for people with intel-
                                                                                                                                                                  can offer supports and services to
         lectual disabilities to attend a college of                               The Process of Creating Supports                                               assist at college. Examples of resourc-
         their choice, even if a special program
                                                                                   To prepare for college while still in high                                     es that students have used include
         does not exist. This can be accomplished
                                                                                   school, students who receive special                                           vocational rehabilitation services,
         through the creative use of individual-
                                                                                   education services must be assisted to                                         developmental disability agencies,
         ized, collaborative supports that are
                                                                                   develop independence in the use of                                             Medicaid funding, private pay tutors,
         designed around the unique needs and
                                                                                   accommodations they need, be encour-                                           public transportation, college disabil-
         desires of the student.
                                                                                   aged to pursue the academic coursework                                         ity services, Americorps, mentor pro-
                                                                                   needed for college courses that they                                           grams on college campuses, family
         What Are Individual Supports?                                             desire to take, and have the opportunity                                       resources, along with school district
                                                                                   to attend college fairs along with their                                       resources for those under age 21.
         It may be helpful to describe what in-
         dividual supports are not. They are not                                   peers. Once a student has decided to                                        •	 Creative use of generic resources: It may
         predetermined, they are not on a menu                                     attend a particular college, if it is in or                                    not be readily apparent that some
         to pick from, and they are not pack-                                      near the student’s home community the                                          of the supports a person has can be
         aged together into anything that would                                    student’s school district can assist him                                       used to attend college. For example,
         resemble a program. Where programs                                        or her to prepare for entry to that college                                    an adult developmental disability
         may be developed on a campus with the                                     by including a college support person on                                       agency may offer staff support to a
         generic needs of a group of students                                      the transition team. The district can also                                     person to do their shopping or learn

      Retrieved from the Web site of the Institute on Community Integration, University of Minnesota ( Citation: Weir, C., Fialka, J., Timmons, J., Nord, D., & Gaylord, V. (Eds.). (Autumn/
      Winter 2010/2011). Impact: Feature Issue on Postsecondary Education and Students with Intellectual, Developmental and Other Disabilities 23(3). [Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, Institute on Community Integration].
                                                                                                                           How-To          19

   to clean their apartment; but that        •	 Collaboration and communication:           significant disabilities, students with
   staff support could also be used to          Many individuals with intellectual         intellectual disabilities are attending
   help them with homework or learn-            disabilities who want to attend col-       college in increasing numbers. Here are
   ing to use the college cafeteria.            lege have had less-than-successful ex-     some of the supports and strategies stu-
•	 Technology: For individuals with dis-        periences when the communication           dents are using to make their dreams of
   abilities technology can be a critical       between and among all the players,         college come true:
   support in attending college and can         especially college faculty and staff, is
                                                                                           •	 A	student	who	never	received	a	high	
   also offer long-term independence.           not effective. For many college per-
                                                                                              school diploma took college classes
   Perhaps the best technology solu-            sonnel, their experience with people
                                                                                              through the university’s division of
   tions are devices that all students          with intellectual disabilities is lim-
                                                                                              continuing education. His successful
   are using, such as cell phones, smart        ited, and their understanding of why
                                                                                              completion of college level courses
   phones, iPods, and computers with            people with significant disabilities
                                                                                              showed that he was qualified to con-
   their many applications that can be          want to go to college may be lacking.
                                                                                              tinue his education. He used support
   used to help support students on             Many students have found it helpful
                                                                                              from his family, an adult support
   campus and improve communication             to identify a “champion” on campus.
                                                                                              agency, and vocational rehabilitation
   and personal organization. In addi-          That “champion” can help college
                                                                                              services in addition to the supports
   tion, many campuses have technolo-           faculty and staff understand the
                                                                                              provided to him as a student with a
   gy centers equipped with special soft-       student’s commitment to a college
                                                                                              disability through the Access Office
   ware and hardware to assist students         education, help address concerns
                                                                                              on campus.
   with disabilities in their school work,      and answer questions, and facilitate
                                                collaboration and communication            •	 The	state	Vocational	Rehabilitation	
   and vocational rehabilitation services
                                                between all involved parties.                 agency financially supported a young
   may also be able to help with obtain-
                                                                                              woman to meet state licensing re-
   ing assistive technology to help the      	•	Knowledge of how college differs from
                                                                                              quirements by completing two
   student be more independent.                 high school: Because a college educa-
                                                                                              college courses in child development.
•	Person-centered planning: With a              tion is not a guaranteed right like a
                                                                                              The agency paid for professional tu-
   commitment to planning that puts             K-12 education is, there are different
                                                                                              toring for the student to supplement
   the person’s dreams at the center,           ways to approach a college. There
                                                                                              the peer tutoring available at the
   it is more likely that the services          are things that are not available to
                                                                                              college. The student and her tutor
   and assistance that are designed to          students who are not “matriculated”
                                                                                              developed grids for the child observa-
   support their college education are          – not admitted fully into the col-
                                                                                              tions that were required in her class
   aligned with the true wishes of the          lege certificate or degree programs.
                                                                                              that were adopted by all of her class-
   person. It also opens up the type of         Students with intellectual disabili-
                                                                                              mates. Child observations had been
   creative, out-of-the-box thinking that       ties often enter the college through
                                                                                              a historically difficult area for all stu-
   effectively supporting a college edu-        continuing education divisions and
                                                                                              dents, and this approach proved very
   cation requires. Rather than fitting a       classes, rather than through the cer-
                                                                                              successful for all students in the class.
   person into a pre-existing “slot” the        tificate or degree application process.
                                                Discussions on what courses are            •	 A	course	of 	study	was	individually	
   resources can be aligned with what
                                                available, how to register, and how           designed for a student interested in
   that person wants to do.
                                                to obtain services from the disability        completing a degree that will allow
•	 Coordination: An individual approach                                                       her to work in the animal grooming
                                                services office all need to take place
   to services and supports for people                                                        field. Together with her academic ad-
                                                before the individual attends. Con-
   with disabilities seeking postsecond-                                                      visor, the student was able to design a
                                                versations with the college are critical
   ary education requires someone who                                                         major that highlighted her strengths
                                                to laying the groundwork and the un-
   is aware of all the pieces and can                                                         and interests. For those classes that
                                                derstanding between and among all
   coordinate them to maximize the                                                            were particularly difficult, she au-
                                                the people involved, and setting the
   usefulness of each one. This role can                                                      dited the class first, and then took the
                                                expectations for everyone involved.
   be filled by a transition coordinator                                                      course for credit, allowing her more
   at a school district, by a case coordi-                                                    time to learn the essential material.
   nator at an agency, or sometimes by a     Conclusion
   parent. Certainly it is sometimes the
                                             Through pre-planning that emphasizes          Cate Weir is Project Coordinator for Think
   student himself or herself who does
                                             the goals and dreams of the student,          College at the Institute for Community
   the coordinating. But someone who
                                             creative use of existing resources and        Inclusion, University of Massachusetts,
   is always seeing the big picture is a
                                             a willingness to challenge assumptions        Boston. She may be reached at 603/848-
   key to success.
                                             about the capacity of individuals with        4901 or
    20           Profile

            Not Superwoman:
            Reflections on Beginning Graduate School
            by Kira Fisher as told to Donna Carlson Yerby

           Kira Fisher is a new trainee in the year-long                              Carolina with a disability to serve in                                    Initial Impressions: The First Weeks
           Leadership Education in Neurodevelop-                                      AmeriCorps. That experience taught me                                     I initially realized that participating
           mental Disorders (LEND) program at                                         that even if I failed I could learn from                                  in the LEND program was going to be
           the Carolina Institute on Developmental                                    challenges. After that, I spent three years                               harder than I expected. There was a lot
           Disabilities, University of North Carolina,                                trying to find a job, but I volunteered                                   already happening in my life because I
           Chapel Hill. The primary purpose of the                                    during that time with the Acting for                                      was still working on the other project. I
           program is to prepare professionals for                                    Advocacy Advisory Committee. Even-                                        had to change my transportation (and my
           cutting-edge leadership roles that will al-                                tually, I was hired to work on a grant,                                   life) so that I’d be at CIDD one more day
           low them to participate in improvement of                                  Youths for Advocacy, collaborating with                                   to keep up with everything I had to do.
           the health status of infants, children, and                                other self-advocates training high school
           adolescents who have, or are at risk for,                                  students.
           developing neurodevelopmental and related
           disabilities, and their families. She is the
           first student with a disability to be admit-                               Becoming a LEND Trainee
           ted to the North Carolina program. Here,                                   Last spring I was approached about the
           she describes her perspective one month into                               opportunity to participate in the LEND
           the program.                                                               program at CIDD. It involves training
                                                                                      with a group of other students for two
           I have been asked why I wanted to be                                       semesters. One requirement of the
           a trainee in the LEND program at the                                       training is a course, Developmental Dis-
           Carolina Institute for Developmental                                       abilities Across the Lifespan, and there is
           Disabilities (CIDD). To answer that                                        also leadership training.
           question, I need to explain a little about                                     At first I felt honored about being
                                                                                      selected, and I got lots of positive feed-
                                                                                      back from my family and some of my
                                                                                      friends. I was told that this would be a
Last spring I was approached about                                                    “pilot” and there would be a coach                                            The Leadership Intensive (3-day
                                                                                      (a doctoral student in Occupational                                       workshop) was INTENSE all right. We
the opportunity to participate in the                                                 Science) to work with me. All the train-                                  were told to balance our past experience
                                                                                      ees are assigned to mentors and I would                                   with learning new information and hav-
     LEND program at CIDD. I was                                                      have two. Even though I was excited, I                                    ing new experiences. To disconnect from
                                                                                      had doubts, too. I didn’t know what it                                    my past was really difficult. My self-
    told that this would be a “pilot.”                                                would be like. I would have a change                                      image is connected with advocacy and
                                                                                      in status from being a supervisor in a                                    I’ve been working in that area for a long
                                                                                      program to being a student/trainee,                                       time. The intensive brought up negative
           my background. Even when I was a                                           and I felt maybe my co-workers were                                       memories and feelings, like “you’ll never
           kid, I saw my life as being important,                                     not supportive. I already knew one of                                     be able to do that” and “you’ll always
           although things were hard. I had to deal                                   the mentors, but I was uncertain about                                    need help with anything you do.” I was
           with lots of personal challenges because                                   working with the other one. I started to                                  confused about the process and going
           of cerebral palsy and I learned to accept                                  feel more and more anxious and I was                                      through this negative mess. I asked,
           things in stages and to ask for what I                                     overwhelmed by all the changes – com-                                     “Why am I here?”
           needed. I guess I had advocacy skills                                      pleting my current employment, having                                         So I had an emotional melt-down and
           without knowing what that was.                                             to change my schedule, and arranging                                      cried throughout one day. I didn’t want
               I was in inclusive settings in high                                    transportation. To get started, I had to                                  to continue, but I didn’t quit. My coach
           school and college and I had to ask for                                    enroll in the course and take some self-                                  and one of the instructors were very
           accommodations, like using the elevator                                    assessments. I met with my coach and                                      helpful. They listened and reminded
           (I got my own key). A turning point for                                    mentors, but I didn’t really know at that                                 me that I’m a leader despite what the
           me was being the first person in North                                     time what I was getting into.                                             outside world might think or how they

         Retrieved from the Web site of the Institute on Community Integration, University of Minnesota ( Citation: Weir, C., Fialka, J., Timmons, J., Nord, D., & Gaylord, V. (Eds.). (Autumn/
         Winter 2010/2011). Impact: Feature Issue on Postsecondary Education and Students with Intellectual, Developmental and Other Disabilities 23(3). [Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, Institute on Community Integration].
                                                                                                                                                        Profile         21

see me, and they assured me that it was                That took me a long time and I did it                 more about other clinical disciplines. I’m
okay to feel this way. I also talked to                over the weekend.                                     trying to separate my personal feelings
other students and found out they were                     The class went well. The students                 from my professional goals.
going through the same thing, internal-                participated and there was a lot of dis-
izing, and I hadn’t realized that. I tried             cussion. I didn’t expect this to happen
to learn through what was happening.                   but I had an emotional reaction empa-                 What Challenges Do You Foresee?
    The week after that the course began.              thizing with the person: underlying fears             I have personal challenges because of
It’s problem-based learning with case                  of losing my parents and what might                   the time it takes to complete the course
studies and a team approach. I met my                  happen next, and fear of ending up like               requirements and the additional project
six group members and got the first                    that individual. My mentor met with me                that all LEND trainees do. There are
assignment. My first response was: how                 later that day and we talked through my               unknowns about the course demands
am I going to do this because of my                    emotions. I feel like we are on more of a             in the future. I’m using the iPad but it’s
physical limitations? When I met with                  human level now.                                      been a long time since I was a student
my coach we discussed accommodations                                                                         and there’s a lot to do. It’s hard to keep
for the class. I couldn’t record anything                                                                    up with everything. I’m hopeful about
                                                       Goals and Expectations at This Time
because of confidentiality. I decided to                                                                     balancing learning with self-doubt.
learn how to use an iPad.                              I’m trying to resolve the issue of seeing
                                                       myself as an advocate. I’ve already made              Kira Fisher is now halfway through her
                                                       that part of my life clear to everyone.               LEND trainee program. Her perspective has
A Few Weeks Later
                                                       In this setting, everyone in the course               changed to a positive outlook on the process,
I offered to be co-facilitator for the case            as well as the faculty are advocates for              and she is now confident in her experiences
study in the first class, which happened               people with disabilities.                             and skills as a leader. Donna Yerby is her
to be about cerebral palsy. I met with the                 I want to listen more. Some people                LEND faculty mentor. There are 39 LENDs
other student facilitator and we divided               with disabilities have a tendency to                  in 32 states and the District of Columbia
the tasks. She did most of the typing on               think they need to speak up because oth-              funded by the Maternal and Child Health
part one, which was reading, answer-                   ers aren’t listening or don’t understand,             Bureau, U.S. Department of Health and
ing specific questions, and doing some                 or because of their previous experiences.             Human Services. For information about the
research on the Internet. For part two, I              Or, like the woman in the case study,                 LEND at CIDD visit http://www.cidd.unc.
typed the additional probing questions.                they just shut down. I want to learn                  edu/Education/ and select “LEND.”

Employment and Dual-Enrollment Transition Programs:                                                          the retail field; other students were employed in
                                                                                                             clerical jobs, food services, maintenance, personal
Data From a Two-State Study                                                                                  care, and trades. Of those students who completed
                                                                                                             exit	and	follow-up	surveys,	78%	were	engaged	in	
In 2004, the Postsecondary Education Research          access to community businesses, allowed a large
                                                                                                             paid employment after they exited the college-
Center (PERC) Project, established by TransCen,        percentage of the students in these programs to get
                                                                                                             based transition program. Overall, the students in
Inc., collaborated with dual-enrollment transition     and keep jobs in their communities.
                                                                                                             these programs had a relatively high rate of paid
programs for students with intellectual or                Employment data were collected twice annually
                                                                                                             employment, and some factors that may have
developmental disabilities in Maryland and             on all participating students, and upon exit
                                                                                                             contributed were 1) setting paid employment
Connecticut on a study of exemplary practices in       from the program. Employment was defined
                                                                                                             as a goal, 2) time and staff dedicated to job
supporting students with intellectual disabilities,    as an individual being hired and directly paid
                                                                                                             development and placement, 3) staff trained
ages 18-21, in dual-enrollment programs in             competitive wages by a business or employer;
                                                                                                             in job development strategies, 4) flexible staff
postsecondary settings. “Dual-enrollment”              therefore, these data did not include volunteer
                                                                                                             schedules that facilitated spending time building
programs are those in which students receive their     experiences, unpaid job training or internship
                                                                                                             relationships with potential employers, 5) flexible
final two or three years of public school transition   experiences, jobs that had sub-minimum wage or
                                                                                                             student schedules that allowed them to work a
services on a college campus, with most of these       stipend pay, or group or enclave work. Between
                                                                                                             variety of times of day, and 6) a person-centered
programs addressing the issue of employment.           2005 and 2009, data collected on 96 students with
                                                                                                             career discovery process.
   The Maryland and Connecticut programs shared        intellectual disabilities showed 89 employed in
a common expectation that the students served          paid jobs while they attended the dual-enrollment     Adapted with permission from Grigal, M. & Dwyre, A.
                                                                                                             (October 2010). Employment activities and outcomes of
could and would obtain paid employment in the          program. The average wage earned was $8 per           college-based transition programs with students with
community. This belief, backed by trained staff        hour and students worked on average 19 hours          intellectual disabilities. Insight, 3. Retrieved 1/12/11
and fostered in a context of flexible scheduling and   per week. Over half of the students held jobs in
22           Profile

        Education for Employment: Mandela’s Story
        by Shelley Paquette and Jenilee Drilling

        The Employment First Anoka County                                          comprehension. He says that he became
        program (EFAC), based in Spring Lake                                       interested in the field of health care after
        Park, Minnesota, was established to fur-                                   one of his uncles died from pancreatic
        ther the education and employment op-                                      cancer and later his grandmother was
        tions for youth with disabilities. It focus-                               diagnosed with Multiple Sclerosis. He
        es on assisting students to obtain jobs in                                 wanted to learn more about the diseases
        the health care field, particularly in the                                 and disorders, their causes, and po-
        roles of Personal Care Attendant (PCA),                                    tential cures. It was noted in the intake
        Certified Nursing Assistant (CNA), and                                     process that his long-term goal was at
        Home Health Aide (HHA). The program                                        that time to work in medical research.
        was started through a partnership with                                     Inquiring as to why he chose to par-
        Anoka Technical College’s corporate                                        ticipate in the EFAC course offering of                                      While pursuing his interest in the
        training department and Rise Inc., an                                      PCA/CNA/HHA, Mandela responded,                                           health care field, Mandela has decided
        organization that works with people                                        “You can get in at the ground floor and                                   that he would like to further his educa-
        with disabilities and other barriers to                                    get a lot of information.” He refers to                                   tion. He is currently enrolled at a com-
        employment and housing. The EFAC                                           the information and skills that he re-                                    munity college for the courses of Com-
        program staff consist of a certified                                       ceived in the EFAC courses, mentioning                                    munication and Broadcasting. This is not
        instructor as well as a student support                                    that it “opened my eyes to a variety of                                   surprising as he is a very outgoing and
        specialist. The typical class provided by                                  jobs. Before, I felt I could only apply to                                social individual who has been told “I
        Anoka Technical College is extended in                                     fast-food type jobs and now jobs would                                    have the gift of talking to people.” While
        length from 3 weeks to 6 weeks and the                                     be open for me at hospitals and nursing                                   attending school he plans to continue
        days shortened while still meeting the                                     homes. The EFAC program helped me a                                       working in the health care field. Mandela
        required classroom hours needed for                                        lot.” The student support staff assisted                                  also has the support of the Minnesota
        the PCA/CNA/HHA certification. Dur-                                        in classes in various ways; specifically for                              State Rehabilitation office for addi-
        ing the classroom portion of the course                                    Mandela the supports were mentoring                                       tional needs he may have while attend-
        the student support staff is present on                                    and classroom supports regarding his                                      ing school or in his future employment
        a daily basis to assist with study skills                                  understanding the course and the in-                                      endeavors.
        and review, college classroom soft skills,                                 structor’s expectations. He also received                                    Mandela had this advice for oth-
        transportation, and other individualized                                   transportation assistance for the clinical                                ers who have barriers to employment:
        needs. Classroom size is limited to no                                     portion of the course, which was located                                  “Don’t let nothing stop you or discourage
        more than 15 enrollees. Students seek-                                     at a local long-term health care facility.                                you, stick it through. Whatever you have
        ing enrollment are referred by school                                      Mandela mentioned that he found the                                       gone through will only make you wiser
        staff, Minnesota vocational counselors,                                    instructor for the course very helpful                                    and stronger.” He added that “You have
        or county social services. They range in                                   and able to give him the information he                                   the responsibility to pursue your dreams
        age from 18-24 and currently receive or                                    needed to further his success.                                            – no one else can do it for you.” He con-
        at one time received educational services                                      Mandela is currently participating                                    cluded the interview with this thought:
        guided by an Individualized Education                                      in a work experience program at a day                                     “A caterpillar has to go through the entire
        Program (IEP). The students are not                                        program for individuals with traumatic                                    cocoon phase by itself. If someone were
        required to take any type of entrance                                      brain injuries and has received posi-                                     to break open the cocoon, the butterfly
        exam for the courses offered, though                                       tive feedback from the coordinator of                                     will never be strong enough to fly.”
        basic reading ability is required.                                         this program. In our conversation,
            For this article a young man named                                     Mandela expressed his appreciation for                                    Shelley Paquette and Jenilee Drilling are
        Mandela was asked to share his experi-                                     the supervision and guidance that he is                                   Service Team Leaders with Rise, Inc., Spring
        ences with the program, and describe                                       receiving from the staff during this work                                 Lake Park, Minnesota. Shelley may be
        how it has helped him in preparing for                                     experience; though there are no current                                   reached at 763/786-8334 or spaquette@
        employment. He was referred to the                                         openings or opportunities for him to be                         
        EFAC program by his school’s transi-                                       hired at this location, the coordinator
        tion staff for the Fall 2009 course. He is                                 has expressed that she will be more than
        identified in his IEP as having a Specific                                 willing to offer a recommendation.
        Learning Disability for reading and

     Retrieved from the Web site of the Institute on Community Integration, University of Minnesota ( Citation: Weir, C., Fialka, J., Timmons, J., Nord, D., & Gaylord, V. (Eds.). (Autumn/
     Winter 2010/2011). Impact: Feature Issue on Postsecondary Education and Students with Intellectual, Developmental and Other Disabilities 23(3). [Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, Institute on Community Integration].
                                                                                                                                          Resources               23

Resources for More Information
The following resources from around the         • (http://www.                          •	 CAST ( CAST
country may be of interest to readers of this Among the extensive                    is a nonprofit research and develop-
Impact issue.                                      resources on this Web site is a section                 ment organization that works to
                                                   titled “Preparing for Post-Secondary                    expand learning opportunities for all
•	 HEATH Resource Center’s Online
                                                   Education” (http://www.disability.                      students, especially those with dis-
   Clearinghouse on Postsecondary
                                                   gov/education/parent_resources/                         abilities, through Universal Design for
   Education for Individuals with
                                                   transition_planning/preparing_                          Learning. On its Web site is informa-
   Disabilities (http://www.heath.
                                                   for_post-secondary_education) that                      tion for preK–college educators that This clearinghouse
                                                   describes and links to a wide range                     can be used to maximize learning op-
   gathers and disseminates informa-
                                                   of materials and organizations from                     portunities in diverse classrooms.
   tion to help people with disabilities
   reach their full potential through              around the country of use to parents,                •	Going to College (http://www.
   postsecondary education and train-              students, and educators.                       This Web site
   ing. It carries resource papers, fact        •	 National Collaborative on Work-                         offers a range of resources for teens
   sheets, guides, and directories on              force and Disability for Youth                          with disabilities, including tools to
   topics such as accessibility, career,           (                          identify their strengths and interests,
   development, classroom and lab                  This Web site includes extensive                        learning styles, and goals for college;
   adaptations, financial aid, indepen-            resources for youth and families,                       information about navigating campus
   dent living, transition, career-tech-           policymakers, agency administrators,                    life; and steps to prepare for college.
   nical education, and rehabilitation.            educators, and youth service practitio-                 Resources include online videos
   Operated by George Washington                   ners to help them create the context                    speaking directly to young people.
   University and the HSC Foundation.              for youth with disabilities to succeed.                 It also has sections for parents and
•	 Association on Higher Education                 Among the resources is Guideposts for                   school personnel. It is operated by
   and Disability (AHEAD) (http://                 Success, a publication identifying those                the RTC on Workplace Supports and
                                                   things that all youth need to transition                Job Retention at Virginia Common- AHEAD is a
                                                   to adulthood successfully, and the re-                  wealth University, which also operates
   professional membership organiza-
                                                   port Career-Focused Services for Students               http://, featur-
   tion for individuals involved in the
   development of policy and in the                with Disabilities at Community Colleges.                ing a resource section “Transition to
                                                   It is based at the Institute for Educa-                 College.”
   provision of quality services to meet
   the needs of persons with disabilities          tional Leadership in Washington, D.C.
   involved in all areas of higher educa-
   tion. On its Web site is information
   about its publications, programs,             Think College: Promoting College Opportunities for
   events, activities, affiliates, special
   interest groups, and membership.              Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities (
•		DO-IT (Disabilities, Opportuni-               Think College is a consortium of federally-               of existing national datasets; participatory action
   ties, Internetworking, and Tech-
                                                 funded projects dedicated to creating inclusive           research by college students with intellectual
   nology) (http://www.washington.
   edu/doit/). The DO-IT center                  postsecondary education as a choice for                   disabilities; development of standards, quality
   works to increase the participation           students with intellectual disabilities. Through          indicators and benchmarks for postsecondary
   of individuals with disabilities in           funding from Administration on Developmental              programs; and, as National Coordinating Center
   challenging academic programs and             Disabilities, Office of Postsecondary Education,          for Transition Postsecondary Programs for
   careers. It promotes use of computer          and National Institute on Disability and                  Students with Intellectual Disabilities, evaluates
   and networking technologies to in-
                                                 Rehabilitation Research, staff conduct research           the 27 program grant recipients.
   crease independence, productivity,
   and participation in education and            and evaluation, provide training and technical         •	 Training, Technical Assistance, and
   employment, as well as application            assistance, and disseminate information on                Dissemination: Conducts a wide range of train-
   of Universal Design to education              postsecondary education for individuals with              ing and technical assistance face-to-face, via
   settings. It has extensive online re-         intellectual disabilities, family members, and            webinars, and using online learning modules for
   sources for students with disabilities,       professionals. The following are its key activities:      a wide array of higher education personnel, adult
   K-12 and postsecondary educators,
                                                 •	 Research: Conducts research including                  service agencies, K-12 educators and administrators,
   parents and others, and is based at
   the University of Washington.                    national surveys; secondary data analyses              legislators, parents, and self-advocates.
24      Continuation

     [Fialka, continued from page 1]
                                                   Micah’s case, live in the dorm. At age 19       was he going to take two public buses
     Listening to the Dream                        Micah entered the program and through           for one and a half hours to a campus?
     One of the first things we learned as         his six years in it grew academically,          Feelings are part of all transitions. If we
     Micah’s parents was to listen to his          socially, morally, and politically in dra-      don’t acknowledge them, share them
     dreams, even if they appeared “unusu-         matic ways. He studied public speaking,         with a trusted person, these emotions
     al.” Our first experience with the “listen-   created Power PointTM presentations on          return, often hindering us from moving
     ing thing” occurred when Micah was in         group dynamics, studied the difference          forward. It was very important for me
     his first grade self-contained classroom.     between the ways males and females              to communicate with a couple of moth-
     After four months he announced to us,         greeted each other in the Student Center        ers whose children had disabilities and
     “I want to go through the same door as        for a sociology class, learned to use more      were older than Micah. They had lived
     all my friends.” We were stunned, and         hand gestures when speaking, studied            through it, survived the transition, and
     later swayed by his insistence to move        social movements, took a hip-hop dance          knew what I was feeling and needed to
     him into a general education classroom.       class, traveled to Israel, participated at      hear. They understood and validated
     Micah began to teach us “unusual” does        the student leadership retreat, wrote           my fears, worries, and even sadness at
     not imply “impossible.”                       papers (maybe not 20 pages long but two         times. They also celebrated and shared
         Getting Micah in a general education      pages of facts he discovered with the sup-      my excitement. My mantra, when I
     classrooms through 12th grade was a bit       port of a peer), and taught students how        remember it, is, “Feel the feelings first,
     challenging. But “college” – that was         to use the voice-to-text software program       with someone you trust, then move on
     something entirely different! We had no       critical to his communication. “Success”        to the next step.”
     idea how we were going to help him get        doesn’t even begin to capture the extent     •	 Support	great	expectations.	This is a
     through that door. Nonetheless, Micah         of his growth, increased friendships and        common chorus often repeated in the
     held steadfast. We were committed to lis-     social networks, and enhanced skills to         world of disabilities, so much so that
     tening to him and heard more than just        navigate the world. It wasn’t a one-way         sometimes it loses its significance and
     “I wanna go to college.” We began to hear     street either. Based on the feedback from       meaning. What these three words
     his unspoken desires like, “Hey, I wanna      professors, staff, and students, he made        meant to us as Micah’s parents was that
     be with my friends. I wanna talk about        important contributions to his campus           we had to believe Micah could learn
     what they’re talking about. I wanna tell      and at several others across the nation.        more and do more than what was often
     everyone what college I’m going to. I             In 2010, he received his certificate        expected of him. Finding the right sup-
     wanna go to football games. I wanna           from the OPTIONS Program, celebrating           ports was vital to achieving those high
     keep learning.” And maybe most impor-         his graduation. He now works in Detroit         expectations. “He can do more” became
     tantly, “I wanna make my own choices.”        at the Michigan Roundtable for Diversity        a common chant in our family, not in
         As parents, we shifted our thinking       and Inclusion as a social justice educator      a way that pressured him (we hoped),
     (most of the time!) away from someone         for youth. He speaks nationally on dis-         but in a way that allowed him to build
     else’s facts and words like “impossible”      ability and serves on the board of direc-       on what he enjoyed and could do well,
     and turned toward “what’s the next            tors for TASH and the National Youth            sprinkled with a little bit of nudging
     step?” This was often not easy, but always    Leadership Network.                             out of his comfort zone at times. When
     right, and eventually became a strategy                                                       Micah said he wanted to go to college,
     for dealing with the so-called impossible:    Guiding Principles                              believe me, we never expected that he
     Keep taking the next step!                                                                    would eventually share a film about
                                                   Looking back over the years, several prin-      disability history in his class on social
                                                   ciples guided our actions in supporting         movements. We did not know that at
     Building the Dream                            Micah’s college dream:                          the beginning of each new semester,
     During Micah’s final two years of high        •	 Acknowledge	the	range	of	feelings. For       he would stand up in class and ask for
     school, a creative and dedicated group of        12 years, Micah attended public              a tutor to help him study (and would
     college and public school professionals          schools. Although some days brought          be thrilled that “so many pretty girls”
     and parents from the metro Detroit area          struggles to get him what he needed,         came to his assistance). We did not
     met to consider, and eventually create,          the school experience was familiar           know that his confidence would soar so
     an inclusive program through which               and predictable. Near the end of his         high that he would be able to speak on
     young adults with intellectual disabilities      senior year, I had moments of sheer          his own in front of the University
     could become college students. Now               panic as I thought of Micah at col-          Board of Trustees to present his case to
     called the OPTIONS Program at Oakland            lege. Would he be safe? Would he be          live in the dorm. We did not know that
     University in Rochester, Michigan, it gave       teased? Would he know how to get             he would sign-up to travel to Israel
     students with intellectual disabilities the      from one end of campus to another?           (gulp), or that he would discover a
     opportunity to attend classes, participate       He wasn’t even comfortable crossing          strong desire to read and diligently
     in extra-curricular activities, and, in          a small intersection by himself – how        work at it with friends, or that he would
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Continuation                   25

     find an interest in money, piqued by                                   •	 Build	relationships	with	allies	and	his	                                  create a plan, and eventually remem-
     watching his friends use the on-campus                                    peers. Beginning in 6th grade, Micah                                      ber to not let fear dominate my deci-
     bank. We did not know that he would                                       invited a few friends to help plan his                                    sion-making and support of Micah.
     understand the word “norm” and                                            IEP and attend part of every meeting.                                     My husband and I try to minimize the
     would inform us that it was not “the                                      This involvement of friends continued                                     risks, discuss pros and cons, and prac-
     norm for college kids to wear boots in                                    into college. At his person-centered                                      tice with Micah the best ways to handle
     the winter!” He became more capable                                       planning meetings, he always invited                                      awkward or uncertain situations. But,
     almost by the day. Even brain research                                    a few college peers to participate by                                     ultimately, we realize that overprotec-
     supports what many parents have                                           bringing real-world solutions and in-                                     tion will only hinder his ability to make
     known for years: Students with intel-                                     sights into the discussions. They often                                   safer decisions for himself. When this
     lectual disabilities do not stop becom-                                   came up with the most practical and                                       happened during Micah’s years at col-
     ing smarter and better problem solvers                                    astute ideas of how to support him.                                       lege, I tried to practice getting more in-
     once they leave their senior year of                                      When Micah was in college, each year                                      formation from Micah, gaining a sense
     high school. They continue to increase                                    we invited him and a few of his friends                                   of how he was doing, and if necessary
     their problem-solving skills and aca-                                     to dinner. We kept the conversations                                      reach out to others. My husband and
     demic performance if given authentic                                      light, fun, and we listened a lot. We                                     I cannot shelter Micah from all risks,
     opportunities to learn, embedded in                                       learned so much. Eventually some                                          nor can we do that for our daughter,
     high expectations.                                                        of the peers felt comfortable sharing                                     Emma. Risk-taking comes with the
  •	 Be	mindful	of	the	changing	parental	roles.                                more ideas and questions. I recall                                        territory for all of us.
     A wise sociologist once told me there                                     one friend asking me how to handle                                         I recently read an article by Sunny
     are two roles parents assume: one is the                                  Micah’s falling asleep in an early                                     Taylor (2004), an artist with a physical
     protector and the other is the guide. In                                  morning class. I asked her what she                                    disability, in which she said that too often
     the early years of raising children, the                                  would do if another friend fell asleep.                                professionals (and I would add parents)
     parent defends, cares for, looks after,                                   She quickly said, “I would elbow him                                   equate independence as having “self-
     and shields the child from harm and                                       and tell him to bring a cup of cof-                                    care skills” such as feeding, dressing,
     danger. It is easy to see how this role is                                fee to class.” She instantly “got it” as                               moving about the community, banking,
     often more deeply entrenched for par-                                     evidenced in her response to me, “Oh                                   etc. These skills can be important, but
     ents of children with disabilities. We                                    yeah, I get it. I guess I can do that with                             they are not the determining factor in
     learn to be fierce advocates for our chil-                                Micah too.” Folks need to know that it                                 one’s quality of life. In her words, people
     dren. As they grow, we are challenged                                     is okay to ask questions and share con-                                with disabilities define independence
     to move away from being the constant                                      cerns. Micah learned to tell his tutors,                               beyond self-care skills as the “...ability
     protector to being the emerging men-                                      “I’m okay with you asking about my                                     to be in control of and make decisions
     tor or guide. We had to step back a bit                                   disability. I’ll tell you about it and how                             about one’s life, rather than doing things
     and let Micah tell his story, hand in his                                 I learn best.” Fundamental to Micah’s                                  alone or without help.” Twenty years ago
     un-perfect paper, sign his name at the                                    sense of self was his participation in                                 I don’t think I would have understood
     doctor’s office, make his choices about                                   organizations led by youth with dis-                                   this definition. I think I do now. Micah
     what to wear. This re-arranging of                                        abilities, where he experienced disabil-                               has taught us that the quality of his life
     roles is not a simple transition. When                                    ity pride and culture.                                                 is primarily based on his ability to know
     Micah ended up stuck at his bus stop                                   •	 Expect	to	live	with	uncertainty	and	risk.                              he has choices and can make choices with
     for two hours 30 miles from home in an                                    I suspect that many parents raising a                                  support. And for Micah making his own
     evening snow storm that shut down the                                     young adult with a disability have ex-                                 choices has meant going to college (with
     entire county, I wanted to put on my                                      perienced a similar unsettling internal                                or without his winter boots!) and it’s been
     Super-Mom cape, leap over tall snow                                       dialogue that goes something like this.                                worth the effort and risk for all of us.
     mountains, and fly him to safety. I                                       “Do I let Micah try new things? If I do,
     couldn’t. We literally became his guide                                   what if something goes wrong? What                                     Taylor. S. (2004). The right not to work: Power and disability. Monthly
     (thank goodness for cell phones!).                                        if he gets hurt? Would I have this same                                Review, 55 (10).
     We created a plan whereby his father                                      fear if he didn’t have an intellectual
     called him every 15 minutes as he stood                                   disability? But he does, so what do I                                  Janice Fialka is a national speaker and the
     in a bus shelter. (He did begin to think                                  do?” I’m not sure this worried-parent                                  Special Projects Trainer of Early On® –
     differently about the norm of not                                         script will ever cease, but after more                                 Michigan’s Part C Training Program. She may
     wearing boots after his feet almost                                       than two decades I am somewhat bet-                                    be reached at or
     froze that evening!!). After that experi-                                 ter at expecting these periods of anxi-                                248/546-4870. For more on Micah’s journey
     ence his confidence increased, as did                                     ety. I try to be mindful of them, maybe                                to learn and live inclusively on a college cam-
     ours in him.                                                              talk with a friend or family member,                                   pus, see

Retrieved from the Web site of the Institute on Community Integration, University of Minnesota ( Citation: Weir, C., Fialka, J., Timmons, J., Nord, D., & Gaylord, V. (Eds.). (Autumn/
Winter 2010/2011). Impact: Feature Issue on Postsecondary Education and Students with Intellectual, Developmental and Other Disabilities 23(3). [Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, Institute on Community Integration].
    26      Continuation

         [Grigal, continued from page 5]                                                            What Comes Next
                                                      for students between the ages of 18-21.
         Current Realities                            Therefore, school systems may struggle         Ongoing and future work in this area
                                                      with translating meaningful, socially         should build upon the early efforts
         As we embark on this next generation of      integrated, transition experiences for        of the institutes of higher education,
         work, the policies, research, and prac-      young adults on a college campus into         school systems, agencies and individu-
         tices addressing postsecondary educa-        the same IEP framework used for ele-          als that created opportunities where
         tion access for students with intellectual   mentary, middle, and secondary special        none existed. Emerging programs can
         disabilities must be developed using a       education students receiving services in      benefit from their collective experience
         framework that reflects and adheres to       a high school.                                regarding what worked and what didn’t
         the legislative guidance provided in the         The current research literature on        in terms of planning, brokering partner-
         Higher Education Opportunities Act           postsecondary education for students          ships, blending resources, and cultivat-
         while keeping in mind the existing pa-       with intellectual disabilities is com-        ing authentic learning experiences for
         rameters set forth by Section 504 of the     prised primarily of descriptive studies,      students with intellectual disabilities.
         Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and Title II      qualitative studies, and some single sub-     Part of the next generation of work
         of the Americans with Disabilities Act.      ject and case studies on postsecondary        will be conducted by the colleges and
         On a policy level we need to recognize       experiences and outcomes for individu-        universities that have been recently
         that students with intellectual disabili-    als with intellectual disabilities (Think     awarded Transition and Postsecondary
         ties will not be supported to consider       College, 2010a). There is scant research      Education for Students with Intellectual
         college as a realistic or viable option      on evidence-based practices or inter-         Disabilities (TPSID) model demonstra-
         unless the legislative and regulatory        ventions for students with intellectual       tion grants by the Office of Postsecond-
         language that guides our secondary           disabilities in postsecondary education.      ary Education, U.S. Department of
         special education practices more clearly     Why is this? One reason is that there         Education (see
         supports this option. While there is         was – and to large extent still is – little   programs/tpsid for the grantees list).
                                                      existing or consistent practice, let alone    These 27 projects across the country will
                                                      evidence-based existing practice. We          provide the field with the opportunity
 The creation of new programs and                     must recognize that the currently oper-       to see how the Higher Education Oppor-
                                                      ating programs and services in colleges       tunity Act regulations can be put into
     services options for people with                 for students with intellectual disabilities   practice, and will determine the extent
                                                      have been created without federal or          to which practices based upon those pa-
 intellectual disabilities will depend                state legislative or regulatory guidance      rameters create and support successful
                                                      or funding, and thus these practices can      outcomes for students with intellectual
    greatly upon leadership in state                  be difficult to compare in a meaningful       disabilities.
                                                      way. Additionally, up until very recently,        These new model demonstration
  departments of education, higher                    there have been extremely limited and         projects will deepen our understanding
                                                      somewhat disjointed efforts to fund any       of the structures necessary to imple-
education commissions, local school                   kind of research in this area.                ment postsecondary education services,
                                                          Despite this, over 140 postsecond-        and provide some common measures
    systems, and rehabilitation and                   ary education options for students with       of the experiences and outcomes of stu-
                                                      intellectual disabilities do exist (Think     dents. Yet, sole reliance on these projects
         disability services agencies.                College, 2010b). The existence of these       to cultivate and refine our knowledge
                                                      options demonstrates the power and            base around higher education and stu-
                                                      potential of the early grassroots efforts     dents with intellectual disabilities would
                                                      of institutes of higher education, local      be short-sighted. It will be imperative
         some very brief (and difficult to locate)    education agencies, and families to           that, as other federal and state agencies
         language in the preamble to IDEA that        offer people with intellectual disabilities   or foundations prioritize funds, efforts
         states that nothing in the law would         access to college. These efforts have been    are made to engage other two- and four-
         prohibit a local education agency from       revolutionary and in many cases these         year colleges and universities, vocational
         using IDEA funds to support students         practices have been ground-breaking.          and technical colleges, and local educa-
         with disabilities in a postsecondary         Each of these past efforts should be hon-     tion and adult service agencies in a di-
         environment, there is no clear support       ored, but also thoughtfully examined in       verse array of research activities. These
         articulated for funds to be used in that     light of the new federal guidelines.          efforts will be made all the more fruitful
         manner. The current IDEA regulations                                                       as additional programs and services are
         also do not differentiate between the IEP                                                  developed and implemented across the
         guidelines and transition expectations                                                     country.
                                                                                                                                                                                                        Continuation                       27

       This final component of the next                                       and to embrace the uncomfortable chaos                                       of Special Education Programs (OSEP)
   generation of work – the creation of                                       that comes with not knowing.                                                 (for more see
   new programs and services options for                                                                                                                   matrix?centers?id=11).
                                                                              Note: No official endorsement by the U.S. Department of Health and
   people with intellectual disabilities – will                               Human Services of any product, commodity, service or enterprise referred         Families, educators, students, and
   depend greatly upon leadership at the                                      to in this article is intended or should be inferred. Opinions expressed
                                                                              herein are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the position
                                                                                                                                                           others desiring more information about
   state and local level in state departments                                 of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.                         the provisions in the HEOA are encour-
   of education, higher education commis-                                                                                                                  aged to consult the resources below:
   sions, local school systems, and rehabili-                                 References
                                                                              National Council on Disability. (2000). Back to school on civil rights.
                                                                                                                                                            •	 The	U.S.	Department	of 	Education	
   tation and disability services agencies.                                   Retrieved 12/21/10 from                Web site at
   Collaborative efforts between these enti-                                  2000/backtoschool_1.htm
                                                                              National Longitudinal Transition Study-2. (2009). NLTS-2 Wave 5 parent/
   ties will build and strengthen state net-                                  youth survey data tables. Retrieved 12/21/10 from          html
   works, and allow for the development                                       data_tables/index.html
                                                                              Office for Civil Rights, U.S. Department of Education. (2010). Students       •		The	PACER	Center	Web	site	at	
   of the systems-level infrastructure and                                    with disabilities preparing for postsecondary education: Know your rights
                                                                              and responsibilities. Retrieved 12/20/10 from                http://www.
   communication mechanisms needed                                            about/offices/list/ocr/transition.html                                           TheHigherEducationOpportunityAct.
   to foster and sustain new partnerships                                     Office of Special Education Programs, U.S. Department of Education.
                                                                              (2010). Discretionary grants public database. Retrieved 12/20/10 from            doc
   and services. Our state and local leaders                        
   must take the time to become aware of                                      Think College. (2010a). Literature database. Retrieved 12/21/10 from
                                                                                                                                                            •	 The	2010	State	of	the	Art	Conference	
   the resources and opportunities that                                                              on Students with Intellectual Disabili-
   exist in their states, identify gaps in                                    Think College. (2010b). Programs database. Retrieved 12/21/10 from
                                                                                                                                                               ties Web site, under “Presentations,”
   services, and establish plans to respond                                   programsdatabase                                                                 at
   to the growing need and desire of their
                                                                              Meg Grigal is a Senior Research Fellow with                                  Note: No official endorsement by the U.S. Department of Education of
   constituents with intellectual disabilities                                                                                                             any product, commodity, service or enterprise referred to in this article
                                                                              the Institute for Community Inclusion,                                       is intended or should be inferred. Opinions expressed herein are those
   to access higher education.
                                                                              University of Massachusetts Boston; she                                      of the author and do not necessarily reflect the position of the U.S.
                                                                                                                                                           Department of Education.
                                                                              may be reached at
   Conclusion                                                                 Debra Hart is Director of Education and                                      References
                                                                                                                                                           Getzel, E.E. & Wehman, P. (2005). Going to college. Baltimore: Paul H.
                                                                              Training with the Institute for Community                                    Brookes Publishing Co.
   The next decade will be a very exciting
                                                                              Inclusion; she may be reached at debra.                                      Grigal, M. & Hart, D. (2010). Think college: Postsecondary education op-
   time as the range of options for post-                                                                                                                  tions for students with intellectual disabilities. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes
                                                                     Sharon Lewis is Commis-                                        Publishing Co.
   secondary education for individuals
                                                                              sioner of the Administration on Develop-                                     Halpern, A.S., Yovanoff, P., Doren, B. & Benz, M.R. (1995). Predicting
   with intellectual disabilities continues                                                                                                                participation in postsecondary education for school leavers with disabili-
                                                                              mental Disabilities, U.S. Department of                                      ties. Exceptional Children, 62. 151-164.
   to grow nationwide. We are entering
                                                                              Health and Human Services, Washington,                                       Hart, M. & Grigal, M. (2010). The spectrum of options: Current practice.
   a new phase of the conversation when                                                                                                                    In M. Grigal & D. Hart , Think college: Postsecondary education options
                                                                              D.C. She may be reached at sharon.lewis@                                     for students with intellectual disabilities, (pp 49-86). Baltimore: Paul H.
   the questions on the table focus less
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   on, “Should students with intellectual                                                                                                                  Izzo, M. & Lamb, P. (2003). Developing self-determination through
   disabilities have the option to go to col-                                                                                                              career development activities: Implications for vocational rehabilitation
                                                                                                                                                           counselors. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 19, 71-78.
   lege?” and more on, “How can students                                      [Shanley, continued from page 9]                                             Neubert, D. & Redd, V. A. (2008). Transition services for students with
   with intellectual disabilities have the                                                                                                                 intellectual disabilities: A case study of a public school program on a
                                                                                                                                                           community college campus. Exceptionality, 16, 220-234.
   option to go to college?” and “What                                        planning teams. Vocational rehabilita-                                       Rose, D. & Meyer, A. (2002). Teaching every student in the digital age.
   should these experiences be comprised                                      tion professionals can offer similar kinds                                   Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Develop-
   of and culminate in?” These questions                                      of support and can work with program                                         Shaw, S.F. (2010). Planning for the transition to college. In S.F. Shaw,
   will drive the next wave of research, pol-                                 leaders in higher education to determine                                     J.W. Madaus, & L.L. Dukes, (Eds.). Preparing students with disabilities for
                                                                                                                                                           college success., (pp 257-279). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.
   icy, and practice. As we seek to answer                                    vocational rehabilitation supports, or                                       Thoma, C., Bartholomew, C. C. & Scott, L. A. (2009). Universal design for
   them, we will have the chance to apply                                     address topics related to the effects of                                     transition. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.

   the lessons we have learned about how                                      varying funding supports, such as                                            Turnbull, H. R., Turnbull, A. P., Wehmeyer, M. L. & Park, J. (2003). A
                                                                                                                                                           quality of life framework for special education outcomes. Remedial and
   higher expectations affect the achieve-                                    Social Security for students who may be                                      Special Education, 24, 67-54.

   ments of and outcomes for people with                                      eligible for Federal student aid. Parents                                    U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs.
                                                                                                                                                           (2007). Topical Brief. Retrieved 10/14/10 from
   intellectual disabilities in public educa-                                 and families can encourage the devel-                                        explore/view/p/%2Croot%2Cdynamic%2CTopicalBrief%2C17%2C

   tion, employment, and community                                            opment of opportunities for students                                         Zeff, R. (Spring 2007). Universal design across the curriculum. New Direc-
                                                                                                                                                           tions for Higher Education, 137, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
   living to the relatively new arena of                                      with intellectual disabilities at institu-
   higher education. As our vision of what                                    tions by offering to share information,
                                                                              serve in advisory capacities, and bring                                      Judy Shanley is a former Education
   is possible for students with intellectual                                                                                                              Program Specialist in the U.S. Depart-
   disabilities expands once more, we will                                    resources from other networks, such as
                                                                              those available through the National and                                     ment of Education, Office of Postsecondary
   be challenged to move beyond the com-                                                                                                                   Education, Washington, D.C. She may be
   fort and relative ease of what we know,                                    Regional Parent Network funded by the
                                                                              U.S. Department of Education’s Office                                        reached at

Retrieved from the Web site of the Institute on Community Integration, University of Minnesota ( Citation: Weir, C., Fialka, J., Timmons, J., Nord, D., & Gaylord, V. (Eds.). (Autumn/
Winter 2010/2011). Impact: Feature Issue on Postsecondary Education and Students with Intellectual, Developmental and Other Disabilities 23(3). [Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, Institute on Community Integration].
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 In This Issue...                                                                                 Feature Issue on Postsecondary Education and
                                                                                                  Students with Intellectual, Developmental and
                                                                                                  Other Disabilities
 • Students with Disabilities in Higher Education:                                                Volume 23 · Number 3 · Autumn/Winter 2010/2011
                                                                                                  Managing Editor: Vicki Gaylord
   Participating in America’s Future                                                              Issue Editors:
 • A Prelude to Progress: Postsecondary Education and                                             Cate Weir, Institute for Community Inclusion, University of
                                                                                                  Massachusetts, Boston
   Students with Intellectual Disabilities                                                        Janice Fialka, Huntington Woods, Michigan
                                                                                                  Joe Timmons, Institute on Community Integration,
 • How College Benefits Us: Students with Intellectual                                            University of Minnesota, Minneapolis
   Disabilities Speak Out                                                                         Derek Nord, Institute on Community Integration,
                                                                                                  University of Minnesota, Minneapolis
 • Federal Legislation Increasing Higher Education                                                Impact is published by the Institute on Community
   Access for Students with Intellectual Disabilities                                             Integration (UCEDD), and the Research and Training
                                                                                                  Center on Community Living and Employment (RTC),
 • Key Roles in Planning the Transition to College and                                            College of Education and Human Development, University
                                                                                                  of Minnesota. This issue was supported, in part, by Grant
   Careers                                                                                        #90DD0654 from the Administration on Developmental
                                                                                                  Disabilities (ADD), US Department of Health and Human
 • Preparing Students with Intellectual Disabilities for                                          Services to the Institute; and Grant #H133B080005 from
                                                                                                  the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation
   College: Tips for Parents and Teachers                                                         Research (NIDRR), US Department of Education, to the RTC.
                                                                                                  Additional support came from NIDRR Grant #H133A80042,
 • Using Individual Supports to Customize a                                                       ADD Grant # 90DD0659, and Office of Postsecondary Educa-
                                                                                                  tion, US Department of Education Grant #P407B100002,
   Postsecondary Education Experience                                                             at the Institute for Community Inclusion, University of
                                                                                                  Massachusetts, Boston.
 • Personal stories, resources, and more                                                          The views expressed are those of the authors and do not
                                                                                                  necessarily reflect the views of the Institute, Center or
                                                                                                  University. The content does not necessarily represent the
                                                                                                  policy of the US Department of Education or the US
                                                                                                  Department of Health and Human Services, and endorse-
                                                                                                  ment by the Federal Government should not be assumed.
                                                                                                  For additional copies contact: Institute on Community
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