municipal by xiagong0815


									           TABLE OF CONTENTS

WHY WATER EFFICIENCY ......................         1

ECONOMIC BENEFITS .........................         2

ECOLOGICAL BENEFITS .......................         2

TRI-STATE WATER WARS ......................         3

WHAT CAN BE DONE? .........................         4

RATE STRUCTURING .........................          4

INDOOR WATER EFFICIENCY ...................         5

CASE STUDIES ..............................         6

OUTDOOR WATER EFFICIENCY ..................         7


CASE STUDIES ..............................         9

EDUCATION AND AWARENESS ..................         10

APPENDIX A: CONTACTS ......................        13

  OUTDOOR WATER EFFICIENCY ................        15

  INDOOR WATER EFFICIENCY .................        25

FOOTNOTES ................................

                              The Etowah Initiative/Summer 1998   1

              o much of the public, water seems infinite in its abundance.
              We see vast oceans, rivers and lakes. Every time we turn on
              our faucets water comes out. Because of this, the need for effi-
              cient water use is not often realized. Those that deal with wa-
ter allocation on a day to day basis, however, see a different picture.
     A mere 1% of the planet’s water is available for human use. The rest
is either salinated in the oceans or frozen in the glaciers. Climatic trends
are tending towards drought ridden summers. Water is not as abundant
as it first seems. Population growth predictions for north Georgia, if re-
alized, will stretch this finite resource even thinner. Demand will begin
to exceed supply.
     Water resources must also be shared with neighboring states when
the source, whether it be a river system or a ground water aquifer,
crosses state boundaries. This is a common situation and one that often
leads to conflict as is the case with Georgia and our neighbors, Alabama
and Florida. While Georgia’s situation is by no means as dire as the arid
western United States, it is important that water efficiency measures are
taken before crises occur.

                                  The Etowah Initiative/Summer 1998              1
                                      ECONOMIC            BENEFITS
                 Water efficiency has often been per-     costs that are attached to demand predic-
            ceived as being economically demanding        tions that may not be realized by the
            and as requiring the sacrifice of a certain   community. Demand-based planning
            standard of living. This is no longer the     considers ways to reduce demand the first
            case. For homeowners, water efficiency        priority as opposed to looking for ways to
            technologies such as low flow                 increase supply. A lower financial risk is
            showerheads and toilets have become very      involved in demand-based planning. In
            affordable and function equal to, or better   establishing a water efficiency program
            than, those technologies to which we have     you remove, or postpone, the need for the
            become accustomed. This helps make the        extensive infrastructure expansion neces-
            transition less burdensome both finan-        sary to support increasing water demands
            cially and practically. Efficiency has        by increasing populations.
            proven time and time again to reduce wa-           The cost of implementation of water
            ter, sewer and energy bills for the home-     efficiency programs is not only less than
            owner. Examples cite savings of between       traditional programs, it can also be spread
            15% and 43% when various levels of effi-      out over time. Efficiency plans can be in-
            ciency are executed1 .                        cremental in their design. Implementa-
                 Economic benefits exist for water        tion can occur gradually as opposed to
            utility managers and community planners       the high lump sum commitment involved
            as well. Generally, implementation of wa-     in infrastructure development such as the
            ter efficiency programs is less expensive     creation of reservoirs or expanding water
            for water providers because this is a de-     treatment facilities. One analysis deter-
            mand-based approach to meeting a              mined that water supplied by a new dam
            community’s water needs. Commonly,            or desalinization plant may cost between
            water providers use a supply-based ap-        $500 and $2000 per acre-foot whereas
            proach which aims to provide more water       municipal water efficiency can provide
            and wastewater treatment capacity. Sup-       water for $50 to $200 per acre-foot.2
            ply-based programs involve high up-front      Payback periods shorten, operating costs
                                                          decrease, and repair costs are minimized.

                                    ECOLOGICAL BENEFITS
                 Communities today have increasing        and providing habitat for wildlife.
            concerns about the quality of their water     Healthy stream ecosystems also provide
            for reasons of both human and ecological      scenic and recreational opportunities
            health. A reduction in surface water use      which Georgians prize.
            results in the maintenance or increase of         Efficient water use also benefits
            stream flow levels which benefits the         groundwater resources. Reducing with-
            health of river systems. Healthy water re-    drawal rates can prevent contamination of
            sources allow natural systems to maintain     aquifers by saltwater intrusion and pollu-
            their functions of buffering and filtering    tion from landfill and toxic waste sites.
            out pollutants, recycling organic materials

2   The Etowah Initiative/Summer 1998
                          TRI-STATE WATER WARS
          Both Alabama and Florida have         equitable apportionment, the Court uses
filed suit against Georgia over water           fairness as the measuring stick6 . In con-
quantity issues. This dispute remains un-       sidering whether the apportionment of
resolved. The resolution of this conflict       the water is fair, the Court balances the
will undoubtedly require that Georgia           beneficial uses of the upstream users with
more efficiently use the water resources        the harm to the downstream users by tak-
that are also used by the two downstream        ing into account such factors as: whether
states.                                         reasonable water conservation measures
          If the compacts formed by the         are currently being employed by the up-
three states do not resolve the conflict        stream state; whether the benefits to one
over water, the situation may be resolved       state are more substantial than the harm
by other means. The most likely possible        done to the other state; and whether the
solution would be through the Supreme           state has tried other ways of diverting wa-
Court of the United States, which has           ter. Equitable Apportionment extends to
original jurisdiction in conflicts between      a state’s claim for water for future uses,
states under the Constitution3 . The            too7 .
Court resolves disputes between states as                 If this case were to go before the
to the distribution of water under the          Supreme Court, Georgia faces an uncer-
doctrine of equitable apportionment4 .          tain fate. Many of the counties within the
          Historically, water rights disputes   basin, which includes the five counties in
in the eastern United States have been          the Upper Etowah River Alliance, do not
governed by the riparian rights doctrine.       employ water conservation measures, a
Under riparian rights, those downstream         factor considered in the decision process.
have a right to have water flow uninter-        Some counties like Cobb and Chatham,
rupted and unpolluted. Though the               have established conservation programs
Court would weigh this concept into a           that are effective. The adoption of similar
calculus, equitable apportionment is the        programs in the Upper Etowah River may
theory under which the Court would              help avoid an interstate water war as well
most likely decide the dispute between          as allow the counties in the Alliance to ac-
Alabama, Florida and Georgia5 .                 commodate growth in the most cost ef-
          When applying the doctrine of         fective manner.

                                                                The Etowah Initiative/Summer 1998   3
                                      WHAT CAN BE DONE?
                 Despite the current concern over wa-     sumed. Since domestic water consump-
            ter availability, few, if any, laws or pro-   tion in the Etowah region is 35-70 times
            grams promoting water efficiency exist in     any other single water use (including
            the Upper Etowah River Watershed.             commercial and industrial), conservation
            Xeriscaping and indoor water efficient        efforts that concentrate on limiting water
            technologies are not actively promoted to     used for lawn care and promoting water-
            the public. Due to increased growth in        efficient technologies for the home and
            the area and limited water resources, a few   business could have a large impact on
            counties in metropolitan Atlanta area are     overall consumption. Public awareness
            in the process of considering increased       programs, incentive-based promotion of
            water rates for periods of high use (e.g.     water-conservation technologies, in addi-
            summer watering restrictions) and a rate      tion to rate structuring could significantly
            structure for the quantity of water con-      decrease water-use in the Etowah region.

                                        RATE STRUCTURING
                 The three common types of rate           rainfall levels are at a minimum. At times,
            structuring are declining block, increasing   water levels cannot meet demand. Educa-
            block and flat rates. The declining block     tion should be an integral part of imple-
            rate structure can actually encourage         menting surcharges on water use.
            wasteful water use by reducing cost with      Increasing block rate structuring penalizes
            the more water used. Flat rates apply year-   the water user by charging higher rates as
            round, independent of the amount of wa-       water use increases. This is a very pro-ac-
            ter used. This is a more neutral rate         tive method for inducing water use reduc-
            structure neither actively encouraging or     tions. Here, a relatively low rate is
            discouraging water use. When combined         charged for the quantity of water deter-
            with peak demand surcharges this struc-       mined as “necessary” to meet basic needs
            turing format is often effective in encour-   of the water customer. Water use above
            aging water efficiency. Peak demand           this set quantity increases in cost accord-
            surcharges encourage water efficiency at      ing to set intervals.8 Again, if this struc-
            times when it is most difficult to meet the   ture is employed it should be coupled
            needs of the water users. In Georgia, this    with an education effort that gives the
            is of course during the summer months         water customer options for reducing wa-
            when outdoor water use is at its peak and     ter use.

4   The Etowah Initiative/Summer 1998
                      INDOOR WATER EFFICIENCY
     In establishing an effective water con-     existing fixtures to reduce water use.
servation program, efforts must be made          Many are low cost and easy to install.
in all areas to avoid using excessive            When existing showerheads, faucets, and
amounts of water. Indoor water efficiency        toilets are replaced, the costs can be re-
can be achieved through a variety of             covered within a couple of years in the
methods, including fixture programs, in-         savings on water bills10 . Thus, after the
centive programs and education. A num-           initial installation costs, the consumer
ber of communities have created                  sees immediate results.
innovative programs to actively involve           • Toilet Tank Displacement Devices.11
residents in the effort to conserve water.          Devices, such as bags, are put into
Listed below are a number of possible               the tank. They can reduce the
ways to reduce the water demand indoors.            amount of water per flush by up to a
     Requirements for new and replace-              gallon. These devices have a limited
ment plumbing fixtures are probably the             life-span of 3-5 years.
most common type of local regulation to
promote water efficiency. Congress en-            • Variable Flush Time Devices.12
acted requirements on the national level            Devices operate by altering the force
in the Federal Energy Policy Act of 1992.           acting on the toilet tank flapper
Under this act, as of January 1, 1994, new          valve, by using, for example a float
construction required the installation of           attached to the valve. The cycle time
ultra-low flush toilets, with a few com-            of the flush is effectively shortened so
mercial exceptions.                                 as to reduce the volume of water.
     With a flush capacity of 1.6 gallons,        • Dual-Flush Devices.13 These devices
ultra-low flush toilets use substantially less      provide for a full volume flushing
water than the conventional 5 gallon per            mode for solid waste, and a lower
flush toilets that were previously standard.        volume flushing mode for liquid or
The long-range savings for such fixtures is         paper waste.
significant9 . In Georgia, House Bills 605
                                                  • Low-Flow Showerheads.14
and 1827 became law in 1992 requiring
                                                    Showerheads reduce the amount of
the use of water efficient showerheads,
                                                    water by as much as one-half of the
faucets and toilets in all commercial and
                                                    water used within the specified time
residential construction.
                                                    of a shower by restricting the flow
          This legislation can be comple-
                                                    through the showerhead. (For
mented at the local level to include retro-
                                                    example, the rate of water may be
fit programs, outreach, distribution of
                                                    reduced from 5-8 gallon per minute
indoor water efficiency kits, and incentive
                                                    to 2.75 gallons per minute).
program that encourage the replacement
or repair of inefficient fixtures. The suc-       • Low-Flow Faucets.15 Such faucets
cess of such programs are due in part to            lessen the water flow through faucets
the fact that cost differentials between            by means of a restrictor or aerator.
conventional and efficient fixtures are rap-        Rate of water use can be reduced by
idly offset by water and energy savings.            as much as one-half of the regular
     Retrofit Devices for Existing Fix-             water flow.
tures. Retrofit devices are installed on

                                                                 The Etowah Initiative/Summer 1998   5
                  These devices are often available in      can help save significant amounts of wa-
            kits. A typical comprehensive kit, for ex-      ter. People often let the cold water run
            ample, might contain two (2) low-flow           out of hot water pipes, wasting about 2
            showerheads, two (2) toilet tank displace-      gallons per person per day. Builders in
            ment devices, and two (2) toilet leak-de-       new construction are required to insulate
            tecting dye tablets. Some utilities will        hot water pipes, an effort which saves en-
            provide such kits free to their customers       ergy and reduces the amount of water
            upon request, or for a small fee. Athens-       used.
            Clarke County and Chatham County are
            two areas in Georgia that supply such           Incentive Programs
            kits.                                                These programs can be very helpful
                                                            in encouraging people to take part in wa-
            Indoor Leak Repair16                            ter conservation efforts. Often such pro-
                 Leaking toilets and pipes are a major      grams are run through the utilities.
            source of water inefficiency. For example,      Programs include connection fee dis-
            the Department of Housing estimates             counts or consumer rebates for properties
            that approximately 20% of all existing          that meet specified conservation criteria.
            toilets leak. The leaks often consume           These specified criteria may include in-
            more water than the use of the toilet. Toi-     stallation of low-flow plumbing fixtures.
            lets may be checked for leaks by the use of
            dye tablets. Tablets are dropped into the       Education
            toilet tank; if the tank leaks, a bright col-       See the section on Education and
            ored dye will appear in the toilet bowl.        Awareness for tips to aid the municipal
                                                            water user in improving indoor water effi-
            Insulation17                                    ciency.
                Insulation around hot water pipes

                                              CASE STUDIES
                     A number of local governments               required to buy and install new
            throughout Georgia and the United States             fixtures, short term and long term
            have employed effective indoor water effi-           savings result.
            ciency programs. Below are some brief de-        B. Replacement of Existing Fix-
            scriptions of some of these programs:               tures—Project Harambee: At-
             A. Replacement of Existing Fix-                    lanta, Georgia. In the Brown
                tures—Monterrey Peninsula Water                 Village Community of Southwest
                District-Monterrey, California .                Atlanta, an innovative project was
                The Monterrey Peninsula Manage-                 begun aimed at reducing residential
                ment District mandates that prop-               water consumption through the
                erty owners must replace all conven-            installation of low-flow technolo-
                tional fixtures with water efficient            gies. Ultra low-flow toilets and
                fixtures before selling the property.           showerheads were distributed to
                Though this measure has higher                  single family residents in this
                private costs because the parties are           community who participated in the

6   The Etowah Initiative/Summer 1998
     homes. Each of the 247 households          C. Rebate/Incentive Programs—
     that participated in the program are          Santa Monica, California. The
     expected to save $120.00 per year             city of Santa Monica offers $100
     on their water bill alone, totaling           rebates to residents who install low-
     over $30,000 for the community.               flow showerheads and toilets on
     Over 17,000 gallons of water per              their homes or rental properties. In
     day, 6.2 million gallons annually,            the first 18 months of the program,
     should be conserved as a result of            more than 10,000 toilets were
     this program.                                 replaced.

     An important part of an effective wa-     water can be conserved. These means are
ter efficiency program is understanding        relatively easy to employ, and inexpensive,
when water demand is highest, why, and         especially in comparison to the money
what can be done to lessen the demand          that would be required to build alterna-
on this precious resource. In Georgia, wa-     tive water supply sources. These programs
ter demand dramatically increases during       can be instituted through education, in-
the summer months. This increase can be        centives, or ordinances. A short descrip-
traced, in large part, to outside water use.   tion of some of the different programs
So how can the need for outside watering       that have proven effective is provided
be decreased?                                  here. And finally, a detailed sample ordi-
     There are several different ways that     nance is provided (See Appendix B).

     One of the easiest options is to pro-     or slowly developing area that is inter-
mote the use of water efficient landscap-      ested in taking a pro-active stance on wa-
ing. Water efficient landscaping can be        ter conservation.
achieved through employing xeriscaping
techniques; using interns to help the pub-     Xeriscape23
lic utilize such techniques, instituting wa-        Xeriscaping is defined as “quality
ter restriction plans to deal with             landscaping that conserves water and pro-
emergency drought conditions, designing        tects the environment.” This concept is
and implementing incentive programs,           targeted at reducing outside water use,
and establishing watering times that are       and thus reducing peak water demands
most efficient. A comprehensive ordi-          and the resulting water bills. Additionally,
nance can be found in Appendix B. This         water resources may be extended.
ordinance is most suitable for a heavily       Xeriscaping incorporates the concepts of
urbanized or rapidly developing area.          planning and design along with soil
However, portions of it may be adapted         analysis, plant selection, efficient irriga-
and used to fit the needs of a more rural      tion, turf selection, mulch use, and ap-

                                                               The Etowah Initiative/Summer 1998   7
            propriate maintenance. Educational mate-        numbered days, and those with even ad-
            rials and Xeriscape guides are currently        dresses water on the even days. Though
            available through the Georgia Water Wise        this can help curb the demand on the wa-
            Council. One means of effectively imple-        ter supply, more effective methods
            menting Xeriscape programs has been to          exisit.25 One such method is to restrict
            use landscape design or horticulture in-        the times of day during which people are
            terns.                                          permitted to water. By implementing
                 A landscape architecture or horticul-      such a program, people are less likely to
            ture student from the University of Geor-       water excessively and more likely to use
            gia can be hired to provide residential         water only when necessary. An example of
            consumers with free landscape consulta-         some drought condition restrictions are
            tions utilizing xeriscape ideas.24 Georgia      listed below.26
            Water Wise Council helps locate and              Phase I – no watering from 4pm - 10pm.
            place these interns. The intern helps
            homeowners and business owners design a          Phase II – no watering from 4pm - 10pm
            landscape that will thrive in the hot Geor-          and on weekends.
            gia summers and temperate winters. The           Phase III – no watering, except from
            resulting landscapes require less water              10pm - 6am.
            during the peak summer months. The
                                                             Phase IV – no watering. Complete ban.
            strain on the water supply is lessened and
            the consumer’s water bill is lower. Addi-
                                                                  Incentive Programs. Incentive pro-
            tionally, plants have to be replaced less of-
                                                            grams can work in a proactive manner to
            ten, because they are chosen for their
                                                            get citizens involved and excited in water
            suitability for the climate. Such a program
                                                            efficiency programs. A variety of pro-
            could also be effectively utilized for those
                                                            grams exist, including programs where
            on well-water, since that water supply is
                                                            the local government will share in a per-
            connected through the ground water to
                                                            centage of the cost of landscaping materi-
            the overall water system.
                                                            als if individuals design and use water
                                                            efficient landscaping. Contests with cor-
            Water Restriction Plans
                                                            porate and industrial entities can encour-
                 When summer heat and drought take
                                                            age participation from the corporate base.
            effect, local governments must often take
                                                            A program such as awarding a prize or re-
            action to prevent the water supply from
                                                            bate to the complex with the best land-
            being over used. Careful planning with re-
                                                            scape design that is water efficient is one
            strictions can help protect the water re-
                                                            such suggestion.
            sources even more. During these critical
                                                                      Education. See the section on
            periods, many areas employ an odd-even
                                                            Education and Awareness for tips to aid
            watering rotation, such that those with
                                                            the municipal water user in improving
            odd addresses may water on the odd
                                                            outdoor water efficiency.

8   The Etowah Initiative/Summer 1998
                                  CASE STUDIES
    A number of local governments                   around the county. Though the
through out Georgia and the United                  guidelines do not prescribe specific
States have employed effective outdoor              limitations on the use of turf, they
water efficiency programs. Below are                discourage excess use, and require
some brief descriptions of some of these            that low-water use turf is used
programs:                                           where large turf areas are proposed.
                                                    Included in the guidelines are
 A.    Xeriscape/Summer Intern Pro-                 classifications of plants, which
      gram—Cobb County-Marietta,                    encourage the use of drought
      Georgia -Cobb County has had                  resistant plants. The developers in
      great success in the past few years           that area have worked willingly with
      instituting its water efficiency              the planning staff to implement
      program. The program uses educa-              such guidelines effectively.
      tion and guidelines, instead of
      ordinances. One of the most               C. Watering Time Restrictions—
      effective programs that has been             Tampa, Florida -In Tampa, a
      instituted, is the use of Landscape          program was designed by the water
      Water Efficiency Interns. The Cobb           department which restricts the time
      County-Marietta Water Authority              of day that landscapes may be
      hires landscape architecture or              irrigated and prohibits water waste.
      horticulture student(s) from the             The city water department works in
      University of Georgia during the             conjunction with the South Florida
      summer months. Students offer free           Water Management District, a state
      consultation to residential water            agency, to effectively run this
      consumers about how to redesign              program. The city utilized press
      their landscaping using the                  coverage and mass mailings in order
      Xeriscape principles. As a result, the       to educate the public about this
      plants usually live longer, water bills      program. In addition to educating
      are less, and the demand on the              the public, a key factor in the
      water supply during the peak                 success of this program has been
      summer months decreases. Other               active enforcement. The city has
      local utilities around the state have        seven “water cop” employees who
      instituted similar programs with             confirm citizen complaints about
      much success.                                potential violations. These water
                                                   cops may issue warnings and
 B. Landscape Guidelines—Ventura                   citations. For a first offense, a
    County, California -In Ventura                 warning is issued; a second offense
    County in 1987, water efficiency               results in a $25 fine; the third
    guidelines, developed in cooperation           violation fine is $50; and the fourth
    with members of the green industry,            violation charge is $200. The city is
    were added to landscape guidelines.            considering whether water service
    These guidelines are used by County            should be turned off for those who
    planners in determining whether or             violate the ordinance more than
    not to approve landscape plans                 four times.

                                                              The Etowah Initiative/Summer 1998   9
              D. Incentive/Rebate Program—Hays,                     property owners are limited in using
                 Kansas -In 1991 in response to                     cool season turf for more than 40%
                 emergency drought conditions,                      of their landscape, because it
                 Hays began a landscape rebate                      requires more water. Some of the
                 program. The program was designed                  warmer climate turfs, like bermuda
                 with the cooperation of various                    and buffalo grass, are not restricted.
                 county administrators and agencies                 In addition, mulch is required
                 in cooperation with members of the                 around all accent plants. Applicants
                 green industry, and is administered                to the rebate program submit the
                 by the Parks Department. The Parks                 plans for approval before the project
                 Department offers qualified prop-                  is begun. Subsequent to the comple-
                 erty owners a 25% cost-share rebate,               tion of the project, compliance with
                 up to $500, for landscape materials.               the approved plan is verified by a
                 In order to become qualified,                      drive-by inspection by a parks
                                                                    department employee.

                                 EDUCATION                AND     AWARENESS
                 Essential to implementing any new           be done to save water31 :
             comprehensive program, like a water con-           • By putting a heavy glass jar in the
             servation program, is education and                  toilet tank away from the moving
             awareness. Letting people know about the             parts the amount of water displaced
             benefits of, and need for, water conserva-           with each flush can be dramatically
             tion can help increase community interest            reduced.
             and activism. Also it is beneficial to dispel
             myths that people may have about the               • Checking periodically for leaky pipes
             implementation of a water conservation               and toilets, and then correcting the
             program. Running a water efficient home              problem, can help conserve water.
             or business need not mean changes in               • Running faucets on low flow volume
             quality of life. Below are a number of               and turning them off when brushing
             ways to increase public awareness and to             teeth, shaving, and washing faces, can
             educate the community.                               result in savings of two to three
                                                                  gallons per minute.
                                                                • By shortening shower times and only
                   Educating people about some easy
                                                                  filling up the tub half way, significant
             tips that they can use around the house                                                 32
                                                                  amounts of water are conserved.
             and at work is one of the easiest ways to
             promote water efficiency. Many such
                                                             In the kitchen, a number of other easy
             techniques can be simple to implement,
                                                             tips conserve water33 :
             with little to no change in the quality of
             life. Such tips include steps that can be          • Keep a container of water in the
             taken at home or at work, in the kitchen,            refrigerator instead of waiting for
             in the bathroom and in the laundry                   cold water to run through the faucet.
             room.                                                Three to seven gallons of water flow
                   In the bathroom, simple things can             through faucets per minute.

10   The Etowah Initiative/Summer 1998
 • Vegetables and fruits can be cleaned              directly to the roots. Avoid watering
   in a pan of water using a vegetable               the leaves and other foliage when
   brush instead of running the faucet.              possible, because this aids disease
                                                     infestation, and more water is lost to
 • Allow defrosting food to thaw in the
   refrigerator instead of under running                                         38
   water.                                         • Drip or Trickle Irrigation Drip or
                                                    trickle irrigation provides a very
 • Run the dishwasher only when full.
                                                    efficient method for watering plants,
                                                    using 50% less water than traditional
The laundry room is another place where
                                                    sprinklers. Water is applied slowly
individuals can take steps to dramatically
                                                    and directly to the roots of the plants.
decrease the amount of water expended:34                      39
                                                  • Timers. By installing a timer on
 • Run the washing machine only when
                                                    outside faucets, the period of irriga-
   it is full.
                                                    tion can be regulated, thus preventing
 • Carefully select the correct clothes             unnecessary watering.
   load size on washing machines so as
   to avoid using excess water.                  How to get the word out
                                                       Generally, a person or group within
Outdoors                                         the community is identified to oversee
     The following are tips for the home         outreach activities. This can be an existing
or business owner that will increase the         group, a county extension official, or a
efficiency of outdoor water uses.                member of the local government. A new
     Encourage watering at the most ben-         group may also be formed. This could in-
eficial times of the day. It is most efficient   clude representatives of different sectors
to water outdoor landscapes in the               of the community such as a homeowner,
evening and early morning. Ideal watering        a small business owner, a teacher, a water
times are between 9 p.m. and 9 a.m. Dur-         authority, a local government official, a
ing this window of time, plants are able to      state government employee, etc. Unique
absorb required quantity of water with           to the Upper Etowah River Basin is the
less water applied because less water is lost    Etowah Alliance. This group is ideal for
before absorption by evaporation to the          such a role because its members represent
sun.35                                           all five counties in the basin, numerous
                                                 stakeholder groups are represented and
     Educate users on the best ways to wa-       the group is aimed at dealing with issues
ter. By using a directional, hand-held           that span beyond county lines. So a water
hose for watering, one can achieve the           efficiency campaign may be an appropri-
best results for plants. There are some ad-      ate project for the Etowah Alliance.
ditional tips that will help consumers save            There are numerous resources that
water while providing better care for their      aid in the dissemination of information.
landscape.                                       Several of these are listed below.
 • Avoid Shallow Watering. Frequent
   shallow watering creates shallow root         Media Coverage
   systems and decreases the drought                 Many people read their community
   tolerance of plants. For effective            newspapers and magazines. By providing
   results, water should be applied              the press with information and statistics

                                                                   The Etowah Initiative/Summer 1998   11
             about any of the programs implemented,           gia Water Wise Council for all grades lev-
             the public can learn more about the pro-         els, K-12. The Georgia Water Wise
             grams, the ways they work and how the            Council often works with local govern-
             community will benefit. Additionally,            ments to help effectively use these books.
             public service messages via public radio
             can offer people quick and easy tips.            Pamphlets
                                                                   A number of pamphlets are available
             Community Groups                                 through a variety of resources, including
                  Much like media coverage, discus-           the Georgia Water Wise Council, Univer-
             sions and informational sessions with lo-        sity of Georgia’s Cooperative Extension
             cal community groups can disseminate             and the Rocky Mountain Institute, that
             information through the community. Lo-           offer consumers tips and advise in water
             cal politicians and volunteers can easily        conservation. An excellent way to distrib-
             conduct seminars in such settings, as well       ute information in this format is by send-
             as provide a means for distributing print        ing it as an insert in water bills.
             materials, like pamphlets, on a large scale.
              • Speakers Bureau—Through the                   Web Sites
                Alliance speakers via volunteers,                  For the computer literate, many web
                Alliance members, Extension Agents,           sites exist on the Internet which provide
                and/or 4-H high school students can           information and ideas on how to become
                be trained to speak to the local              water efficient. Also, developing and
                community groups about water                  maintaining a web site specific to the Up-
                efficiency.                                   per Etowah River Basin can aid in provid-
                                                              ing information to community members
             Round-table Discussion Groups                    who are eager to learn more about water
                  Bringing together representatives           efficiency. Check out some of the follow-
             from the water authorities and other             ing:
             utilties, science directors of the school sys-
             tems, and elected officials for discussions        USGS Water Resources
             of water efficiency programs and efforts   
             provides a great opportunity for the Alli-
             ance. Individuals can discuss the efforts          USGS Water Resources of Georgia
             that their organizations are making, while 
             others can offer suggestions and support.
             (Rockdale County has successfully begun            Rocky Mountain Institute
             such a program).                           

             Schools                                            EPA WAVE
                 Schools provide a unique opportunity   
             to educate people as to water conserva-
             tion. Programs available today provide             Georgia Water Wise Council
             teachers resource manuals, so that water   
             conservation lessons through an inte-                waterwise/wwc.htm
             grated approach, using language arts,
             math, and science. Currently, The Water            Georgia Water Series
             Sourcebook is available through the Geor-  

12   The Etowah Initiative/Summer 1998
                                 APPENDIX A

  Georgia Water Wise Council                  Dawson County
  1033 Franklin Road                          P.O. Box 128
  Suite 9-187                                 Dawsonville, Georgia 30534
  Marietta, Georgia 30067-8004                (706) 265-2442
  Contact: Fox McCarthy (at the Cobb          Contact: W. Clark Beusse, CEA
     County-Marietta Water Authority)
  (770) 426-8936 ext. 234                     Forsyth County
                                              101 East Maple Street
  Environmental Protection Division (EPD)     Cumming, Georgia 30040
  Water Resources Branch                      (770) 887-2418 or (770) 889-9345
  Department of Natural Resources             Contact: Carol W. Propes, CEA
  1152 East Tower
  205 Butler Street, SE                       Lumpkin County
  Atlanta, Georgia 30334                      26 Johnson Street
  (404) 656-4807                              Suite A      Dahlonega, Georgia 30533
                                              (706) 864-2275
  Rocky Mountain Institute                    Contact: Gregory A. Sheppard, CEA
  1739 Snowmass Creek Road
  Snowmass, Colorado 81654-9199               Pickens County
  Contact: Richard Pinkham                    109 Depot Street
  (970) 927-3851                              Jasper, Georgia 30143                            (706) 692-2531 or (706) 692-3556
                                              Contact: Richard C. Jasperse, CEA
  Chatham County Water
     Conservation Office                    Water Conservation Equipment
  Contact: Mary A. Elfner                   Providers:
  (912) 651-1440
                                              Amiad Water Systems Technologies
  Rockdale County Extension Service           Phone: (805) 988-3323
  Contact: Jule- Lynne Macie                  Fax: (805) 988-3313
  (770) 785-5952                              HTTP:
                                              Diamond Plastics Corporation
Local County Extension Services:              Phone: (308) 384-4400
                                              Fax (308) 384-9345
  Cherokee County
  130 East Main Street                        Energy Technology Laboratories
  Canton, Georgia 30114                       Phone: (209) 529-3546
  (770) 479-0418                              Fax: (209) 529-3554
  Contact: Trudy T. Christopher, CEA          Email:
                                              HTTP: http://

                                                         The Etowah Initiative/Summer 1998   13
               F.S. Brainard & Company
               Phone: (888) 388-3569
               Fax: (609) 387-4304

               Niagara Conservation Corp.
               Phone: (800) 831-8383
               Fax: (973) 829-1400

               Radcom Technologies, Inc.
               Phone: (617) 324-1300
               Fax: (617) 324-8468

               Water Management, Inc.
               Phone: (703) 370-9070
               Fax: (703) 370-9179

14   The Etowah Initiative/Summer 1998
                          APPENDIX B
                      SAMPLE ORDINANCE
                         (A SAMPLE LANDSCAPE ORDINANCE)40

TITLE                                        make any administrative decision, then,
 1. AN ORDINANCE OF THE                      unless other standards are in this Ordi-
    COUNTY OF _______________                nance, the decision shall be made so that
    REQUIRING WATER-EFFI-                    the result will not be contrary to the
    CIENT LANDSCAPING                        spirit and purpose of this ordinance or
    (XERISCAPE) PRACTICES AND                injurious to the surrounding neighbor-
    IRRIGATION SYSTEMS WHERE                 hood or the community.
    STATE LAW AND THE                             The purpose of these regulations is
    COUNTY OF ____________                   to establish minimum standards for the
    COMPREHENSIVE PLAN;                      development, installation, and mainte-
    PROVIDING FOR PURPOSE                    nance of landscaped areas without inhib-
    AND INTENT; PROVIDING                    iting creative landscape design. This
    FOR DEFINITIONS; PROVID-                 ordinance requires specific water conser-
    ING FOR CONFLICTS; PRO-                  vation measures including the preserva-
    VIDING FOR SEVERABILITY;                 tion of natural vegetation where
    PROVIDING FOR CODIFICA-                  applicable. Implementation will aid in
    TION; PROVIDING FOR EN-                  improving environmental quality and the
    FORCEMENT AND PROVID-                    aesthetic appearance of public, commer-
    ING AN EFFECTIVE DATE.                   cial, industrial, and residential areas. It is
                                             the intent of this ordinance, therefore,
SHORT TITLE                                  that the establishment of these minimum
   This ordinance shall be known and         requirements and the encouragement of
may be referred to as the County of          resourceful planning be incorporated to
_________ Water-Efficiency Landscaping       promote the public health, safety, and
Regulations.                                 general welfare in the areas of water con-
                                             servation and preservation.
AUTHORITY                                         Creative site development concepts
     This ordinance is adopted by the        shall be used in order to promote water
County of____________ under its home         conservation. Water requirements may be
rule powers, its police powers to protect    reduced by providing for:
the public health, safety and welfare, and     • The preservation of existing plant
under powers pursuant to the authority            communities;
granted by the state of Georgia.               • The re-establishment of native plant
ADMINISTRATIVE STANDARDS                       • The use of water efficiency landscaping;
     Whenever, in the course of adminis-       • Other environmentally sensitive site
tration and enforcement of this ordi-             development concepts.
nance, it is necessary and desirable to

                                                              The Etowah Initiative/Summer 1998   15
                The land clearing/vegetation protec-      of Occupancy shall be issued until the re-
            tion and preservation objectives are:         quirements herein are met.
              • To reduce the use of irrigation water          If the provisions of this ordinance
                in open space areas by promoting the      conflict with other ordinances or regula-
                preservation of existing plant commu-     tions, the more stringent limitation or re-
                nities;                                   quirement shall govern or prevail to the
                                                          extent of the conflict.
              • To prevent the removal of existing             Specific application of the provision
                vegetation in advance of the approval     shall include, but not be limited to:
                of land development plans; and
                                                           • All new redevelopment, or rehabili-
              • To prevent the removal of existing           tated landscaping for public agency
                vegetation when no comparable                projects and private development
                vegetation plan has been prepared for        projects including but not limited to
                the site.                                    industrial, commercial, and recre-
                                                             ation projects;
                 To achieve the objectives of these
            regulations, this ordinance incorporates       • Developer-installed landscaping in
            the seven basic principles of water-effi-        single-family and multi-family
            cient landscaping. These principles, listed      projects;
            below with detailed explanation, are in-       • Any development approved prior to
            cluded within the general provisions sec-        the effective date of this ordinance if
            tion for the purpose of giving guidance          the governing site development plan
            and direction for the administration and         is amended;
            enforcement of the regulations contained
            herein:                                            Exempted from the provisions of this
              • Planning and Design                       ordinance could include one or more of
                                                          the following as applicable:
              • Soil Analysis
              • Appropriate Plant Selection                • Bonafide agricultural activities;
              • Practical Turf Areas                       • Individual homeowner-provided
              • Efficient Irrigation                         landscaping for a single-family home
                                                             or duplex;
              • Uses of Mulches
                                                           • Any development which is governed
              • Appropriate Maintenance
                                                             by a valid site development plan or a
                                                             valid building permit accepted prior
                                                             to the effective date of this ordinance;
                The provisions of this ordinance shall
            apply to the development, redevelopment,       • Electrical transmission and distribu-
            rehabilitation, and maintenance of all           tion lines.
            property within present or future incorpo-
            rated areas of the County of __________.           Conditional exemption may be
                No permit shall be issued for the         granted by the permitting department of
            building, paving, or tree removal unless      the County of ________ for individual
            the water-efficiency actions included         projects if the applicant can demon-
            within the landscape plan comply with         strate acceptable reasons for the re-
            the provisions hereof; and no Certificate     quested exemption.

16   The Etowah Initiative/Summer 1998
DEFINITIONS                                   4. Infiltration Rate. The rate of water
     For the purpose of this ordinance, the      entry into the soil expressed as a
following words and phrases shall have           depth of water per unit of time
the meanings respectively ascribed to            (inches per hour).
them by this section.                         5. Irrigation System. A permanent,
     All words used in the present tense         artificial watering systems designed
include the future; all words in the singu-      to transport and distribute water to
lar number include the plural and the            plants.
plural the singular; the word “building”
includes the word “structure”; the word       6. Landscaped Area. The entire parcel
“shall” is mandatory and the word “per-          less the building footprint, drive-
son” includes a firm, corporation, county,       ways, non-irrigated portions of
municipal corporation, or natural person.        parking lots, hardscapes such as
The term “council” or “commission” shall         decks and patios, and other non-
mean Council or Commission of the                porous areas. Water features are
County of ______________, and the                included in the calculation of the
word “county” shall mean the County of           landscaped area.
_______________ of the State of Geor-         7. Landscaping. Any combination of
gia. The word “used” shall be deemed to          living plants (such as grass, ground
include the words “arranged”, “designed”,        cover, shrubs, vines, hedges, or
or “intended to be used”, and the word           trees) and non-living landscape
“occupied” shall be deemed to include the        material (such as rocks, pebbles,
words “arranged”, “designed”, or “in-            sand, mulch, walls, fences, or
tended to be occupied”. Any word or              decorative paving materials).
term not interpreted or defined by this
                                              8. Microirrigation (low volume). The
section shall be used with a common dic-
                                                 frequent application of small
tionary meaning of common or standard
                                                 quantities of water directly on or
                                                 below the soil surfaces, usually as
 1. Automatic Controller. A mechani-             discrete drops, tiny streams, or
    cal or electronic timer, capable of          miniature sprays through emitters
    operating valve stations to set the          placed along the water delivery
    days and length of time of a water           pipes (laterals). Microirrigation
    application.                                 encompasses a number of methods
 2. Emitter. Devices which are used to           or concepts including drip, subsur-
    control the applications of irrigation       face, bubbler, and spray irrigation,
    water. This term is primarily used to        previously referred to as trickle
    the low flow rate devices used in            irrigation, low volume, or low flow
    microirrigation systems.                     irrigation.
 3. Ground Cover. Plants, other than          9. Mulch. Non-living, organic or
    turfgrass, normally reaching an              synthetic materials customarily used
    average maximum height of not                in landscape design to retard
    more than twenty four (24) inches            erosion and retain moisture.
    at maturity.                              10. Native Vegetation. See Vegetation,

                                                            The Etowah Initiative/Summer 1998   17
              11. Naturally Occurring Existing                   State of Georgia.
                  Plant Communities. See Vegeta-             21. Water Use Zone. Any grouping of
                  tion, Native.                                  sprays, sprinklers, or microirrigation
              12. Pervious Paving Materials. A                   emitters so that they can be oper-
                  porous asphaltic or concrete surface           ated simultaneously by the control
                  and a high-void aggregate base                 of one valve according to the water
                  which allows for rapid infiltration            requirements of the plants used.
                  and temporary storage of rain on, or
                  runoff delivered to, paved surfaces.      GENERAL PROVISIONS AND
              13. Plant Communities. A natural              DESIGN STANDARDS
                  association of plants that are                 When the construction upon or the
                  dominated by one or more promi-           redevelopment of a new site or the rede-
                  nent species, or a characteristic         velopment, reconstruction, upgrading,
                  physical attribute.                       expansion or change in use of a previously
                                                            developed site is such that site plan review
              14. Rain Sensor Device. A low voltage         is required, the provisions of this ordi-
                  electrical or mechanical component        nance shall be applied to such site. Any
                  placed in the circuitry of an auto-       such construction or development activity
                  matic lawn irrigation system which        requiring said site plan or landscape plan
                  is designed to turn off a sprinkler       which requires local approval shall be de-
                  controller when precipitation has         signed to be consistent with the water-ef-
                  reached a pre-set quantity.               ficient landscaping standards established
              15. Runoff. Water which is not ab-            herein and submitted in compliance with
                  sorbed by the soil or landscape to        the requirements of state law.
                  which it is applied and flows from         A. Planning and Design
                  the area.                                     Site plans shall identify all vegetated
              16. Site Specific Plant. A selection of           areas to be preserved. Installed trees
                  plant material that is particularly           and plant materials shall be grouped
                  well suited to withstand the physical         together into zones according to
                  growing conditions that are normal            water use needs. The water use
                  for a specific location.                      zones shall correlate to the water use
                                                                zone designations of plants listed in
              17. Soil Texture. The classification of
                                                                the Approved Plant List provided by
                  soil based on the percentage of sand,
                                                                the Water Wise Council. Plants
                  silt, and clay in the soil.
                                                                with similar water and cultural (soil,
              18. Turf and/or Turfgrass. Continuous             climate, sun, and light) require-
                  plant coverage consisting of grass            ments should be grouped together
                  species suited to growth in County).          and irrigated based on their water
              19. Valve. A device used to control the           requirements. The water use zones
                  flow of water in the irrigation               shall be shown on the Landscape
                  system.                                       Plan. All newly installed plants
                                                                require regular, moderately applied
              20. Vegetation, Native. Any plant                 watering for the first year to become
                  species with a geographical distribu-         established. Installed trees and
                  tion indigenous to all, or part, of the       vegetation shall be spaced and

18   The Etowah Initiative/Summer 1998
    located to accommodate their                submitted as a part of the Land-
    mature size on the site. The Water          scape Plan.
    Use Zones are as follows:
        High Water Use Zone - An                • Determination of soil texture,
        area of the site limited to a           indicating the percentage of organic
        maximum of fifty (50) percent           matter.
        of the total landscaped area.
        Plants and turf types, within           • An Approximate soil infiltration
        this area, are associated with          rate (either measured or derived
        moist soils and require supple-         from soil texture/infiltration rate
        mental water in addition to             tables). A range of infiltration rates
        natural rainfall to survive. This       should be noted where appropriate.
        zone includes shallow rooted
        turfgrass varieties.                    • Measurement of pH, and total
                                                soluble salts.
        Moderate Water Use Zone -
        Plants which survive on natural         The soil tests may be done prior to
        rainfall with supplemental water        submittal for permits. It is the
        during seasonal dry periods.            responsibility of the applicant to
        Thus zone includes deep rooted          have the soil test analyzed. The
        turfgrass varieties.                    applicant shall deliver a copy of the
        Low Water Use Zones - Plants            “official” soil teat information tot he
        which survive on natural rainfall       reviewing department or agency as
        without supplemental water.             part of the permit submittal. The
        Because of the relatively high          applicant shall note on the specifica-
        water requirements of turfgrass,        tions for soil amendments. When
        no presently available varieties        feasible, community generated solid
        are included in this category.          waste compost material may be
B. Soil Analysis
   Soils will vary from site to site even   C. Appropriate Plant Selection
   within a given site. A soil analysis        Plant selection should be based on
   based on random sampling is                 the plant’s adaptability to the
   required and will provide informa-          landscape area, desired effect, color,
   tion that will enable proper selection      texture, and ultimate plant size.
   of plants and, if needed, soil amend-       Plants should be arranged to achieve
   ments. When appropriate, soil               the aesthetic effect desired and,
   amendments can enhance the health           most importantly, grouped in
   and growing capabilities of the             accordance with their respective
   landscape by improving water                water needs. Maximum water
   drainage, moisture penetration, and         conservation can be achieved by
   a soil’s water and nutrient holding         selecting the appropriate plants that
   capacity.                                   require a minimal amount of
        A soil analysis satisfying the         supplemental watering.
   following conditions shall be

                                                          The Etowah Initiative/Summer 1998   19
                   Plant material shall be selected that     planned and managed. Water can be
                   is best suited to withstand the soil      conserved through the use of a
                   and physical growing conditions           properly designed and managed
                   which are found in the microcli-          irrigation systems.
                   mate of each particular location on            The irrigation system shall be
                   a site. Plant species that are freeze     designed to correlate to the organi-
                   and drought tolerant are preferred.       zation of plants into zones as
                   Plants having similar water use shall     described in (A) above. The water
                   be grouped together in distinct           use zones shall be shown on the
                   water use zones. Protection and           Irrigation Plan. Irrigation shall be
                   preservation of native species and        required as follows:
                   natural areas is encouraged.
                                                                  High Water Use Zone - All
              D.        Practical Turf Areas                     portions of high water use zones
                   The type and location of turf areas           shall be provided with central
                   shall be selected in the same manner          automatic irrigation systems.
                   as with all the other plantings. Turf
                   shall not be treated as a fill-in             Moderate Water Use Zone -
                   material but rather as a major                All portions of moderate water
                   planned element of the landscape.             use zones shall be provided with
                   Since many turf varieties require             a readily available water supply
                   supplemental watering at frequen-             within 25 feet.
                   cies different than the other types of
                   landscape plants, turf shall be               Low Water Use Zone - All por-
                   placed so that it can be irrigated            tions of low water use zones
                   separately. While turf areas provide          shall be provided with a readily
                   many practical benefits in a land-            available water supply within 50
                   scape, how and where it is used can           feet.
                   result in a significant reduction in
                   water use.                                     Retained trees, shrubs and
                        Turfgrass areas shall be consoli-    native plant communities shall not
                   dated and limited to those areas on       be required to be irrigated, unless
                   the site that receive pedestrian          directed to do so by the reviewing
                   traffic, provide for recreation use, or   department for the successful
                   provide soil erosion control such as      establishment of the landscape area.
                   on slopes or in swales; and where         Turfgrass areas shall be irrigated on
                   turfgrass is used as a design unifier,    separate irrigation zones from tree,
                   or other similar practical use. Turf      shrub, and groundcover beds.
                   areas shall be identified on the          Reclaimed or non-potable water
                   landscape plan.                           may be used for irrigation if an
                                                             acceptable source isdetermined to be
              E. Efficient Irrigation                        available by the County Engineer.
                 If a landscape requires regular                  Moistures sensor and/or rain
                 watering or if an irrigation system is      shut-off switch equipment shall be
                 desired, the system should be well          required on automatic irrigation

20   The Etowah Initiative/Summer 1998
    systems to avoid irrigation during              and uses a minimal amount water,
    periods of sufficient periods of                fewer fertilizer, pesticide, and other
    sufficient rainfall. Said equipment             chemical applications are needed to
    shall consist of an automatic                   maintain the plant material.
    mechanical or electronic sensing                     A regular maintenance schedule
    device or switch which will override            shall be submitted as part of the
    the irrigation cycle of the sprinkler           Landscape Plan.
    system when adequate rainfall has               Landscapes shall be maintained to
    occurred.                                       ensure water-efficiency. A regular
         The use of low volume emitters             maintenance schedule shall include
    or target irrigation is required for            but not be limited to checking,
    trees, shrubs and groundcovers so as            adjusting, and repairing irrigation
    to minimize irrigation overthrow                equipment; resetting the automatic
    onto impervious surfaces.                       controller according to the season;
                                                    aerating and dethatching turf areas;
F. Use of Mulches                                   replenishing mulch; fertilizing;
   Mulches applied and maintained at                pruning, and weeding in all land-
   appropriate depths in planting beds              scaped areas.
   will assist soils in retaining moisture,              Whenever possible, repair of
   reducing weed growth, and prevent-               irrigation equipment shall be done
   ing erosion. Mulch can also be used              with the originally specified materi-
   in places where conditions aren’t                als or their equivalents.
   adequate for or conducive to
   growing quality turf or ground             EDUCATION
   covers. Mulches are typically wood         To assist in public information, the
   bark chips, wood grindings, pine           education of its citizens, and the effective
   straws, nut gravel, and shredded           implementation of this ordinance, the
   landscape clippings.                       County will coordinate its efforts with
        A layer of organic mulch to a         those efforts of the Department of
   minimum depth of 3’’ shall be              Natural Resources, the Water-Wise
   specified on the landscape plans in        Council, and the ___________ County
   plant beds and around individual           agencies. In conjunction with the agen-
   trees in turfgrass areas. Mulch shall      cies, the County will jointly sponsor
   not be required in annual beds.            regular workshops and/or short courses
                                              on the design principles and standards of
                                              water-efficient landscaping.
G. Appropriate Maintenance
   Proper landscape and irrigation            INCENTIVES
   maintenance will preserve and
   enhance a quality landscape. When           • Any licensed landscape professional
   the first six principles have been            or licensed irrigation or landscape
   followed, maintenance is easier and           contractor who attends a water-
   less expensive than in traditional            efficient landscaping workshop or
   landscape. In addition, because               short course which is sponsored or
   water-efficient landscaping can be            given by the County shall receive a
   healthier than traditional landscaping        ______% reduction of their occupa-
                                                 tional license fee upon their next

                                                              The Etowah Initiative/Summer 1998   21
                 renewal date. Continued fee reduc-          shall conduct a final field observa-
                 tions of the same percentage will be        tion and shall provide a certificate of
                 credited based upon attendance at           substantial completion or demon-
                 future continuing educational               strate compliance of the ordinance
                 workshops or short course.                  to the County. The certificate shall
                                                             specifically include reference to the
              • Any development/landscape plan               landscaping, automatic irrigation
                which incorporates the minimum               system, the irrigation audit, and any
                water-efficient design principles and        other requirements of the County.
                standards established by this ordi-
                nance will be granted special staff      B. Inspections
                consideration and will be expedited         The designated County inspectors
                through the landscape review portion        shall be authorized and empowered
                of the site-plan review process.            to make inspections at reasonable
                                                            hours of all land uses or activities
              • In addition to a streamlined process-       regulated by this ordinance, in order
                ing, any development/landscape plan         to determine if applicable provisions
                which exceeds the minimum water-            of this ordinance and regulations
                efficient design principles and             relating to water-efficient landscap-
                standards established by this ordi-         ing are being followed.
                nance will receive ____% reduction               Inspections may be without
                in the County permit application fee.       notice, and refusal to allow such an
                                                            inspection shall be deemed a
              • Any individual home owner or                violation of this ordinance. Such
                resident who is not requires to submit      failure to permit an inspection shall
                a development/landscape plan, yet           be sufficient grounds and probable
                voluntarily applies the minimum             cause for a court of competent
                water-efficient design principles and       jurisdiction to issue an administra-
                standards established by this ordi-         tive warrant for the purpose of
                nance will be eligible for a _____%         inspecting, surveying or examining
                reduction applied as a credit against       said premises.
                their monthly water consumption                  In the event a building, struc-
                charges, provided that the landscaped       ture, or land appears to be vacant or
                areas continue to comply with the           abandoned, and the property owner
                minimum maintenance requirements            cannot be readily contacted in order
                and the total monthly consumption           to obtain consent for an inspection,
                does not exceed ______ gallons.             the inspector may enter into or
                                                            upon any open or unsecured
             ENFORCEMENT AND                                portion of the premises in order to
             MONITORING                                     conduct an inspection thereof.
             Implementation and enforcement of these             The inspector shall be provided
             regulations shall consist of:                  with official identification and
                                                            exhibit such identification when
              A. Certification                              making any inspection.
                 A landscape architect licensed or               It shall be the duty of all law
                 certified by the State of Georgia          enforcement officers in making

22   The Etowah Initiative/Summer 1998
      inspections when assistance is            VARIANCES
      requested by the inspector.               Variances may be granted by Board of
                                                Adjustment in accordance with the state
 C. Notice of Violation, Notice of              provisions and can attach conditions to
    Hearing and Hearing Procedure               variances granted.
    Whenever the inspector determines
    that there is a violation of this           VIOLATIONS AND PENALTIES
    ordinance, the officer or inspector         For any violation which does not consti-
    shall follow the procedures estab-          tute a threat to life or property, the
    lished for bringing the case before         County shall have the authority to issue a
    the established enforcement body or         citation. The citation shall be in the form
    shall seek injunctive relief as pro-        of a written official notice issued in
    vided below. A notice to cease a land       person or by certified mail to the owner
    use activity or permit issued under         of the property, or to his agent, or to the
    this ordnance, shall not relieve the        person doing the work. The receipt of a
    owner or operator of the obligation         citation shall require that corrective
    to comply with any other applicable         action be taken within thirty (30) calen-
    state, regional, or local code,             dar days, unless otherwise extended at the
    regulation, rule, ordinance, or             discretion of the County. If the required
    requirement. Nor shall said notice          corrective action is not taken within the
    or permit relieve any owner or              time allowed, the County may use any
    operator of any liability for violation     available civil or criminal remedies to
    of such codes, regulation, rules,           secure compliance, including revoking a
    ordinances, or requirements.                permit.
                                                     The County shall have recourse to
 D. Injunctive Relief                           such civil and criminal remedies in law
    If any person engages in activities         and equity as may be necessary to ensure
    regulated by this ordinance without         compliance with the provisions of this
    having obtained an approved permit          section of this ordinance, including
    as provided within this ordinance or        injunctive relief to rejoin and restrain any
    continues in violation of the provi-        person from violating the provisions of
    sions of this ordinance or the              this section of this ordinance and to
    regulation promulgated pursuant             recover such damages as may be incurred
    thereto, then the County may file an        by the implementation of specific correc-
    action for injunctive relief in a court     tive actions.
    of competent jurisdiction.                       A conviction for violation of the
                                                provisions of this section shall be punish-
FEES                                            able by a fine or imprisonment as pro-
Permit Fees                                     vided in the criminal statutes of the
Prior to the issuance of a permit, the          Georgia Code.
applicant shall pay a fee as set forth by the        Any aggrieved party may appeal a
Resolution No. _____ of the County of           decision by the County to the Superior
_____________ passed on _________,              Court.
19__. Such fee shall be used to defray the
cost of monitoring the compliance of this

                                                                The Etowah Initiative/Summer 1998   23
             CONFLICTS AND RELATIONSHIP                     intentions. Sections of this ordinance may
             TO OTHER LAWS                                  require the correction of typographical
             Whenever regulations or restrictions           errors which do not affect the intent.
             imposed by this ordinance conflict with        Such corrections may be authorized
             other ordinances or regulations, or are        without the need of a Public Hearing, by
             either more or less restrictive than regula-   filing a corrected or recodified copy of
             tions or restrictions imposed by any           same with the clerk of the County of
             governmental authority through legisla-        _______________.
             tion, rule or regulation, the regulations,
             rules or restrictions which are more           REPEAL
             restrictive or which impose the highest        The existing regulations of the County of
             standards or requirements shall govern.        ____________, being (chapter)
             Regardless of any other structure erected      _________ of the County Code as
             or maintained in violation of any state or     amended, are hereby repealed. The
             federal pollution control or environmen-       adoption of this ordinance; however, shall
             tal protection law or regulation.              not affect nor prevent any pending or
                                                            future prosecution of, or action to abate,
             SEVERABILITY                                   any existing violation of said (chap-
             This ordinance and the various parts,          ter)___________, as amended, if the
             sections, subsections and clauses thereof,     violation is also a violation of this ordi-
             are hereby declared to be severable. If any    nance.
             part, sentence, paragraph, subsection,
             section or clause is adjudged unconstitu-
             tional or invalid, it is hereby provided
             that the remainder of the ordinance shall
             not be affected thereby. If any part,
             sentence, paragraph, subsection, section
             or clause be adjudged unconstitutional or
             invalid as applied to a particular property,
             building, or other structure, it is hereby
             provided that the application of such
             portion of the ordinance to other prop-
             erty, building, or structures shall not be
             affected thereby.

             The provisions of this ordinance shall
             become and be made a part of the
             existing landscape regulations of the
             County of ______________. Sections of
             the ordinance may be renumbered or
             relettered and the word “ordinance” may
             be changed to “section”, “chapter”,
             “article”, or such other appropriate word
             or phrase in order to accomplish such

24   The Etowah Initiative/Summer 1998
                           APPENDIX C
                      SAMPLE ORDINANCES
                    INDOOR WATER EFFICIENCY
 A. Plumbing Fixture Efficiency                              rized agent of the
    Requirements Ordinance:                                  appropriate enforcement
                                                             authority; and prior to
Section I: The …(existing section of the             2. A change in use that requires
plumbing or building code regulating                    the approval by the appro-
fixtures)…is hereby amended as follows.                 priate authority.
Section III: APPLICABILITY                    C. Sale of Fixtures:
 A. New and replacement fixtures:                All fixtures sold after 735 days of
    The fixture performance require-             the effective date of this ordinance
    ments established in Section III shall       within the jurisdiction of the
    apply to:                                    appropriate authority shall meet the
      1. Fixtures installed in new               standards established in Section III
           construction, and                     of this ordinance.
      2. Replacement fixtures in-
           stalled in any structure.         Section III: REQUIREMENTS
                                             All plumbing fixtures covered under
 B. Mandatory Replacement of Existing        Section II of this ordinance shall be
    Fixtures:                                designed, manufactured, and installed, or,
    Existing fixtures that do not meet       in the case of faucets but not in other
    the requirements established in          cases, equipped with a flow restricting
    Section III of this ordinance must       device and/or aerator, to meet the follow-
    be replaced with fixtures meeting        ing requirements for water use at a static
    the requirements established in          pressure of twenty (20) to eighty (80)
    Section III of this ordinance, prior     pounds per square inch:
    to:                                       • Tank-type water closets shall not use
        1. A change in ownership of             more than 1.6 gallons per flush;
           real property, except when:        • Showerhead flow rates shall not
           a) the seller and the buyer          exceed 2.5 gallons per minute;
           certify that the property will
           be remodeled within 120            • Faucet flow rates shall not exceed 2.5
           days of close of escrow, and         gallons per minute when both hot
                                                and cold faucets are in full open
            b) that all fixtures not            position;
               meeting the require-
               ments established in           • Lavatory faucets in faucets in public
               section III of this              facilities shall be equipped with
               ordinance upon comple-           automatic shut-off valves or shall
               tion of construction, and        have a flow rate of 0.25 gallons per
                                                minute or less, when both hot and
            c) the new owner will allow         cold faucets are in full open position;
               inspection by an autho-

                                                            The Etowah Initiative/Summer 1998   25
              • Urinals in public facilities shall not      B. RETROFIT DEVICE
                use more than 1 gallon per flush;               ORDINANCE
              • Toilets and urinals in public facilities   Section I: APPLICABILITY
                shall not be equipped with timing           A. The requirements established in the
                devices to flush periodically irrespec-        ordinance shall apply to the follow-
                tive of demand;                                ing facilities, except as provided
              • Flushometer type water closets shall           below in subsection (B):
                adequately flush and clean fixtures               1. Apartment complexes with
                and shall discharge no more than                       five or more rental units,
                three (3) gallons per flush.                      2. Commercial buildings,
                                                                  3. Hotels and motels,
             Section IV: EXCEPTIONS                               4. Health and fitness centers,
             The requirements established in Section              5. Schools, dormitories, and
             III shall not apply:                                      day care centers,
                                                                  6. Other institutional facilities,
              • To fixtures used for sanitary or safety           7. Shopping centers and malls,
                purposes in health care facilities;                    and
              • To fixtures used for safety purposes in           8. All properties where there
                facilities where hazardous wastes are                  will be a change in owner-
                present wastes are present and where                   ship, except when:
                health and safety might be adversely                        a) the seller and the
                affected by limited flow rates;                                  buyer certify that the
                                                                                 property will be
              • At the discretion of the appropriate
                                                                                 remodeled within
                authority, exemption from the
                                                                                 120 days of close of
                requirements established in Section
                III may be granted in where the
                                                                            b) that all the fixtures
                requirements would impose an
                                                                                 which do not meet
                unusual hardship, create a health
                                                                                 the standards
                hazard, interfere with use by the
                                                                                 established in
                physically challenged, or would
                                                                                 Section II of this
                require replumbing, or in the instance
                                                                                 ordinance will be
                of any other justifiable cause beyond
                                                                                 replaced with
                the control of the builder. Exemption
                                                                                 fixtures meeting
                shall be granted in writing, after ____
                                                                                 such standards of
                days after the request in writing was
                                                                                 this ordinance upon
                received by the appropriate authority,
                                                                                 the completion of
                and the cause for exemption or
                                                                                 the construction,
                refusal shall be noted.
                                                                            c) the new owner will
             Section V: EFFECTIVE DATE
                                                                                 allow inspection by
             This ordinance shall become effective on
                                                                                 an authorized agent
                                                                                 of ___________(ap-
                                                                                 propriate enforce-
                                                                                 ment authority).

26   The Etowah Initiative/Summer 1998
 B. Facilities may be exempted from          Section II: REQUIREMENTS:
    some or all of the requirements          All fixtures that do not meet the stan-
    below at the discretion of the           dards below shall be modified with retro-
    ____________________(appropri-           fit devices or replaced to meet the
    ate authority), provided that one or     following flow requirements at a static
    more of the following conditions         pressure of twenty (20) to eighty (80)
    applies:                                 pounds per square inch within 240 days
       1. A particular fixture cannot be     of the effective date of this ordinance:
            retrofitted to achieve further            1. Tank-type toilets shall not
            water use reductions or                        exceed 3.5 gallons per flush;
            cannot be retrofitted without             2. Flushometer type toilets shall
            replumbing;                                    not exceed 3 gallons per
       2. Retrofitting a particular                        flush;
            fixture would create a health             3. Tank-type urinals shall not
            or safety hazard;                              exceed 3 gallons per flush;
       3. Retrofitting a class of fixtures            4. Flushometer type urinals
            cannot be done so as to                        shall not exceed 1 gallon per
            ensure a two-year simple                       flush;
            payback period, as deter-                 5. Showerhead flow rates shall
            mined by                                       not exceed 3 gallons per
            _____________(appropriate                      minute; and
            authority).                               6. Lavatory and Kitchen faucet
                                                           flow rate shall not exceed
Exemptions shall be granted in writing.                    2.75 gallons per minute.

                                             Section III: EFFECTIVE DATE
                                             This ordinance shall become effective on

                                                             The Etowah Initiative/Summer 1998   27
              1                                          13
                 The Water Program, Water Efficiency:       Id.
                 AResource for Utility Managers,            Id.
                 Community Planners and Other               The American Water Works Associa-
                 Decision Makers. Rocky Mountain            tion, Pacific Northwest Section ,
                 Institute, 1991.                           Water Conservation Committee,
                 Vickers, Amy. “Water-Use Efficiency        Water Conservation Guidebook for
                 Standards for Plumbing Fixtures:           Small and Medium-sized Utilities
                 Benefits of National Legislation,”         1993, p. 4-5.
                 AWWA Journal. May 1990.                    The American Water Works Associa-
                 Art. III, § 2, cl. 2.                      tion, Pacific Northwest Section, Water
                 Texas v. New Mexico, 462 U.S. 554          Conservation Committee, Water
                 (1983).                                    Conservation Guidebook for Small
                 Carl Ehardt, “The Battle Over the          and Medium-sized Utilities 1993. p.
                 Hooch; The Federal-Interstate Water        4-6.
                 Compact and the Resolution of              The Bruce Company. Local Ordi-
                 Rights in the Chatahoochee River.”         nances for Water Efficiency, Final
                 Stanford Environmental Law Journal         Draft. March 31, 1993. p. 8
                 200, 212 (1992).                           The Bruce Company. Local Ordi-
                 Connecticut v. Massachusetes, 282          nances for Water Efficiency, Final
                 U.S. 660 (1931); Nebraska v. Wyo-          Draft. March 31, 1993. p. 7
                 ming, 325 U.S. 589 (1945).                 Marshelia DeVan, et. al. “Community
                 Colorado v. New Mexico, 103 S. Ct.         Development Water Conservation
                 539 (1982).                                Program: Project Harambee”. Pro-
                 Chaplin, Scott and Jim Dyer. “Water        ceedings of the 1995 Georgia Water
                 Efficiency as a Cost-Effective Supply      Resources Conference. 1995. p. 281
                 Option.” Rocky Mountain Institute.         Id. The toilets used in this program
                 The American Water Works Associa-          were the 1.6 gallon per flush model
                 tion, Pacific Northwest Section ,          manufactured in Atlanta by Toto Kiki,
                 Water Conservation Committee,              Inc.
                 Water Conservation Guidebook for           Id. The showerheads used in this
                 Small and Medium-sized Utilities           porgram were the 2.5 gallon per
                 (1993) at 4-3.                             minute showerheads manufactured by
                 the cost of new faucets and                Niagra.
                 showerheads can be offset by water         The American Water Works Associa-
                 bill savings within 3 years, and the       tion, Pacific Northwest Section, Water
                 costs of new toilets can be offset         Conservation Committee, Water
                 within 6 years.                            Conservation Guidebook for Small
                 The American Water Works Associa-          and Medium-Sized Utilities. 1993. p.
                 tion, Pacific Northwest Section ,          3-9
                 Water Conservation Committee,              Brown and Caldwell. Cobb County-
                 <<Water Conservation Guidebook for         Marietta Water Authority Final Draft
                 Small and Medium-sized Utilities>>         Report: Long-Range Water Supply
                 (1993) at 4-5.                             Master Plan Update. October 18,
                 Id.                                        1996.

28   The Etowah Initiative/Summer 1998
   Fox McCarthy of the Cobb County-
   Marietta Water Authority.
   Fox McCarthy of the Cobb County-
   Marietta Water Authority, and Brown
   and Cauldwell. Cobb County
   Marietta Water Authority Final Draft
   Report: Long-Range Water Supply
   Master Plan Update, October, 18,
   The Bruce Company. Local Ordi-
   nances for Water Efficiency, Final
   Draft. March 31, 1993. p. 21.
   Id. p. 26.
   Cooperative Extension Service, The
   University of Georgia College of
   Agriculture. Conserving Water at
   Home. July, 1994.
   The American Water Works Associa-
   tion, Pacific Northwest Section, Water
   Conservation Committee, Water
   Conservation Guidebook for Small
   and Medium-Sized Utilities. 1993. p.
   Cooperative Extension Service, The
   University of Georgia College of
   Agriculture. Conserving Water at
   Home. July, 1994.
   “Outdoor Watering Tips” Available
   H2Otips.htm. Last visited Sept. 19,
   Gary L. Wade. “Coping with Watering
   Restrictions in the Landscape,” The
   University of Georgia. 1996.
   This Sample Ordinance was derived
   from the language of the Florida
   Sample Ordinance. This provides an
   example of the detail that such an
   ordinance may provide for if necessary.
   The Bruce Company. Local Ordi-
   nances for Water Efficiency, Final
   Draft. Appendix A, 1993.                  The Etowah Initiative/Summer 1998   29
   The Bruce Company. Local Ordi-
   nances for Water Efficiency, Final

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