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2nd nine weeks review


									2nd nine weeks review
          Okay, it’s
       “Grammar Time”
• Nouns
• Pronouns
   • What’s the difference?
       Nouns vs Pronouns
• Nouns, of course, identify a person, place,
  thing, or idea.
• Pronouns, on the other hand, take the
  place of these nouns.
• Examples: Noun: girl Pronoun: she/her
• Noun: children Pronoun: them
The trick though, is to be sharp at identifying
          the nouns and pronouns.
• There are different kinds of nouns and different kinds of

• Possessive (nouns that show ownership) Michael’s, the
  Johnson’s, cat’s, cats’, Singlular==add an “s”
  Plural==add an apostrope and “s”

• Common Ex: City --does not specify a name
• Proper     Ex: Atlanta—specifies a name
• Collective Ex: crew, flock, band, --represents a group.
• Note: Do not get collective confused with plural nouns.
  Plural nouns represent more than one, not a group
• Plural nouns: houses, babies, cookies, cars, pencils,
• Personal: Me, he, she, I, it, us, them, they
• Reflexive/Intensive: himself, herself, themselves,
  ourselves—”end in self”
• Interrogative: Who, What, Which, Whom,Whose-
  -Asks a “question”—get it “interrogative”
• Demonstrative: That, These, This, Those—
  Demonstrate and start with “T”
• Possessive (show ownership): Mine, theirs,
  ours, yours, his, hers, its ===do not have
      Okay, it is (it’s) your turn
• 1. The bike belongs to the girl.
• It is (possessive pronoun) bike.

• 2. Mr. Cook owns the house.
• The house is (possessive noun).

• 3. The football team owns new jerseys.
• The jerseys are (possessive pronoun).

• 4. The prize goes to the Jones family.
•    The prize is the (possessive noun).
           Get ready for
         Fact Vs Opinion?
• A fact is something that can be proven

• An Opinion is something that can not be
Question #1

Abraham Lincoln was the greatest

       Fact           Opinion
Question #2

Marilyn Monroe was a movie actress.

       Fact           Opinion
Question #3

Tiger Woods is the best golfer who ever
played the game.

       Fact            Opinion
Question #4

Tiger Woods was the first African
American to win the Masters Golf

       Fact            Opinion
Response #1:

 Although Abraham Lincoln was a
president, it is an opinion that he was
the greatest one.
Response #2:

Marilyn Monroe was in 29 movies. Since
she acted in those movies, that is a fact.
Response #3:

Although Tiger Woods has won many golf
titles, whether he is the greatest golfer is an
opinion. It can be debated based on the
amount of titles he has won, but even this
might not be the only basis for evaluating him
as the greatest.
Response #4: Correct!

In the history of the Masters
Tournament, this is a fact. Tiger Woods
was the first African American to win the
Authors write for a reason.
This reason may be to:
   • ___________________
   • ___________________
   • ___________________
   • ___________________
Once upon a time there was a little boy who
loved to play soccer. He would run as fast as
he could to the ball, but every time he got
there and tried to kick it he would miss. He
started to think he wasn't very good at soccer,
but he didn't give up. His hard work paid off
and one day he scored the winning goal for
his team.
Art class should be longer than all other
specials. There never seems to be enough
time to get our pictures done. If we had more
time in art class everyone would do a better
job on their pictures and we would learn
more. Art is very important and we should
have the time we need to finish a project.
Making a peanut butter and jelly sandwich is
really easy. First, gather your ingredients
(bread, peanut butter, jelly) and two knives.
Spread the peanut butter on one slice of
bread and your jelly on the other. Put the
bread together and enjoy!
The ocean water glitters for as far as the eye
can see. The soft crash of waves and smell
of salt water have a calming affect. Paradise
Beach is a quiet place where you can watch
wildlife and relax.
1. If the author is telling a story, his
purpose is probably to _____________.
2. If the author is giving opinions, his
3.purpose is probably to
4. If the author is telling facts, his
purpose is probably to _____________.
5. If the author is giving sensory
details, his purpose is probably to ___.
           The apostrophe has only a handful of
           uses, but these uses are very
           important. A misplaced apostrophe
           can be annoying — not to mention
The apostrophe is used:
     1. to create possessives
     2. to show contractions
     3. to create some plural forms
           The apostrophe is used to create
           possessive forms for singular and
           plural nouns, especially nouns
           referring to people.

the mayor’s car, my father’s moustache
 Pedrito’s sister, Joe Kennedy’s habits
           When a noun already ends in “s,” you
           can decide whether or not to use
           another “s” after the apostrophe.

Charles’s car OR Charles’ car
With multisyllabic words, don’t add another “s”
after the apostrophe.
     Dumas’ second novel, Jesus’ birth,

     Socrates’ ideas, Illinois’ legislature
  To form the possessive of a plural noun, we
  pluralize first and then add the apostrophe.

 The Kennedys’ house
     The children’s playhouse

           The travelers’ expectations

Notice that with an irregular plural, the apostrophe
will come before the “s.”
 A contraction allows us to blend sounds by
 omitting letters from a verb construction. The
 apostrophe shows where something is left out.

I am a student here = I’m a student here.

I have been working on the railroad. = I’ve
been working on the railroad.
They could have been great together. = They
could’ve been great together.
 More contraction examples:

Let us go. = Let’s go.

Who is there? = Who’s there?

It is Dierdre. = It’s Dierdre.
 REMINDER: It’s is a contraction for “it is”;
 the possessive of it = its (no apostrophe).
  The apostrophe is also used to form the
  plural of digits and letters . . .
The word Mississippi has four s’s.

 She got three A’s and two B’s last semester.

 She dotted all her i’s very carefully.
. . . and to indicate omission of a number in a
            summer of ’99; class of ’38
The Mighty Comma
  The English House of Commas

Use a comma to set off introductory phrases.
 Anxious about the upcoming winter, settlers began to bicker
 among themselves about supplies.
 In the winter of 1644, nearly half the settlers died of
 starvation or exposure.

  If the introductory element is brief and the sentence can be
  read easily without the comma, it can be omitted.

In 1649 the settlers abandoned their initial outpost.
    The English House of Commas

Parenthetical elements:
   When an appositive phrase can be removed from a sentence
   without changing its meaning or making it ambiguous:
 Robert Frost, perhaps America’s most beloved poet, died when
 he was 88.
   An absolute phrase is treated as a parenthetical element:

Frankly, it doesn’t seem to matter.
   An addressed person’s (or people’s) name is always parenthetical:
I am warning you, good citizens of Hartford, this vote is crucial
to the future of our city.
   The English House of Commas

One more parenthetical element:
  An interjection is treated as a parenthetical element:

Excuse me, but there are, of course, many points of view that
we must consider before voting.
No, please lock the door before you leave. What is the
interjection in this sentence?
                  Hyphen usages
•       Use a hyphen (-) to unify certain compound
        words. (In many cases, it is advisable to use a
        good dictionary to see if a compound should be
        two words, hyphenated, or one word.)
    –     Two or more words modifying a noun or pronoun and used as
          an adjective often should be hyphenated.
       • able-bodied workers
       • long-needed vacation
       • pink-blossomed bush
       • best-known one
       • narrow-minded jerk
       • old-fashioned love song
       • well-dressed few
•   Compound words used as adjectives,
    preceding the words they modify, and as
    acting as a single idea often are
    hyphenated; whereas, they often are not
    hyphenated when they follow the words
    they modify.
•   • Don’t touch those red-hot coals. (hyphenation)
    • The coals are red hot, so don’t touch them. (no
    • Brad’s easy-going nature often causes others to take
    advantage of him. (hyphenation)
    • By nature, Brad is easy going, which often causes
    others to take advantage of him. (no hyphenation)
    • Wanda is a bright young lady. (no hyphenation,
    since “bright” and “young” are separate ideas)
o Numbers + unit-of-measurement adjectives
  are hyphenated before the noun, whether the
  number is spelled out or is a figure:
o 10-foot pole,
o three-feet high,
When a number, unit of measurement, and
  another adjective precede a noun, the entire
  term is hyphenated:
 40-foot-long fence,
 10-year-old girl,
Note exceptions: The fence was 40 feet long; The
  girl was 10 years old.
    –   Two or more words acting as noun, and consisting
        of combinations of nouns, verbs, adjectives, and/or
        prepositions, often should be hyphenated.
   • as-is
   • court-martial
   • forget-me-not
    • leveling-off
   • brother-in-law
   Mother-in-law
   • secretary-treasurer
   • jack-of-all-trades
•   Use a hyphen to unify prefixes joined
    to capitalized words.
   • anti-French
   • post-Civil War
   • trans-North American
   • non-Islamic
•   Use a hyphen in fractions if they are
    written out, but omit the hyphen if one
    already appears in either the
    numerator or the denominator.
   • two-thirds
   • eleven-seventeenths
   • sixty-thousandths
   • forty seven-thousandths
   • twenty-three thirtieths
   • fifty-eight ninety-sevenths
•   Use a hyphen between a numbered
    figure and its unit of measurement.
   • 2-liter bottle
   • 8-foot board
   • 35-hour week
   • 5-yard gain
   • 10-day vacation
   • 500-milligram dose
•   Use a hyphen between the parts of
    compound numerals from twenty-one
    to ninety-nine.
   • thirty-eight
   • fifty-five
   • seventy-three
   • forty-third
   • sixty-ninth
   • eighty-first

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