VIEWS: 4 PAGES: 41 POSTED ON: 2/15/2012
2nd nine weeks review Okay, it’s “Grammar Time” • Nouns • Pronouns • What’s the difference? Nouns vs Pronouns • Nouns, of course, identify a person, place, thing, or idea. • Pronouns, on the other hand, take the place of these nouns. • Examples: Noun: girl Pronoun: she/her • Noun: children Pronoun: them The trick though, is to be sharp at identifying the nouns and pronouns. • There are different kinds of nouns and different kinds of pronouns. • NOUNS • Possessive (nouns that show ownership) Michael’s, the Johnson’s, cat’s, cats’, Singlular==add an “s” Plural==add an apostrope and “s” • Common Ex: City --does not specify a name • Proper Ex: Atlanta—specifies a name • Collective Ex: crew, flock, band, --represents a group. • Note: Do not get collective confused with plural nouns. Plural nouns represent more than one, not a group • Plural nouns: houses, babies, cookies, cars, pencils, Pronouns • Personal: Me, he, she, I, it, us, them, they • Reflexive/Intensive: himself, herself, themselves, ourselves—”end in self” • Interrogative: Who, What, Which, Whom,Whose- -Asks a “question”—get it “interrogative” • Demonstrative: That, These, This, Those— Demonstrate and start with “T” • Possessive (show ownership): Mine, theirs, ours, yours, his, hers, its ===do not have apostrophes Okay, it is (it’s) your turn • 1. The bike belongs to the girl. • It is (possessive pronoun) bike. • 2. Mr. Cook owns the house. • The house is (possessive noun). • 3. The football team owns new jerseys. • The jerseys are (possessive pronoun). • 4. The prize goes to the Jones family. • The prize is the (possessive noun). Get ready for Fact Vs Opinion? • A fact is something that can be proven • An Opinion is something that can not be proven Question #1 Abraham Lincoln was the greatest president. Fact Opinion Question #2 Marilyn Monroe was a movie actress. Fact Opinion Question #3 Tiger Woods is the best golfer who ever played the game. Fact Opinion Question #4 Tiger Woods was the first African American to win the Masters Golf Tournament. Fact Opinion Response #1: Although Abraham Lincoln was a president, it is an opinion that he was the greatest one. Response #2: Marilyn Monroe was in 29 movies. Since she acted in those movies, that is a fact. Response #3: Although Tiger Woods has won many golf titles, whether he is the greatest golfer is an opinion. It can be debated based on the amount of titles he has won, but even this might not be the only basis for evaluating him as the greatest. Response #4: Correct! In the history of the Masters Tournament, this is a fact. Tiger Woods was the first African American to win the Masters. Authors write for a reason. This reason may be to: • ___________________ • ___________________ • ___________________ • ___________________ Once upon a time there was a little boy who loved to play soccer. He would run as fast as he could to the ball, but every time he got there and tried to kick it he would miss. He started to think he wasn't very good at soccer, but he didn't give up. His hard work paid off and one day he scored the winning goal for his team. Art class should be longer than all other specials. There never seems to be enough time to get our pictures done. If we had more time in art class everyone would do a better job on their pictures and we would learn more. Art is very important and we should have the time we need to finish a project. Making a peanut butter and jelly sandwich is really easy. First, gather your ingredients (bread, peanut butter, jelly) and two knives. Spread the peanut butter on one slice of bread and your jelly on the other. Put the bread together and enjoy! The ocean water glitters for as far as the eye can see. The soft crash of waves and smell of salt water have a calming affect. Paradise Beach is a quiet place where you can watch wildlife and relax. 1. If the author is telling a story, his purpose is probably to _____________. 2. If the author is giving opinions, his 3.purpose is probably to _____________. 4. If the author is telling facts, his purpose is probably to _____________. 5. If the author is giving sensory details, his purpose is probably to ___. THE MIGHTY APOSTROPHE The apostrophe has only a handful of uses, but these uses are very important. A misplaced apostrophe can be annoying — not to mention lonely. The apostrophe is used: 1. to create possessives 2. to show contractions 3. to create some plural forms THE MIGHTY APOSTROPHE The apostrophe is used to create possessive forms for singular and plural nouns, especially nouns referring to people. the mayor’s car, my father’s moustache Pedrito’s sister, Joe Kennedy’s habits THE MIGHTY APOSTROPHE When a noun already ends in “s,” you can decide whether or not to use another “s” after the apostrophe. Charles’s car OR Charles’ car With multisyllabic words, don’t add another “s” after the apostrophe. Dumas’ second novel, Jesus’ birth, Socrates’ ideas, Illinois’ legislature THE MIGHTY APOSTROPHE To form the possessive of a plural noun, we pluralize first and then add the apostrophe. The Kennedys’ house The children’s playhouse The travelers’ expectations Notice that with an irregular plural, the apostrophe will come before the “s.” THE MIGHTY APOSTROPHE A contraction allows us to blend sounds by omitting letters from a verb construction. The apostrophe shows where something is left out. I am a student here = I’m a student here. I have been working on the railroad. = I’ve been working on the railroad. They could have been great together. = They could’ve been great together. THE MIGHTY APOSTROPHE More contraction examples: Let us go. = Let’s go. Who is there? = Who’s there? It is Dierdre. = It’s Dierdre. REMINDER: It’s is a contraction for “it is”; the possessive of it = its (no apostrophe). THE MIGHTY APOSTROPHE The apostrophe is also used to form the plural of digits and letters . . . The word Mississippi has four s’s. She got three A’s and two B’s last semester. She dotted all her i’s very carefully. . . . and to indicate omission of a number in a date: summer of ’99; class of ’38 The Mighty Comma The English House of Commas Use a comma to set off introductory phrases. Anxious about the upcoming winter, settlers began to bicker among themselves about supplies. In the winter of 1644, nearly half the settlers died of starvation or exposure. If the introductory element is brief and the sentence can be read easily without the comma, it can be omitted. In 1649 the settlers abandoned their initial outpost. The English House of Commas Parenthetical elements: When an appositive phrase can be removed from a sentence without changing its meaning or making it ambiguous: Robert Frost, perhaps America’s most beloved poet, died when he was 88. An absolute phrase is treated as a parenthetical element: Frankly, it doesn’t seem to matter. An addressed person’s (or people’s) name is always parenthetical: I am warning you, good citizens of Hartford, this vote is crucial to the future of our city. The English House of Commas One more parenthetical element: An interjection is treated as a parenthetical element: Excuse me, but there are, of course, many points of view that we must consider before voting. No, please lock the door before you leave. What is the interjection in this sentence? Hyphen usages • Use a hyphen (-) to unify certain compound words. (In many cases, it is advisable to use a good dictionary to see if a compound should be two words, hyphenated, or one word.) – Two or more words modifying a noun or pronoun and used as an adjective often should be hyphenated. • able-bodied workers • long-needed vacation • pink-blossomed bush • best-known one • narrow-minded jerk • old-fashioned love song • well-dressed few • Compound words used as adjectives, preceding the words they modify, and as acting as a single idea often are hyphenated; whereas, they often are not hyphenated when they follow the words they modify. • • Don’t touch those red-hot coals. (hyphenation) • The coals are red hot, so don’t touch them. (no hyphenation) • Brad’s easy-going nature often causes others to take advantage of him. (hyphenation) • By nature, Brad is easy going, which often causes others to take advantage of him. (no hyphenation) • Wanda is a bright young lady. (no hyphenation, since “bright” and “young” are separate ideas) o Numbers + unit-of-measurement adjectives are hyphenated before the noun, whether the number is spelled out or is a figure: o 10-foot pole, o three-feet high, When a number, unit of measurement, and another adjective precede a noun, the entire term is hyphenated: 40-foot-long fence, 10-year-old girl, Note exceptions: The fence was 40 feet long; The girl was 10 years old. – Two or more words acting as noun, and consisting of combinations of nouns, verbs, adjectives, and/or prepositions, often should be hyphenated. • as-is • court-martial • forget-me-not • leveling-off • brother-in-law Mother-in-law • secretary-treasurer • jack-of-all-trades • Use a hyphen to unify prefixes joined to capitalized words. • anti-French • post-Civil War • trans-North American • non-Islamic • Use a hyphen in fractions if they are written out, but omit the hyphen if one already appears in either the numerator or the denominator. • two-thirds • eleven-seventeenths • sixty-thousandths • forty seven-thousandths • twenty-three thirtieths • fifty-eight ninety-sevenths • Use a hyphen between a numbered figure and its unit of measurement. • 2-liter bottle • 8-foot board • 35-hour week • 5-yard gain • 10-day vacation • 500-milligram dose • Use a hyphen between the parts of compound numerals from twenty-one to ninety-nine. • thirty-eight • fifty-five • seventy-three • forty-third • sixty-ninth • eighty-first
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