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									Cloud Computing




   An Approach Paper
       Presented by



    Harish K. Kaashyap
        1sr Year, EEE
                              CLOUD COMPUTING




Cloud computing is an emerging computing technology that uses the internet and central remote
servers to maintain data and applications. Cloud computing allows consumers and businesses to
use applications without installation and access their personal files at any computer with internet
access. This technology allows for much more efficient computing by centralizing storage,
memory, processing and bandwidth. Cloud computing is broken down into three segments:
"applications," "platforms," and "infrastructure." Each segment serves a different purpose and
offers different products for businesses and individuals around the world.




Cloud computing is a general term for anything that involves delivering hosted services over the
Internet. The name cloud computing was inspired by the cloud symbol that's often used to
represent the Internet in flow charts and diagrams.

A cloud service has three distinct characteristics that differentiate it from traditional hosting. It is
sold on demand, typically by the minute or the hour; it is elastic -- a user can have as much or as
little of a service as they want at any given time; and the service is fully managed by the provider
(the consumer needs nothing but a personal computer and Internet access). Significant
innovations in virtualization and distributed computing, as well as improved access to high-speed
Internet and a weak economy, have accelerated interest in cloud computing.

A cloud can be private or public. A public cloud sells services to anyone on the Internet.
(Currently, Amazon Web Services is the largest public cloud provider.) A private cloud is a
proprietary network or a data center that supplies hosted services to a limited number of people.
When a service provider uses public cloud resources to create their private cloud, the result is
called a virtual private cloud. Private or public, the goal of cloud computing is to provide easy,
scalable access to computing resources and IT services.




           Picture showing some of the vendors providing Cloud Computing services

Cloud computing is a style of computing in which dynamically scalable and often virtualized
resources are provided as a service over the Internet. Users need not have knowledge of,
expertise in, or control over the technology infrastructure in the "cloud" that supports them.
The concept generally incorporates combinations of the following:

      Platform as a service (PaaS)
      Software as a service (SaaS)
      Infrastructure as a service (IaaS)
The term cloud is used as a metaphor for the Internet, based on how the Internet is depicted in
computer network diagrams and is an abstraction for the complex infrastructure it conceals.

The first academic use of this term appears to be by Prof. Ramnath K. Chellappa (currently at
Goizueta Business School, Emory University) who originally defined it as a computing
paradigm where the boundaries of computing will be determined by economic rationale rather
than technical limit.


Cloud computing is becoming one of the next industry buzz words. It joins the ranks of terms
including: grid     computing,   utility computing,      virtualization,   clustering,   etc.

Cloud computing overlaps some of the concepts of distributed, grid and utility computing,
however it does have its own meaning if contextually used correctly. The conceptual overlap is
partly due to technology changes, usages and implementations over the years.

Trends in usage of the terms from Google searches shows Cloud Computing is a relatively new
term introduced in the past year. There has also been a decline in general interest of Grid, Utility
and Distributed computing. Likely they will be around in usage for quit a while to come. But
Cloud computing has become the new buzz word driven largely by marketing and service
offerings from big corporate players like Google, IBM and Amazon.
The term cloud computing probably comes from (at least partly) the use of a cloud image to
represent the Internet or some large networked environment. We don’t care much what’s in the
cloud or what goes on there except that we depend on reliably sending data to and receiving data
from it. Cloud computing is now associated with a higher level abstraction of the cloud. Instead
of there being data pipes, routers and servers, there are now services. The underlying hardware
and software of networking is of course still there but there is now higher level service
capabilities available used to build applications. Behind the services are data and compute
resources. A user of the service doesn’t necessarily care about how it is implemented, what
technologies are used or how it’s managed. Only that there is access to it and has a level of
reliability necessary to meet the application requirements.

In essence this is distributed computing. An application is built using the resource from multiple
services potentially from multiple locations. At this point, typically you still need to know the
endpoint to access the services rather than having the cloud provide you available resources. This
is also know as Software as a Service. Behind the service interface is usually a grid of computers
to provide the resources. The grid is typically hosted by one company and consists of a
homogeneous environment of hardware and software making it easier to support and maintain.
(note: my definition of a grid is different from the wikipedia definition, but homogeneous
environments in data centers is typically what I have run across). Once you start paying for the
services and the resources utilized, well that’s utility computing.

Cloud computing really is accessing resources and services needed to perform functions with
dynamically changing needs. An application or service developer requests access from the cloud
rather than a specific endpoint or named resource. What goes on in the cloud manages multiple
infrastructures across multiple organizations and consists of one or more frameworks overlaid on
top of the infrastructures tying them together. Frameworks provide mechanisms for:

      self-healing
      self monitoring
      resource registration and discovery
      service level agreement definitions
      automatic reconfiguration

The cloud is a virtualization of resources that maintains and manages itself. There are of course
people resources to keep hardware, operation systems and networking in proper order. But from
the perspective of a user or application developer only the cloud is referenced. The Assimilator
project is a framework that executes across a heterogeneous environment in a local area network
providing a local cloud environment. In the works is the addition of a network overlay to start
providing an infrastructure across the Internet to help achieve the goal of true cloud computing.
                                BRIEF COMPARISONS




                                                   Vs




Cloud computing can be confused with:

   1. grid computing—"a form of distributed computing whereby a 'super and virtual
      computer' is composed of a cluster of networked, loosely coupled computers, acting in
      concert to perform very large tasks";
   2. utility computing—the "packaging of computing resources, such as computation and
      storage, as a metered service similar to a traditional public utility such as electricity"; and
   3. Autonomic computing—"computer systems capable of self-management".

Indeed, many cloud computing deployments as of 2009 depend on grids, have autonomic
characteristics, and bill like utilities—but cloud computing tends to expand what is provided by
grids and utilities. Some successful cloud architectures have little or no centralized infrastructure
or billing systems whatsoever, including peer-to-peer networks such as Bit Torrent and Skype,
and volunteer computing such as SETI@home.

Furthermore, many analysts are keen to stress the evolutionary, incremental pathway between
grid technology and cloud computing, tracing roots back to Application Service Providers
(ASPs) in the 1990s and the parallels to SaaS, often referred to as applications on the cloud.
Some believe the true difference between these terms is marketing and branding; that the
technology evolution was incremental and the marketing evolution discrete.
                                CHARACTERISTICS




        Cloud computing customers do not generally own the physical infrastructure serving as
host to the software platform in question. Instead, they avoid capital expenditure by renting
usage from a third-party provider. They consume resources as a service and pay only for
resources that they use. Many cloud-computing offerings employ the utility computing model,
which is analogous to how traditional utility services (such as electricity) are consumed, while
others bill on a subscription basis. Sharing "perishable and intangible" computing power among
multiple tenants can improve utilization rates, as servers are not unnecessarily left idle (which
can reduce costs significantly while increasing the speed of application development). A side
effect of this approach is that overall computer usage rises dramatically, as customers do not
have to engineer for peak load limits. Additionally, "increased high-speed bandwidth" makes it
possible to receive the same response times from centralized infrastructure at other sites.
Diagram showing economics of cloud computing versus traditional IT, including capital
expenditure (CapEx) and operational expenditure (OpEx)



        Cloud computing users can avoid capital expenditure (CapEx) on hardware, software,
and services when they pay a provider only for what they use. Consumption is usually billed on a
utility (e.g. resources consumed, like electricity) or subscription (e.g. time based, like a
newspaper) basis with little or no upfront cost. A few cloud providers are now beginning to offer
the service for a flat monthly fee as opposed to on a utility billing basis. Other benefits of this
time sharing style approach are low barriers to entry, shared infrastructure and costs, low
management overhead, and immediate access to a broad range of applications. Users can
generally terminate the contract at any time (thereby avoiding return on investment risk and
uncertainty) and the services are often covered by service level agreements (SLAs) with financial
penalties.

       According to Nicholas Carr, the strategic importance of information technology is
diminishing as it becomes standardized and less expensive. He argues that the cloud computing
paradigm shift is similar to the displacement of electricity generators by electricity grids early in
the 20th century.

        Although companies might be able to save on upfront capital expenditures, they might
not save much and might actually pay more for operating expenses. In situations where the
capital expense would be relatively small, or where the organization has more flexibility in their
capital budget than their operating budget, the cloud model might not make great fiscal sense.
Other factors impacting the scale of any potential cost savings include the efficiency of a
company’s data center as compared to the cloud vendor’s, the company’s existing operating
costs, the level of adoption of cloud computing, and the type of functionality being hosted in the
cloud.
                     SERVICE PROVIDER COMPANIES




The picture shows some of the major cloud computing service providers. Cloud services are also
being adopted by individual users through large enterprises including Vmware, 3PAR, General
Electric, and Procter & Gamble.
                                    ARCHITECTURE
        The majority of cloud computing infrastructure, as of 2009, consists of reliable services
delivered through data centers and built on servers with different levels of virtualization
technologies. The services are accessible anywhere that provides access to networking
infrastructure. Clouds often appear as single points of access for all consumers' computing needs.
Commercial offerings are generally expected to meet quality of service (QoS) requirements of
customers and typically offer SLAs. Open standards are critical to the growth of cloud
computing, and open source software has provided the foundation for many cloud computing
implementations.


                                            LAYERS




                                             CLIENTS

A cloud client consists of computer hardware and/or computer software that relies on cloud
computing for application delivery, or that is specifically designed for delivery of cloud services
and that, in either case, is essentially useless without it. For example:

      Mobile (Android, iPhone, Windows Mobile)[

      Thin client (Cherry Pal, Zonbu, gOS-based systems)

      Thick client / Web browser (Mozilla Fire fox, Google Chrome, Web Kit)
                                          APPLICATION

A cloud application leverages cloud computing in software architecture, often eliminating the
need to install and run the application on the customer's own computer, thus alleviating the
burden of software maintenance, ongoing operation, and support. For example:

      Peer-to-peer / volunteer computing (BOINC, Skype)
      Web applications (Facebook, Twitter, YouTube)
      Security as a service (Message Labs, Pure wire, ScanSafe, Zscaler)
      Software as a service (Google Apps, Sales force)
      Software plus services (Microsoft Online Services)
      Storage [Distributed]
           o Content distribution (Bit Torrent, Amazon Cloud Front)
           o Synchronization (Drop box, Live Mesh)


                                           PLATFORM

A cloud platform (PaaS) delivers a computing platform and/or solution stack as a service,
generally consuming cloud infrastructure and supporting cloud applications. It facilitates
deployment of applications without the cost and complexity of buying and managing the
underlying hardware and software layers. For example:

      Services
           o Identity (OAuth, OpenID)
           o Payments (Amazon Flexible Payments Service, Google Checkout, PayPal)
           o Search (Alexa, Google Custom Search, Yahoo! BOSS)
           o Real-world (Amazon Mechanical Turk)
      Solution stacks
           o Java (Google App Engine)
           o PHP (Rackspace Cloud Sites)
           o Python Django (Google App Engine)
           o Ruby on Rails (Heroku)
           o .NET (Azure Services Platform, Rackspace Cloud Sites)
           o Proprietary (Force.com, WorkXpress, Wolf Frameworks)
      Storage [Structured]
           o Databases (Amazon SimpleDB, BigTable)
           o File storage (Amazon S3, Nirvanix, Rackspace Cloud Files)
           o Queues (Amazon SQS)


                                       INFRASTRUCTURE

Cloud infrastructure (IaaS) is the delivery of computer infrastructure, typically a platform
virtualization environment, as a service. For example:

      Compute (Amazon Cloud Watch, Right Scale)
           o Physical machines)
           o Virtual machines (Amazon EC2, GoGrid, Rackspace Cloud Servers)
           o OS-level virtualization
      Network (Amazon VPC)
      Storage [Raw] (Amazon EBS)
                                          SERVERS

The servers layer consists of computer hardware and/or computer software products that are
specifically and solely designed for the delivery of cloud services. For example:

      Fabric computing (Cisco UCS)
                                         HISTORY
         The Cloud is a term that borrows from telephony. Up to the 1990s, data circuits
(including those that carried Internet traffic) were hard-wired between destinations.
Subsequently, long-haul telephone companies began offering Virtual Private Network (VPN)
service for data communications. Telephone companies were able to offer VPN based services
with the same guaranteed bandwidth as fixed circuits at a lower cost because they could switch
traffic to balance utilization as they saw fit, thus utilizing their overall network bandwidth more
effectively. As a result of this arrangement, it was impossible to determine in advance precisely
which paths the traffic would be routed over. The term "telecom cloud" was used to describe this
type of networking, and cloud computing is conceptually somewhat similar.

        Cloud computing relies heavily on virtual machines (VMs), which are spawned on
demand to meet user needs. A common depiction in network diagrams is a cloud outline. The
underlying concept of cloud computing dates back to 1960, when John McCarthy opined that
"computation may someday be organized as a public utility"; indeed it shares characteristics with
service bureaus that date back to the 1960s. The term cloud had already come into commercial
use in the early 1990s to refer to large Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) networks. By the
turn of the 21st century, the term "cloud computing" began to appear more widely, although
most of the focus at that time was limited to SaaS.

        In 1999, Salesforce.com was established by Marc Benioff, Parker Harris, and their
associates. They applied many technologies developed by companies such as Google and Yahoo!
to business applications. They also provided the concept of "On demand" and SaaS with their
real business and successful customers. The key for SaaS is that it is customizable by customers
with limited technical support required. Business users have enthusiastically welcomed the
resulting flexibility and speed.

       In the early 2000s, Microsoft extended the concept of SaaS through the development of
web services. IBM detailed these concepts in 2001 in the Autonomic Computing Manifesto,
which described advanced automation techniques such as self-monitoring, self-healing, self-
configuring, and self-optimizing in the management of complex IT systems with heterogeneous
storage, servers, applications, networks, security mechanisms, and other system elements that
can be virtualized across an enterprise.

       Amazon played a key role in the development of cloud computing by modernizing their
data centers after the dot-com bubble and, having found that the new cloud architecture resulted
in significant internal efficiency improvements, providing access to their systems through
Amazon Web Services in 2005 on a utility computing basis.

        In 2007, Google, IBM, and a number of universities embarked on a large scale cloud
computing research project, around the time the term started, it was a hot topic. By mid-2008,
cloud computing gained popularity in the mainstream press, and numerous related events took
place. In 2009, Cloud Computing Solutions by Google, Amazon, Microsoft, and IBM are the
most popular among users with Sun and Ubuntu following them in the Cloud.
                   CRITICISM AND DISADVANTAGES




Since cloud computing does not allow users to physically possess the storage of their data (the
exception being the possibility that data can be backed up to a user-owned storage device, such
as a USB flash drive or hard disk) it does leave responsibility of data storage and control in the
hands of the provider. Responsibility for backup data, disaster recovery and other static
"snapshots" has been a long-standing concern for both outsourced as well as resident IT systems.
Additional issues are raised around process (methods, functions, transactions, etc.) visibility and
transportability given the more complex nature of cloud and web service systems.

If you are going to move all of your information to data centers situated outside your company,
then security should be of utmost importance.
        • Lost control comes with handing over your data and information
        • Depending on third-party to ensure security and confidentiality of data and information
        • If your cloud host disappears, where does your information go?


If you are a small business, or even a Fortune 500 company, cloud computing can take a large
expense and make it work for your budget. Funding the servers, software, and information
technology professionals can be a real burden and finding cost-efficient means through cloud
hosting can be very beneficial. With Amazon moving into the cloud computing environment,
everyone has access to what could be a major change in business intelligence.

        One of the important issues in cloud computing that needs to be addressed is that once
you upload your data to a cloud computing service provider, you lose control over your data, and
if the computing service provider is experiencing problems, you may not be able to access your
data at all. Also, in most of the cases, at least this is true for free services; there is no one on the
provider's side to assist you with a problem.
To sum it all up :
                                  POLITICAL ISSUES
The Cloud spans many borders and "may be the ultimate form of globalization." As such, it
becomes subject to complex geopolitical issues, and providers are pressed to satisfy myriad
regulatory environments in order to deliver service to a global market. This dates back to the
early days of the Internet, when libertarian thinkers felt that "cyberspace was a distinct place
calling for laws and legal institutions of its own".

Despite efforts (such as US-EU Safe Harbor) to harmonize the legal environment, as of 2009,
providers such as Amazon Web Services cater to major markets (typically the United States and
the European Union) by deploying local infrastructure and allowing customers to select
"availability zones." Nonetheless, concerns persist about security and privacy from individual
through governmental levels (e.g., the USA PATRIOT Act, the use of national security letters,
and the Electronic Communications Privacy Act's Stored Communications Act.




                                  RISK MITIGATION
Corporations or end-users wishing to avoid not being able to access their data—or even losing
it—are typically advised to research vendors' policies on data security before using their services.
One technology analyst and consulting firm, Gartner, lists several security issues that one should
discuss with cloud-computing vendors:

      Privileged user access— who has specialized access to data and about the hiring and
       management of such administrators?
      Regulatory compliance—is the vendor willing to undergo external audits and/or security
       certifications?
      Data location—does the provider allow for any control over the location of data?
      Data segregation—is encryption available at all stages, and was these encryption schemes
       designed and tested by experienced professionals?
      Recovery—what happens to data in the case of a disaster, and does the vendor offer
       complete restoration, and, if so, how long does that process take?
      Investigative Support—Does the vendor have the ability to investigate any inappropriate
       or illegal activity?
      Long-term viability—what happens to data if the company goes out of business, and is
       data returned and in what format?
      Data availability—Can the vendor move your data onto a different environment should
       the existing environment become compromised or unavailable?
                                 KEY BENEFITS




   Agility improves with users able to rapidly and inexpensively re-provision technological
    infrastructure resources. The cost of overall computing is unchanged, however, and the
    providers will merely absorb up-front costs and spread costs over a longer period.



   Cost is claimed to be greatly reduced and capital expenditure is converted to operational
    expenditure]. This ostensibly lowers barriers to entry, as infrastructure is typically
    provided by a third-party and does not need to be purchased for one-time or infrequent
    intensive computing tasks.




   Device and location independence enable users to access systems using a web browser
    regardless of their location or what device they are using (e.g., PC, mobile). As
    infrastructure is off-site (typically provided by a third-party) and accessed via the
    Internet, users can connect from anywhere.



   Multi-tenancy enables sharing of resources and costs across a large pool of users thus
    allowing for:
        o Centralization of infrastructure in locations with lower costs (such as real estate,
           electricity, etc.)
        o Peak-load capacity increases (users need not engineer for highest possible load-
           levels)
        o Utilization and efficiency improvements for systems that are often only 10–20%
           utilized.
   Reliability improves through the use of multiple redundant sites, which makes cloud
    computing suitable for business continuity and disaster recovery.



   Scalability via dynamic ("on-demand") provisioning of resources on a fine-grained, self-
    service basis near real-time, without users having to engineer for peak loads. Performance
    is monitored and consistent and loosely-coupled architectures are constructed using web
    services as the system interface.




   Security typically improves due to centralization of data, increased security-focused
    resources, etc., Security is often as good as or better than under traditional systems, in
    part because providers are able to devote resources to solving security issues that many
    customers cannot afford.



   Sustainability comes about through improved resource utilization, more efficient
    systems, and carbon neutrality. Nonetheless, computers and associated infrastructure are
    major consumers of energy. A given (server-based) computing task will use X amount of
    energy whether it is on-site, or off.
                                            TYPES




                                         PUBLIC CLOUD

        Public cloud or external cloud describes cloud computing in the traditional mainstream
sense, whereby resources are dynamically provisioned on a fine-grained, self-service basis over
the Internet, via web applications/web services, from an off-site third-party provider who shares
resources and bills on a fine-grained utility computing basis.

                                         HYBRID CLOUD

        A hybrid cloud environment consisting of multiple internal and/or external providers
"will be typical for most enterprises". A hybrid cloud can describe configuration combining a
local device, such as a Plug computer with cloud services. It can also describe configurations
combining virtual and physical, collocated assets—for example, a mostly virtualized
environment that requires physical servers, routers, or other hardware such as a network
appliance acting as a firewall or spam filter.

                                        PRIVATE CLOUD



        Private cloud and internal cloud are neologisms that some vendors have recently used to
describe offerings that emulate cloud computing on private networks. These (typically
virtualization automation) products claim to "deliver some benefits of cloud computing without
the pitfalls", capitalizing on data security, corporate governance, and reliability concerns. They
have been criticized on the basis that users "still have to buy, build, and manage them" and as
such do not benefit from lower up-front capital costs and less hands-on management, essentially
"[lacking] the economic model that makes cloud computing such an intriguing concept".
        While an analyst predicted in 2008 that private cloud networks would be the future of
corporate IT, there is some uncertainty whether they are a reality even within the same firm.
Analysts also claim that within five years a "huge percentage" of small and medium enterprises
will get most of their computing resources from external cloud computing providers as they "will
not have economies of scale to make it worth staying in the IT business" or be able to afford
private clouds. Analysts have reported on Platform's view that private clouds are a stepping stone
to external clouds, particularly for the financial services, and that future datacenters will look like
internal clouds.

       The term has also been used in the logical rather than physical sense, for example in
reference to platform as a service offering, though such offerings including Microsoft's Azure
Services Platform are not available for on-premises deployment.
                      CONCLUSION – TAKE HOME POINTS




    Despite its possible security and privacy risks, Cloud Computing - according to a magazine
article due to be published later this Fall - has six main benefits that the public sector and
government IT organizations are certain to want to take advantage of. In very brief summary
form they are as follows.

      Reduced Cost
       Cloud technology is paid incrementally, saving organizations money.
      Increased Storage
       Organizations can store more data than on private computer systems.
      Highly Automated
       No longer do IT personnel need to worry about keeping software up to date.
      Flexibility
       Cloud computing offers much more flexibility than past computing methods.
      More Mobility
       Employees can access information wherever they are, rather than having to remain at
       their desks.
      Allows IT to Shift Focus
       No longer having to worry about constant server updates and other computing issues,
       government organizations will be free to concentrate on innovation.
                                   REFERENCES




http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cloud_computing

http://www.wikinvest.com/concept/Cloud_Computing

http://web2.sys-con.com/

http://forums.webhostdir.com/

http://searchcloudcomputing.techtarget.com/

								
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