Atmosphere and the Ocean by veer757575


Atmosphere and the Ocean

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									           The Global wind system and heat transport

Winds blow from regions of high pressure to
regions of low pressure

Global wind system redistributes heat between
low, mid- and high latitudes

In low latitudes Hadley circulation associated
with the Intertropical Convergence Zone
(ITCZ) dominates
The greater the speed of the wind, the greater the frictional force acting on the
        sea surface, and the stronger the surface current generated.

        The frictional force= wind stress (τ):

                                   τ = c W2

The value of c depends on the prevailing atmospheric conditions. The more turbulent the
                        atmosphere, the higher the value of c.

                  The value of c increase with increasing wind speed.
In mid-latitudes
cyclones and
anticyclones are the
circulation systems
Heat is transported from the equator to higher latitudes as
a result of warm air moving polewards.

Over the tropical latitudes, atmospheric convection
transports heat from the sea surface into the atmosphere,
resulting in the formation of clouds.

The most spectacular example of heat transfer from ocean
to atmosphere is the generation of tropical cyclones.
                                    The low pressure at the center of
                                    the tropical cyclone is amongst the
                                    lowest that occur on Earth's
                                    surface at sea level.

An eye of the cyclone is the area
of sinking air at the center of

The eye is characterized by
clear skies and calm weather. It
is circular in shape and in size
ranges from 8 - 200 km.
                           The Trade Winds

Trade winds blow towards
the equator from the
south-east and north-

The North-East and the
South-East Trades
form part of the
circulation known as
Hadley circulation.
                             Hadley Cells

The ocean drives the
atmospheric circulation
by heating the
atmosphere, mostly in the

Much heat is released by
rain in the Intertropical
Convergence Zone (ITCZ)
which drives much of the
atmospheric circulation.

This circulation is called
the Hadley circulation.
         Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ)
This is the zone along which the wind systems of the two hemispheres converge.

Associated with the zone of highest sea surface temperature.
A: Idealized winds generated by pressure gradient and Coriolis Force.

B: Actual wind patterns owing to land mass distribution.
ITCZ, cyclones (L) and anticyclones (H)

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