Successful Professional development Procedures Annotated bibliography

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Successful Professional development Procedures Annotated bibliography Powered By Docstoc

Kasi L. Bolden

Dr. Pam Cozart

EDAD 651 Personnel & Staff Development

13 November 2011

       Guskey, T. (2003). Professional Development That Works: What Makes

Professional Development Effective? Phi Delta Kappan. Retrieved from

       In a recent study Guskey summarized 13 different article regarding

characteristics of “effective Professional development” over a period of a decade,

using several reputable publications. The most frequently cited characteristics was

“enhancement of teacher content and pedagogical knowledge”, a need to improve

student learning in math and science. Most of the information was research-based

but the information gathered rarely included rigorous investigations, noting

“instructional practices or student learning outcomes Instead it included surveys or

opinions of researchers and educator. The most frequently cited characteristics

were, sufficient time, collaboration exchange, share ideas, share strategies and

professional development needs to be structured and purposeful with reflection.

This article was clear and concise. It listed the weakness of the study, noting the

consistencies of the information gathered. The information gathered was wide.

       (2011) Meaningful professional development promises greater classroom


       The North Carolina Department of Public Instruction spent several months

training teacher, principals and superintendents across the state. Funds were

awarded to the NCDPI by the Race to the Top funds. The training wanted to directly

support the school district by building a solid structure for their schools based on

the schools needs. There was a deep level of profession development through face-

to-face sessions, via webinars and online professional development modules. The

purpose of the session was to “improve curriculum content, instill processes for

ensuring sustainability for years to come” College and universities also partnered up

with the NCDPI to enhance the training. New standards were developed, which

required more collaboration, focus on literacy, include reading, and writing

vocabulary. The training helped principals and teacher make good use of student

data to drive instruction and to better meet the academic needs of their students.

This article basically documented the success of their summer institute through a

news release. The number of sessions and how they implemented the new common

core standards documented in the article.

       Guskey, T. (1995) Results-Oriented Professional Development: In Search Of

An Optimal Mix Of Effective Practices. Journal of Staff Development, v15 n4 p42-50

Fall 1994.

       Professional development must include organizational development as well

as individual development. This article focused on the involvement of teacher, but

every one who affects student learning. Information must be gathered on the

outcome of professional development, and not limit information gathered through

surveys. This article also considered what the research says about the effectiveness

of professional development, evaluated the inadequacies and occasionally proposed

solutions. What the article questioned is the best optimal mix of professional

development. “The potential impact of implementing the guidelines is discussed”.

Six guidelines were laid out as effective professional development, as to bring about

significant or enduring change. Guskey thoroughly analyzed the efforts of

researchers as it relates to professional development. A comparison of the research

revealed many incompatible findings. This article was very beneficial and could be

use in a presentation.

       Dove, L.L. (2010). How Professional Development for Teachers work.


       This article examines the relationship between professional development

and its relationship to student achievement. Dove defines professional development

and its meaning as it relates to different states. Some of the dilemmas organizers

face in preparing professional development, according to Dove, are logistical,

creating transportation for off-site training and in some cases before-and after-

school child care programs. The article addresses the challenges teachers have in

gaining information from only a two-hour session. The downsides to professional

development were listed, Dove used time and as its resource. This

article would benefit someone who had little knowledge of professional

development for teachers. It does not give much information for someone who was

attempting to create a professional development program.

       Darling-Hammond, L. & McLaughlin, M. (2003). Policies that Support

Professional Development in an Era of Reform. Phi Delta Kappan, 1995 76(8) pp.


       Darling-Hammond and McLaughlin’s article on Policies that Support

Professional Development “examine some design principles to guide policy-makers

and school reformers who seek to promote learner-centered professional

development which involves teacher as active and reflective participants in the

change process.” The author suggest that effective professional development must:

engage teachers, be participant driven, directly connect work of teachers to students

be sustained, on going and intensive, provide support through modeling, and

connect to the school change. Furthermore, the study suggests that teachers need to

integrate theory with classroom practices. Most professional development

programs don’t allow enough time and opportunities for exploring knowledge.

Additional consideration needs to be given to systems that are not in place within

school to provide opportunities for professional development.

I really enjoyed this article. It was a real easy read and covered so many areas of

professional development. The article was address all pertinent areas of

professional development. The pros and cons of professional development were

thoroughly analyzed.

Bray, B. (2010). Meaningful Professional Development. 21st Century skills, Learning

Environment, Professional. Retrieved from


       In this brief analysis, Bray chronologies the events at the Mid-Pacific Institute

in Honolulu, Hawaii, where over 120 PK-12 teachers worked side-by-side. The

author documented the activities of the 15 teams and how they collaborated.

“Teachers put themselves in the role of learners with a facilitator guiding the

process in each team.” The purpose of the article was to highlight how a group of

teachers from different grade levels and disciplines used collaboration, creativity,

innovation, teamwork and critical thinking. This article lacked substance. It did not

provide enough worthy information . I did like how the article followed teachers

during a day of professional development. However, it relied too much on this event

and lack theory and pedagogy.

       Sparks and Louck-Horsely. (1989). Five Models of Staff Development for

Teachers. Journal of Staff Development 10, 4:35-57.

       This intense article about staff development begins by giving the history of

staff development and early concerns about its effectiveness. The articled noted that

as early as the 1970s educators unanimously were dissatisfied with the efforts, but

at the same time realized how critical the programs were. “This article organizes

what is known about the effective staff development into five models currently

being espoused and used by staff developers. A review of the supporting theory and

research on these models is followed by a description of what is currently known

about the organizational context that is required to support successful staff

development efforts.” A thorough presentation is given to each models. These

models include: 1.) Individually guided staff development, 2.)

Observation/assessment, 3.)Involvement in a development/improvement process,

4.) Training and 5.) Inquiry. Although a lengthy article, it’s simplified by giving even

the novice teacher an easy read about professional development. It begins with

definitions and an overview. This is a very good resource for professional

development and a worthwhile placement in your educational library.

       Nelson, J. ;Turner, G.; Crittenden, K.; Boudreaux, A.; (2009). A Model for High-

School Teacher Professional Development and Student Learning. Frontiers in

Education Conference, 2009. FIE’09. 39th IEEE.

       “This paper describes a model for high-school teacher professional

development and student learning that can be readily adapted by other universities

seeking meaningful partnerships with K-12 schools.” This article introduces the

reader to the U-discovery model and how collaboration with “University faculty

from Engineering, Science and Mathematics work together.” This professional

development model called U-discovery consists of three phases; initiate

understanding, broaden understanding, and deepen understanding. “The primary

goal is to engage the teacher in the content by working together to motivate their

students to consider the relevance of and connections between the high school

science and mathematics courses they are studying.” Unlike many of the other

professional development articles, this took a unique view of the relationship of the

college and k-12 collaboration. This article intent seems to be to pique student

interest. It was very interesting and had some recent statistics as apart of its

research of the success of U-Discovery.

       Fullan, M. (2010). Teaching and Learning Conditions. Encouraging

comprehensive Professional Development.

       This brief study examines how the school districts can organizes meaningful

professional development. It further goes to emphasis that barriers must be remove

and it’s the responsibility of the building and sate for professionals to effective

professional development. This professional development should be supported by a

“school’s vision and related goals, standards for professional development. It also

emphasizes not substituting time for educators to collaborate and share learning.

The most effective way to use time is during the day, as to allow teachers to study

student work and use discussion to evaluate. The professional development needs

to be deep and focus on content knowledge and effective instruction. Allowing

release time during the day will allow for this to happen. Fullan states that these

needed ingredients often fail because “the system is not structured to support the

intended reform”. Realistic examples were given how most professional

development fail. The author’s examination of the professional development was

true and accurate. Although the article could have elaborated on the failures of

professional development, there was a balance to needs of professional

development that was expressed in the article. I appreciated the focus the article

gave to student achievement, and its relationship with professional development.

       (2009) Steps to Developing a Personal Development Plan.

       This step-by-step plan designed by the Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

for Mathematics and Science Education (ENC) and the National Staff Development

Council(NSDC) guides educators to develop a personal professional development

plan. In short the steps include: Find, Review, Ask, Use, Decide, Evaluate, Reflect and

Create to accomplish the goal. The article suggests reviewing components of a good

plan, followed by asking questions to clarify the goal. It connects the goals of the

plan with the activities, not being limited to a specific length of time for the in-

service. According to the article, “research indicates that working with others will

enhance your learning and promote lasting improvement and change in your

school.” When creating a plan it is imperative that the focus should be student

learning, continuous and on-going evaluation. The article gives some clear tools to

make each suggestion possible, review several questions to have clarity to the

ultimate goal of student achievement. The article includes a template for educators

to get started. Each participant/educator can use the template for a individual goal

or a school wide plan. This step-by-step plan is easily achievable. Although this piece

is short it provides some useful questions and tools that could be use for a beginning

plan or a plan that’s being re-created.

       Blake, J. (2009). Create a Professional Development Strategy(Part 1 of 2).



       In this online blog the author of this article points out that life long learning is

essential to professional development. Blake equates professional development as a

tool to learning ones craft through training. She emphasizes “actionable” steps to

move a plan forward and then provides a template to do so. Her philosophy is “if

you’re not thinking actively learning, you are obsolete.” The author suggests that a

vision is the first step before getting into specifics. Next, focus on four key areas;

knowledge, skills, talent and experience. And with those four areas there are vital

questions to ask. This article was not specific to education. I feel that the

information was still valuable in conducting a professional development plan. This

article was a two part series, expounding on the topic of professional development,

where Blake will show how to take actionable steps, along with a special coaching

offer. I feel it was too short and part 2 could have been included.

       Schlechty, P.(2002). Working on the work: An action Plan for Teacher,

Principals, and Superintendents. Abstract retrieved from

       This book is written for teachers, principals and superintendents, “in which

teacher act as leaders in developing and implementing classroom activities intended

to engage students in meaningful work”. The author contends the increasing

students achievement is the remaining critical piece for education reform. Schlechty

proposes educators rethink teaching based on 12 descriptors, which includes but

not limited to; work that authentically engages students to learn, students are

volunteers, effort affects learning outcomes as much as intellectual ability, and

teachers are leaders and inventors. Schlechty states that implementation of these

strategies will lead to genuine learning in the classroom. This article lacked

scientific language and strong evidence to support its point. Most of the points

mention are things learned in the 100 level of education classes, it lacked merit on

that basis.

       Hassel, E. (1999). Professional Development: learning from the best. Abstract

retrieved from

       “This guide, written by the North Central Regional Educational Laboratory

(NCREL), contains recommendations for designing, implementing, and evaluating

professional development (PD) programs.” Hassel includes a sample section from

the award-winning proposals, from the National Awards Program for Model

Professional Development. One of the tools included is a planning table, allowing

stakeholders to be apart of the formula for effective program functioning. It is

apparent from the article that Hassel wants to clearly and concisely assists in the

designing of a professional development plan. He gives and overview, which is a

very lengthy portion of the book and then Hassel, lays the procedures for

implementing professional development. Highlighted in the article is the need for

documentation of each decision and creating a folder for evaluation as you journey

to creating professional development plan. This article holds a lot of merit. The

book addresses all critical points for a good professional development plan. I like

the use of creditable resources such as the U.S. Department of Education.

       Professional Development Roles and Responsibilities. Missouri Professional

Development guidelines for Student Success Retrieved from

       The Missouri Professional Development guidelines emphasize collaboration

between the stakeholders. Board members are mention, as the support needs to be

known district wide to carry out the vision, in pursuit of academic achievement. The

article suggests a plan should be adopted to show commitment to the endeavor of

learning. Administrators should communicate the districts goals, keeping the

culture in mind while collectively working with teachers. It also goes on to say that

creating teams, shares the leadership among all the stakeholders in the districts.

“The emphasis of professional development Committee(PDC) work must focus on

student achievement and school improvement as identified by multiple indicators of

student achievement” from the state’s standards. This article was good. It is specific

to the Missouri State Standards, but there is a lot of viable information included for

any school trying to develop a good plan.

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