Banali, Frankie, drummer of band Quiet Riot. Personal Interview via email. 3 April
I emailed a music censorship questionnaire to Frankie Banali. Banali is
best known for playing in bands Quiet Riot and W.A.S.P. I decided to
email Mr. Banali after a suggestion by a friend who had his contact
information. Banali and Quiet Riot experienced, firsthand, the effects of
the PMRC in 1984. His opinion about music censorship is explained in the
following statement: "I believe that a certain amount of censorship should
be utilized because not all age groups relate equally to any given content.
However, the problem would exist if anyone or anyone group would be
given total control over censoring anyone if they are not qualified or just in
that censorship. There are certain things that some age groups should not
be exposed to and in that regard I think censorship is useful as long as the
power to censor is not abused by those who might have the power to do
Denver, John. “John Denver Speaks at PMRC Hearings 1985.” You Tube.
Posted by guyjohn59. Web. 10 January 2011.
This is a recording of John Denver’s appearance at the 1985 PMRC
Hearings. This was posted on You Tube and the original video was 7:39
minutes before I cropped it to be a shorter length. He clearly states that he
does not promote the censorship that the PMRC is trying to create. He
himself was exposed to censorship when his song “Rocky Mountain High”
was banned for drug references, although his was just explaining the thrill
of being in the mountains.
Ellington, Duke. “Duke Ellington and His Orchestra.” Photograph. Concord Music
Group. Web. 10 January 2011.
This image is a black and white photograph of Duke Ellington while
playing the piano.
Gore,Tipper. Interview by Robert Siegel. 11 January 2005. “Tipper Gore and
Family Values.” All Things Considered. National Public Radio. Web. 16
Robert Siegel interviews Tipper Gore on a National Public Radio
Program. Mrs. Gore is one of the founders of the Parents’ Music Resource
Center (PMRC). She shares her opinions and paragraphs from her book,
Raising PG Kids in an X-Rated Society. Mrs. Gore states how much
music has changed since she was a child, and how today, some music is
all about sex, sexual arousal, and violence.
Mancina, Mark, a film scorer. Personal Interview via email. 3 November 2010.
On November 3rd, 2010, I sent an email questionnaire to Mr. Mark
Mancina. This musician is the parent of a student who attends the same
school as I do. Mr. Mancina writes film scores for various films and
television shows, including “The Lion King,” “Tarzan,” “Training Day,”
“Speed,” “Shooter,” and “Bad Boys.” He has won an American Music
Award (AMA), Britain’s Ivor Novello Award, three Grammys, and a Tony
nomination. He believes that “censorship is limiting art — and limiting art is
never a good thing.”
Presley, Elvis. “Appearance on the Ed Sullivan Show Network.” 6 January 1957.
Posted by Map898. Television. You Tube. Web. 10 January 2011.
This video is a recording of Elvis Presley performing “Too Much” on the Ed
Sullivan Show. It was performed on January 6th, 1957. This video shows
how Elvis was censored. He was only filmed from the waist up because of
his “lewd” dancing. This was posted on You Tube; the video was 3:02
(minutes:seconds), but I cropped it on iMovie to make it approximately 43
Saltman, James, director of Camp Encore-Coda. Personal Interview via email. 4
I first met Mr. Saltman in 2007 when I attended Camp Encore-Coda, a
summer camp that incorporates music. Since Mr. Saltman grew up in with
a musical background (his parents, musicians, founded Camp Encore-
Coda.) I sent him an email questionnaire. When asked what his opinion
was on whether music should be censored or not, he introduced the idea
that music should not be censored, but lyrics-- maybe.
Zappa, Frank. Congressional Testimony, September 19 1985. Television.
Siderussianlegsweep. “Part 1- Frank Zappa and PMRC Hearing on Rock
Lyrics.” You Tube. Web. 16 September 2010.
This is actual footage of Frank Zappa’s testimony congressional hearings.
The hearing involved several senators, including Sen. Hollings and Sen. J.
James Exon. First, Frank Zappa introduces himself and his attorney,
Larry Stein. In his testimony, he repeats the first amendment. Mr. Zappa
also explains that if the PMRC continues to censor music, they will fill up
the courthouses, and cause many problems. He states that the PMRC is
“treating dandruff by decapitation.” In addition, he wonders if the PMRC is
some kind of cult. This video was posted on You Tube, and wasvery
helpful, and supplies many quotes from Frank Zappa’s testimony.
“About R.O.C.” Rock Out Censorship. Web. 18 October 2010
This is the website for the extremely anti-censorship organization, Rock
Out Censorship. R.O.C was formed in 1989 as a reaction to the
introduction of the Parental Advisory: Explicit Lyrics sticker. On the “About”
page, the site tells about the different methods that the group uses to
spread its opinions. The tactics include sending out a newspaper,
appearing at concerts, and petitioning. The main purpose of R.O.C is to
spread the word about the dangers of censoring music.
“Brief Timeline of Censored Music.” American Civil Liberties Union.
Web. 3 November 2010. <http://www.aclu.org>.
This is the ACLU (American Civil Liberty Union)’s website. “The ACLU
works to preserve the rights of musicians and their fans to create and
enjoy music.” Information about the anti-censorship organization is given,
and included is a “Brief Timeline on Censored Music.” It explains
chronologically the controversial issues that took place between the years
1955 and 2003. This timeline page is an excerpt from A Brief History of
Banned Music in the United States by Eric Nuzum and the ACLU.
Byron, Kaden; Daniel Earnhart, Dante Gagliardi. “Parents Music Resource
Center.” Censorship: Limits on Communication. Web. 18 September 2010.
This website was made for a National History Day project was mainly
about the Parents Music Resource Center (PMRC). It explains who
founded the PMRC, and why it began. It lists the PMRC’s goals, and
introduces the Parental Advisory: Explicit Lyrics sticker. In the authors’
thesis, they say that “censorship limits true communication and expression
and allows ideas to be controlled.”
Califia, Pat. “The Obscene; Disgusting, and Vile Meese Commission Report.”
Cultronix. Web. 5 December 2010.
As the title of the article explains, this piece is extremely biased against
the Meese Commision (which “recommended that spoken words not be
challenged for obscenity.”) The author states, “Our Teflon President and
his Attorney General, Edwin "There Is No There There" Meese III, have
thrown a big, juicy bone to the mad dog packs of the New Christian Right.”
The author gives an overview of the 1986 Meese Commission on
pornography. This website helped me understand the Meese Commission.
“Pat Califia is the author of many books, notably Macho Sluts, Melting
Point, and The Advocate Advisor.”
Chatfield, Michael. “Mark Mancina Writes Music To The Movies You Know.”
Carmel Magazine. Holiday 2007. Web. 20 January 2011.
This is an online article about Mr. Mark Mancina in Carmel Magazine’s
Holiday 2007 issue. The helpful article provided an in-depth background of
Mancina as a musician. I conducted an email interview with him, and this
website provided more information about Mr. Mancina, along with and
image. Mr. Mancina has written music for television shows, films, and has
won a Grammy with Phil Collins for Best Soundtrack Album for 1999’s
Croucher, Rowland, et. al. “Music Censorship in the U.S.A.” John Mark
Ministries. 2005. Web. 4 January 2011.
This page is one of several music censorship timelines that I used and
referred to for information about events in the history of music censorship
in the U.S.A. This timeline has very complete chronology; the dates
listed are between 1952 and 2001 (the page was posted in 2005)
Deflem, Mathieu. “Rap, Rock and Censorship: Popular Culture and the
Technologies of Justice”. Web. 18 September 2010
This paper, written by Mathieu Deflem, a professor in the Department of
Sociology at the University of South Carolina,is an extensive research
paper on music censorship. Some of the subjects he touches on
includethe PMRC, the Senate hearing on record labeling, Ozzy Osbourne
and Judas Priest, the First Amendment, 2 Live Crew trials, religion, and
race. In the bibliography, some sources the author uses are magazines,
books, encyclopedias, and law reviews. The author writes, “In this paper I
investigate the moral codes underlying these claims against popular
music, how social movements mobilize actions around these
claims, and the way in which they are manifested in mechanisms of
control targeted at rap and rock music.”
Evans, Dave. “Parental Advisory Labels—Do They Still Apply in 2010?”
Mastermix. Web. 11 January 2011.
This blog website first briefly explains the founding of the PMRC, and then
inquires if their “Parental Advisory: Explicit Lyrics” label is still in effect in
2010. It states that music is available mostly electronically, there is no
need for a physical warning label. iTunes marks any songs that are
considered “explicit,” but other file-sharing websites with no specific server
may not show anything that indicates whether or not a song. Also, on this
website, I used a picture of the “Parental Advisory: Explicit Lyrics” label
Frank Zappa. “Frank Zappa 1940-1993.” Zappa. Web. 7 January 2011.
This website on all things about Frank Zappa provides information about
Frank Zappa’s music and a bibliography. I only used this site for the
image of Mr. Zappa on the “Home” page. Frank Zappa “wrote rock, jazz,
electronic, orchestral, and musique concrete works, directed music videos,
full length film, and designed album covers. Mr. Zappa went to court
several times to testify against the PMRC, and his opposing viewpoint on
censorship. Frank Zappa died of prostate cancer in 1993.
Hall, R. Andre. “Music Censorship.” First Amendment Site. Lehigh University.
Web. 20 October 2010.
This website gave possible reasons for censorship in music. These
reasons were broken up into categories of moral values, racial
motivations, generational value gaps, and fear. The category ‘Racial
Motivations’ especially helped me in my research on the introducing of
R&B music, although the other articles were also helpful. The author used
books and websites on the topic of music censorship to aid him in his
thorough research. A slight bias is shown when he states, “The banning
of music sets a dangerous precedent for the censorship of other forms of
expression -- with dangerous consequences for a free society.”
“Information: Biography” NWA World. Web. 20 October 2010.
N.W.A (Niggaz With Attitude) is a rap group that provoked concerns about
music censorship. They describe themselves as the “unapologetically
violent and sexist pioneers of gangsta rap.” Their lyrics are online,
including the notorious words to “F**k the Police,” which resulted in an
unhappy letter from the F.B.I. Short biographies about each rapper in the
group (Dr. Dre, Ice Cube, Eazy E, MC Ren, DJ Yella, and Snoop Dogg)
are listed. The site does not specifically reference censorship.
Lee, Derrick. “Parental Advisory Label Steeped In Controversy.” Hush Your
Mouth. Web. 20 October 2010
This website provides details on the PMRC, and the Parental Advisory
label. Their detailed summary of how the PMRC began was very helpful.
Furthermore, the site gives notes and details on the PMRC throughout
different stages of time. The author explains how one person views the
beginning of music censorship: in the 19th century when Giuseppi Verdi’s
opera “La Traviata” was banned because of the lyric, "He took the desired
prize in the arms of love."
Lombardi, Victor. “Music Censorship.” Noise Between Stations. Web. 16 October
This is a website that shares varied information about music censorship.
In the introduction paragraph, the author explains the different methods of
censorship. He has included facts about several of the numerous court
cases and trials in music censorship. Also, there was information about
race and racism in music. The author bases his opinions on George
Bernard Shaw’s (1856-1950) “On Censorship.” Some topics that he
touches on are lyrics, labeling, the Tacitean Principle, record companies,
government, and a solution. Some mediums listed in the extensive
bibliography are magazines, and encyclopedias, with books
Mastruserio, David; Brenna Walz, Megan Perry, Ashley Assanuvat.“Current
Laws Regarding Music Censorship.” Music Censorship. Web. 14
This is a great website that provides an overview of music censorship
through several pages divided into several topics. I found that the most
helpful section was the “Laws Regarding Music Censorship” page
because it explains some various court cases, laws, and state issues
that formed around censorship. In addition, it gives general information on
each event. Some other pages on the site included history of censorship
in America, censorship organization, and controversial issues. The
websites creators make a point to mention that they take no sides on
NetSafeKids. “Pornography and the First Amendment.” Web. 8 March 2011.
I used this “resource for parents” website for a definition of the 1973
Millers vs. California case: “This 1973 case established that material can
be judged obscene if, taken as a whole and judged by community
standards, it appeals to the “prurient interest” in sex, depicts sexual
conduct in a patently offensive manner, and lacks serious literary, artistic,
political, and scientific value.”
Nuzum, Eric. “Music Censorship in America.”Parental Advisory. Harper Collins
This book by Eric Nuzum covers a wide spectrum in dealing with music
censorship. Some of the chapters in the table of contents (in part one)
include the PMRC, violence, MTV, race, religion, drugs, sex, and politics.
In part two, “The Chronology of Music Censorship In the United States,” a
short description of what happened in music censorship each year is given
for before the 1950’s, and then the 1950’s through 2000. However, this
book is biased. As a book review on blogcritics.org puts it, “Much of it is
little more than a very slanted tome that takes far too long to say nothing
more than (to use the technical terms) censorship sucks and freedom of
“Music.” National Coalition Against Censorship. 20 February 2011. Web.
The National Coalition Against Censorship (NCAC), “an alliance of fifty-
two participating organizations, is dedicated to protecting free expression
and access to information by: providing educational resources and
advocacy support to individuals and organizations responding to incidents
of censorship, educating and empowering the public to fight censorship,
documenting and reporting on current censorship issues, expanding
public awareness of the prevalence of censorship and suppression of
information, and working to influence judicial opinions about free
expression and access to information by submitting amici briefs.” On this
site, there were a few explanatory quotes about music censorship that I
used on my website. On the bottom of the Music- Introduction page, there
are listed news, resources, and also related issues relating to censorship
The Doors. “The Doors Movie - Light My Fire Ed Sullivan Show.”
TheDoorsVideos. Web. 10 January 2011.
This You Tube video was a clip from the Doors movie on the Ed Sullivan
Show. One of the producers asks lead singer of the Doors, Jim Morrison
(played by Val Kilmer in the Hollywood movie), to change the lyrics "girl
we couldn't get much higher" in the song "Light My Fire." But when
performing the song, Morrison emphasizes the word. Of course, this
version is the Hollywood movie version, so it is not the actual footage of
the Ed Sullivan Show. Eventually I edited the video using iMovie to crop it
under 45 seconds.
“Westside School Shooting.” Encyclopedia of Arkansas History and Culture.
Web. 17 November 2010.
On this helpful website, there is a section all about the Westside School
Shooting. The resources include several local newspapers and websites.
It tells about the two boys in an Arkansas middle school who shot several
students and teachers during a school assembly. The two boys were
Mitchell Johnson (age 13) and Andrew Golden (age 11), and the shooting
took place after the boys admitted to be influenced by ‘gangsta rap.’
Names, places, and details are given on this controversial event.
What Is Music Censorship?” Freemuse: The World Forum of Music and
Censorship. Web. 14 September 2010. <http://www.freemuse.org>.
Freemuse was a website that provides a huge amount of data,
percentages, news, stories and laws all about music censorship. It shares
interesting news stories on music censorship throughout the world. Many
of the works are quote-worthy, and I have included some phrases in my
international organization which advocates freedom of expression for
musicians and composers worldwide.” It does have a bias, which is anti-
“Louisiana Court Orders Sheriff to Return Confiscated Music to Skating Rink.” 28
August 2000. American Civil Liberties Union. Web. 18 September 2010.
This is the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), website who’s slogan is
“Freedom Can’t Protect Itself.” If “music censorship” is typed into the
search bar, a number of links to articles regarding music censorship
appear. One of the links is an article called “Louisiana Court Orders Sheriff
to Return Confiscated Music to Skating Rink;” the title pretty much defines
itself. In this case, New Iberia, Louisiana’s “the Skate Zone” skating rink
had music (60 CD’s to be specific) confiscated by a local sheriff. But,
Executive Director of the American Civil Liberties Union of Louisiana, Joe
Cook, filed a lawsuit by the ACLU. Mr. Cook explained that the First
Amendment covers freedom of musical expression, including rap music.
A Brief History of Music Censorship in the USA. “Visualizing Censorship.” NCAC.
Web. 20 February 2011.
I used this timeline image titled “A Brief History of Music Censorship in the
USA” on my “Timeline” page in my website. The event dates ranged from
1927 to 2009.
Banali, Frankie. “Frankie Banali.” Facebook. 4 April 2011.
This is an image of Frankie Banali, who I interviewed via email.
Guccione, Bob. “Founder of Penthouse Bob Guccione Dies At Age 79.”
Thestar.com. Web. 5 December 2011.
This is an image of Bob Guccione, founder and producer of Penthouse
magazine, holding up a copy of Playboy and Penthouse magazines. I
used this picture on my “1986 Meese Commission” page because the
whole debate was about pornography and obscenity.
Morrison, Jim. “Jim Morrison —1943- 1971.” Simply Art. Web. 10 January 2011.
This is an image of a Jim Morrison. Jim Morrison, lead singer of the Doors,
was censored on the Ed Sullivan Show for his song “Light My Fire.”
National Parent Teacher Association. “Beyond the Backpack Advisory
Committee.” Nick Jr. Web. 20 February 2011.
This is the National Parent Teacher Association (NPTA)’s logo.
Picture of an American Flag. “American Flag.” Photohome.com. Web. 24 January
2011. < http://photohome.com/photos/flag-pictures/american-flag-2.html >.
This is simply an image of a waving American flag; the red, white, and
blue stars and stripes.
Porter, Cole. “Front Page.” The Cole Porter Reference Guide. Web. 10 January
This is the Cole Porter Reference Guide website. I mainly used it for the
picture of Cole Porter on the “Front Page.” It depicts a solemn Cole Porter
in black and white. In addition to the picture, this website on all things Cole
Porter includes a bibliography, a page for recordings, shows, films, songs,
and a table of contents. In addition, the website has “a chronological tour
of the works of Cole Porter” on it.
Presley, Elvis. “Elvis Presley’s Will Put On Sale.” TopNews. Web. 10 January
This image of Elvis Presley was sure to make many teenage girls of the
1970’s swoon. Elvis Presley was censored on the Ed Sullivan Show for his
‘lewd’ dancing (his famous pelvis gyration), and was only shot on camera
from the waist up.
State of Louisiana. “State of Louisiana.” Web. 24 February 2011.
< http://www.neogov.biz/customersbyfilter.cfm?agencycategory=State >.
This image depicts a “State of Louisiana” emblem with an eagle on it.
Sullivan, Ed. “The Ed Sullivan Show.” WQED Pittsburgh. Web. 20 February
2011. < http://www.wqed.org/tv/specials/sullivan/index.shtml >.
This image of famous variety show host Ed Sullivan is well known. The Ed
Sullivan show was on Saturday nights on WQED (as mentioned in the
Snyder, Dee. “The Avon Gremlin.” 17 August 2007. The John Larroquette
Project. Web. 7 January 2011.
This is an image of Dee Snyder from the heavy metal band, Twisted
Sister. Mr. Snyder participated in several music censorship hearings in
1985 (along with Frank Zappa and John Denver.)
The Beatles. “The Beatles.” GuitarMasterClass.Net. Web. 10 January 2011.
This website is a site that teaches guitar lessons online. However, I found
that the Beatles page on this website was able to provide an image that I
used in my website. The black and white image depicts the four Beatles
(John Lennon, George Harrison, Paul McCartney, and Ringo Starr), in
suits, walking on a street (the cover for Abbey Road). This site claims that
the Beatles were “the most famous and influential band there has ever
been.” In addition, the website provides a mini-biography for each band
member of the Fab Four.
The Dixie Chicks. “Rudy Guilani and Three Other Prominent Repubs Audition For
Dixie Chicks In Paris!” Squatlo Rant. Web. 7 January 2011
This image is a picture of the Dixie Chicks, an issue that came up in
music censorship. One member of the group said that she was
embarrassed that President George Bush came from her home state of
Texas, which led to many radio bands against the Dixie Chicks. This
image depicts three of the group members with words like “boycott,”
“traitors,” and “free speech” printed on their bodies.
The PMRC (Parents Music Resource Center). “Money Talks: AC/DC and Wal-
Mart Collaborate For Profit’s Sake.” Amoeblog. Web. 29 January, 2011.
This image of the PMRC includes four women that helped found the
PMRC, Tipper Gore being the most well known.
Tipper Gore. “Welcome.” Tipper Gore’s Guide to Dating Dos and Don’ts. Web. 11
This is a website that was made by Tipper Gore along with the President,
Vice President, and First Lady in 2000 for young people to learn how to
date (or improve their dating skills). However, I only used this website for
the picture of Tipper Gore. The large image on the “Welcome” page
depicts a smiling Mrs. Gore.
Morganfield, McKinley (Muddy Waters). “(I’m Your) Hoochie Coochie Man.”
Hoochie Coochie Man: The Complete Chess Masters, Vol. 2, 1952-1958.
Chess Records, 1954.
Morganstein, Bobby. “The Ed Sullivan Show.” The Complete TV Themes Party
CD #33, Vol. 3. Bobby Morganstein Productions.
This MP3 file from iTunes is the Ed Sullivan theme song.
Newton-John, Olivia. “Physical.” Physical. MCA Records, 1981.
I converted this MP4 file from iTunes into an MP3 file to upload it onto
Weebly. This is Olivia Newton-John’s hit song, Physical.
The Doors. “Light My Fire.” The Doors. Elektra Records,1967.
The Doors. “Unknown Soldier.” The Very Best of the Doors (Bonus Track
Version). Elektra Records,1968.
Twisted Sister. “We’re Not Gonna Take It.” Stay Hungry (25th Anniversary Deluxe
Edition). Atlantic Records, 1984.