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					                                  Works Cited

                                Primary Sources:

Banali, Frankie, drummer of band Quiet Riot. Personal Interview via email. 3 April


      I emailed a music censorship questionnaire to Frankie Banali. Banali is

      best known for playing in bands Quiet Riot and W.A.S.P. I decided to

      email Mr. Banali after a suggestion by a friend who had his contact

      information. Banali and Quiet Riot experienced, firsthand, the effects of

      the PMRC in 1984. His opinion about music censorship is explained in the

      following statement: "I believe that a certain amount of censorship should

      be utilized because not all age groups relate equally to any given content.

      However, the problem would exist if anyone or anyone group would be

      given total control over censoring anyone if they are not qualified or just in

      that censorship. There are certain things that some age groups should not

      be exposed to and in that regard I think censorship is useful as long as the

      power to censor is not abused by those who might have the power to do


Denver, John. “John Denver Speaks at PMRC Hearings 1985.” You Tube.

      Posted by guyjohn59. Web. 10 January 2011.


      This is a recording of John Denver’s appearance at the 1985 PMRC

      Hearings. This was posted on You Tube and the original video was 7:39

      minutes before I cropped it to be a shorter length. He clearly states that he

      does not promote the censorship that the PMRC is trying to create. He

      himself was exposed to censorship when his song “Rocky Mountain High”

      was banned for drug references, although his was just explaining the thrill

      of being in the mountains.

Ellington, Duke. “Duke Ellington and His Orchestra.” Photograph. Concord Music

       Group. Web. 10 January 2011.


      This image is a black and white photograph of Duke Ellington while

      playing the piano.

Gore,Tipper. Interview by Robert Siegel. 11 January 2005. “Tipper Gore and

      Family Values.” All Things Considered. National Public Radio. Web. 16

      September 2010.


       Robert Siegel interviews Tipper Gore on a National Public Radio

      Program. Mrs. Gore is one of the founders of the Parents’ Music Resource

      Center (PMRC). She shares her opinions and paragraphs from her book,

      Raising PG Kids in an X-Rated Society. Mrs. Gore states how much

      music has changed since she was a child, and how today, some music is

      all about sex, sexual arousal, and violence.

Mancina, Mark, a film scorer. Personal Interview via email. 3 November 2010.

      On November 3rd, 2010, I sent an email questionnaire to Mr. Mark

      Mancina. This musician is the parent of a student who attends the same

      school as I do. Mr. Mancina writes film scores for various films and

      television shows, including “The Lion King,” “Tarzan,” “Training Day,”

      “Speed,” “Shooter,” and “Bad Boys.” He has won an American Music

      Award (AMA), Britain’s Ivor Novello Award, three Grammys, and a Tony

      nomination. He believes that “censorship is limiting art — and limiting art is

      never a good thing.”

Presley, Elvis. “Appearance on the Ed Sullivan Show Network.” 6 January 1957.

      Posted by Map898. Television. You Tube. Web. 10 January 2011.

      This video is a recording of Elvis Presley performing “Too Much” on the Ed

      Sullivan Show. It was performed on January 6th, 1957. This video shows

      how Elvis was censored. He was only filmed from the waist up because of

      his “lewd” dancing. This was posted on You Tube; the video was 3:02

      (minutes:seconds), but I cropped it on iMovie to make it approximately 43


Saltman, James, director of Camp Encore-Coda. Personal Interview via email. 4

      December 2010.

      I first met Mr. Saltman in 2007 when I attended Camp Encore-Coda, a

      summer camp that incorporates music. Since Mr. Saltman grew up in with

      a musical background (his parents, musicians, founded Camp Encore-

      Coda.) I sent him an email questionnaire. When asked what his opinion

      was on whether music should be censored or not, he introduced the idea

      that music should not be censored, but lyrics-- maybe.

Zappa, Frank. Congressional Testimony, September 19 1985. Television.

      Siderussianlegsweep. “Part 1- Frank Zappa and PMRC Hearing on Rock

      Lyrics.” You Tube. Web. 16 September 2010.

      This is actual footage of Frank Zappa’s testimony congressional hearings.

      The hearing involved several senators, including Sen. Hollings and Sen. J.

      James Exon. First, Frank Zappa introduces himself and his attorney,

      Larry Stein. In his testimony, he repeats the first amendment. Mr. Zappa

      also explains that if the PMRC continues to censor music, they will fill up

      the courthouses, and cause many problems. He states that the PMRC is

      “treating dandruff by decapitation.” In addition, he wonders if the PMRC is

      some kind of cult. This video was posted on You Tube, and wasvery

      helpful, and supplies many quotes from Frank Zappa’s testimony.

                               Secondary Sources

“About R.O.C.” Rock Out Censorship. Web. 18 October 2010


      This is the website for the extremely anti-censorship organization, Rock

      Out Censorship. R.O.C was formed in 1989 as a reaction to the

      introduction of the Parental Advisory: Explicit Lyrics sticker. On the “About”

      page, the site tells about the different methods that the group uses to

      spread its opinions. The tactics include sending out a newspaper,

      appearing at concerts, and petitioning. The main purpose of R.O.C is to

      spread the word about the dangers of censoring music.

“Brief Timeline of Censored Music.” American Civil Liberties Union.

      Web. 3 November 2010. <>.

      This is the ACLU (American Civil Liberty Union)’s website. “The ACLU

      works to preserve the rights of musicians and their fans to create and

      enjoy music.” Information about the anti-censorship organization is given,

      and included is a “Brief Timeline on Censored Music.” It explains

      chronologically the controversial issues that took place between the years

      1955 and 2003. This timeline page is an excerpt from A Brief History of

      Banned Music in the United States by Eric Nuzum and the ACLU.

Byron, Kaden; Daniel Earnhart, Dante Gagliardi. “Parents Music Resource

      Center.” Censorship: Limits on Communication. Web. 18 September 2010.


      This website was made for a National History Day project was mainly

      about the Parents Music Resource Center (PMRC). It explains who

      founded the PMRC, and why it began. It lists the PMRC’s goals, and

      introduces the Parental Advisory: Explicit Lyrics sticker. In the authors’

      thesis, they say that “censorship limits true communication and expression

      and allows ideas to be controlled.”

Califia, Pat. “The Obscene; Disgusting, and Vile Meese Commission Report.”

      Cultronix. Web. 5 December 2010.


      As the title of the article explains, this piece is extremely biased against

      the Meese Commision (which “recommended that spoken words not be

      challenged for obscenity.”) The author states, “Our Teflon President and

      his Attorney General, Edwin "There Is No There There" Meese III, have

      thrown a big, juicy bone to the mad dog packs of the New Christian Right.”

      The author gives an overview of the 1986 Meese Commission on

      pornography. This website helped me understand the Meese Commission.

      “Pat Califia is the author of many books, notably Macho Sluts, Melting

      Point, and The Advocate Advisor.”

Chatfield, Michael. “Mark Mancina Writes Music To The Movies You Know.”

      Carmel Magazine. Holiday 2007. Web. 20 January 2011.



      This is an online article about Mr. Mark Mancina in Carmel Magazine’s

      Holiday 2007 issue. The helpful article provided an in-depth background of

      Mancina as a musician. I conducted an email interview with him, and this

      website provided more information about Mr. Mancina, along with and

      image. Mr. Mancina has written music for television shows, films, and has

      won a Grammy with Phil Collins for Best Soundtrack Album for 1999’s


Croucher, Rowland, et. al. “Music Censorship in the U.S.A.” John Mark

      Ministries. 2005. Web. 4 January 2011.


      This page is one of several music censorship timelines that I used and

      referred to for information about events in the history of music censorship

      in the U.S.A. This timeline has very complete chronology; the dates

      listed are between 1952 and 2001 (the page was posted in 2005)

Deflem, Mathieu. “Rap, Rock and Censorship: Popular Culture and the

      Technologies of Justice”. Web. 18 September 2010


      This paper, written by Mathieu Deflem, a professor in the Department of

      Sociology at the University of South Carolina,is an extensive research

      paper on music censorship. Some of the subjects he touches on

      includethe PMRC, the Senate hearing on record labeling, Ozzy Osbourne

      and Judas Priest, the First Amendment, 2 Live Crew trials, religion, and

      race. In the bibliography, some sources the author uses are magazines,

      books, encyclopedias, and law reviews. The author writes, “In this paper I

      investigate the moral codes underlying these claims against popular

      music, how social movements mobilize actions around these

      claims, and the way in which they are manifested in mechanisms of

      control targeted at rap and rock music.”

Evans, Dave. “Parental Advisory Labels—Do They Still Apply in 2010?”

      Mastermix. Web. 11 January 2011.



      This blog website first briefly explains the founding of the PMRC, and then

      inquires if their “Parental Advisory: Explicit Lyrics” label is still in effect in

      2010. It states that music is available mostly electronically, there is no

      need for a physical warning label. iTunes marks any songs that are

      considered “explicit,” but other file-sharing websites with no specific server

      may not show anything that indicates whether or not a song. Also, on this

      website, I used a picture of the “Parental Advisory: Explicit Lyrics” label

      from here.

Frank Zappa. “Frank Zappa 1940-1993.” Zappa. Web. 7 January 2011.

      This website on all things about Frank Zappa provides information about

      Frank Zappa’s music and a bibliography. I only used this site for the

      image of Mr. Zappa on the “Home” page. Frank Zappa “wrote rock, jazz,

      electronic, orchestral, and musique concrete works, directed music videos,

      full length film, and designed album covers. Mr. Zappa went to court

      several times to testify against the PMRC, and his opposing viewpoint on

      censorship. Frank Zappa died of prostate cancer in 1993.

Hall, R. Andre. “Music Censorship.” First Amendment Site. Lehigh University.

      Web. 20 October 2010.


      This website gave possible reasons for censorship in music. These

      reasons were broken up into categories of moral values, racial

      motivations, generational value gaps, and fear. The category ‘Racial

      Motivations’ especially helped me in my research on the introducing of

      R&B music, although the other articles were also helpful. The author used

      books and websites on the topic of music censorship to aid him in his

      thorough research. A slight bias is shown when he states, “The banning

      of music sets a dangerous precedent for the censorship of other forms of

      expression -- with dangerous consequences for a free society.”

“Information: Biography” NWA World. Web. 20 October 2010.


      N.W.A (Niggaz With Attitude) is a rap group that provoked concerns about

      music censorship. They describe themselves as the “unapologetically

      violent and sexist pioneers of gangsta rap.” Their lyrics are online,

      including the notorious words to “F**k the Police,” which resulted in an

      unhappy letter from the F.B.I. Short biographies about each rapper in the

      group (Dr. Dre, Ice Cube, Eazy E, MC Ren, DJ Yella, and Snoop Dogg)

      are listed. The site does not specifically reference censorship.

Lee, Derrick. “Parental Advisory Label Steeped In Controversy.” Hush Your

      Mouth. Web. 20 October 2010


      This website provides details on the PMRC, and the Parental Advisory

      label. Their detailed summary of how the PMRC began was very helpful.

      Furthermore, the site gives notes and details on the PMRC throughout

      different stages of time. The author explains how one person views the

      beginning of music censorship: in the 19th century when Giuseppi Verdi’s

      opera “La Traviata” was banned because of the lyric, "He took the desired

      prize in the arms of love."

Lombardi, Victor. “Music Censorship.” Noise Between Stations. Web. 16 October



      This is a website that shares varied information about music censorship.

      In the introduction paragraph, the author explains the different methods of

      censorship. He has included facts about several of the numerous court

      cases and trials in music censorship. Also, there was information about

      race and racism in music. The author bases his opinions on George

      Bernard Shaw’s (1856-1950) “On Censorship.” Some topics that he

      touches on are lyrics, labeling, the Tacitean Principle, record companies,

      government, and a solution. Some mediums listed in the extensive

      bibliography are magazines, and encyclopedias, with books


Mastruserio, David; Brenna Walz, Megan Perry, Ashley Assanuvat.“Current

      Laws Regarding Music Censorship.” Music Censorship. Web. 14

      September 2010.


      This is a great website that provides an overview of music censorship

      through several pages divided into several topics. I found that the most

      helpful section was the “Laws Regarding Music Censorship” page

      because it explains some various court cases, laws, and state issues

      that formed around censorship. In addition, it gives general information on

      each event. Some other pages on the site included history of censorship

      in America, censorship organization, and controversial issues. The

      websites creators make a point to mention that they take no sides on


NetSafeKids. “Pornography and the First Amendment.” Web. 8 March 2011.


      I used this “resource for parents” website for a definition of the 1973

      Millers vs. California case: “This 1973 case established that material can

      be judged obscene if, taken as a whole and judged by community

      standards, it appeals to the “prurient interest” in sex, depicts sexual

      conduct in a patently offensive manner, and lacks serious literary, artistic,

      political, and scientific value.”

Nuzum, Eric. “Music Censorship in America.”Parental Advisory. Harper Collins

      2001. Print.

      This book by Eric Nuzum covers a wide spectrum in dealing with music

      censorship. Some of the chapters in the table of contents (in part one)

      include the PMRC, violence, MTV, race, religion, drugs, sex, and politics.

      In part two, “The Chronology of Music Censorship In the United States,” a

      short description of what happened in music censorship each year is given

      for before the 1950’s, and then the 1950’s through 2000. However, this

      book is biased. As a book review on puts it, “Much of it is

      little more than a very slanted tome that takes far too long to say nothing

      more than (to use the technical terms) censorship sucks and freedom of

      expression rules.”

“Music.” National Coalition Against Censorship. 20 February 2011. Web.


      The National Coalition Against Censorship (NCAC), “an alliance of fifty-

      two participating organizations, is dedicated to protecting free expression

      and access to information by: providing educational resources and

      advocacy support to individuals and organizations responding to incidents

      of censorship, educating and empowering the public to fight censorship,

      documenting and reporting on current censorship issues, expanding

      public awareness of the prevalence of censorship and suppression of

      information, and working to influence judicial opinions about free

      expression and access to information by submitting amici briefs.” On this

      site, there were a few explanatory quotes about music censorship that I

      used on my website. On the bottom of the Music- Introduction page, there

      are listed news, resources, and also related issues relating to censorship

      in music.

The Doors. “The Doors Movie - Light My Fire Ed Sullivan Show.”

     TheDoorsVideos. Web. 10 January 2011.


      This You Tube video was a clip from the Doors movie on the Ed Sullivan

      Show. One of the producers asks lead singer of the Doors, Jim Morrison

      (played by Val Kilmer in the Hollywood movie), to change the lyrics "girl

      we couldn't get much higher" in the song "Light My Fire." But when

      performing the song, Morrison emphasizes the word. Of course, this

      version is the Hollywood movie version, so it is not the actual footage of

      the Ed Sullivan Show. Eventually I edited the video using iMovie to crop it

      under 45 seconds.

“Westside School Shooting.” Encyclopedia of Arkansas History and Culture.

      Web. 17 November 2010.



      On this helpful website, there is a section all about the Westside School

      Shooting. The resources include several local newspapers and websites.

      It tells about the two boys in an Arkansas middle school who shot several

      students and teachers during a school assembly. The two boys were

      Mitchell Johnson (age 13) and Andrew Golden (age 11), and the shooting

      took place after the boys admitted to be influenced by ‘gangsta rap.’

      Names, places, and details are given on this controversial event.

What Is Music Censorship?” Freemuse: The World Forum of Music and

      Censorship. Web. 14 September 2010. <>.

      Freemuse was a website that provides a huge amount of data,

      percentages, news, stories and laws all about music censorship. It shares

      interesting news stories on music censorship throughout the world. Many

      of the works are quote-worthy, and I have included some phrases in my

      international organization which advocates freedom of expression for

      musicians and composers worldwide.” It does have a bias, which is anti-

      music censorship.

“Louisiana Court Orders Sheriff to Return Confiscated Music to Skating Rink.” 28

      August 2000. American Civil Liberties Union. Web. 18 September 2010.



      This is the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), website who’s slogan is

      “Freedom Can’t Protect Itself.” If “music censorship” is typed into the

      search bar, a number of links to articles regarding music censorship

      appear. One of the links is an article called “Louisiana Court Orders Sheriff

      to Return Confiscated Music to Skating Rink;” the title pretty much defines

      itself. In this case, New Iberia, Louisiana’s “the Skate Zone” skating rink

      had music (60 CD’s to be specific) confiscated by a local sheriff. But,

      Executive Director of the American Civil Liberties Union of Louisiana, Joe

      Cook, filed a lawsuit by the ACLU. Mr. Cook explained that the First

      Amendment covers freedom of musical expression, including rap music.


A Brief History of Music Censorship in the USA. “Visualizing Censorship.” NCAC.

      Web. 20 February 2011.



      I used this timeline image titled “A Brief History of Music Censorship in the

      USA” on my “Timeline” page in my website. The event dates ranged from

      1927 to 2009.

Banali, Frankie. “Frankie Banali.” Facebook. 4 April 2011.


      This is an image of Frankie Banali, who I interviewed via email.

Guccione, Bob. “Founder of Penthouse Bob Guccione Dies At Age 79.” Web. 5 December 2011.


      penthouse-bob-guccione-dies-at-79 >.

      This is an image of Bob Guccione, founder and producer of Penthouse

      magazine, holding up a copy of Playboy and Penthouse magazines. I

      used this picture on my “1986 Meese Commission” page because the

      whole debate was about pornography and obscenity.

Morrison, Jim. “Jim Morrison —1943- 1971.” Simply Art. Web. 10 January 2011.


      This is an image of a Jim Morrison. Jim Morrison, lead singer of the Doors,

      was censored on the Ed Sullivan Show for his song “Light My Fire.”

National Parent Teacher Association. “Beyond the Backpack Advisory

      Committee.” Nick Jr. Web. 20 February 2011.



      This is the National Parent Teacher Association (NPTA)’s logo.

Picture of an American Flag. “American Flag.” Web. 24 January

      2011. < >.

      This is simply an image of a waving American flag; the red, white, and

      blue stars and stripes.

Porter, Cole. “Front Page.” The Cole Porter Reference Guide. Web. 10 January


      This is the Cole Porter Reference Guide website. I mainly used it for the

      picture of Cole Porter on the “Front Page.” It depicts a solemn Cole Porter

      in black and white. In addition to the picture, this website on all things Cole

      Porter includes a bibliography, a page for recordings, shows, films, songs,

      and a table of contents. In addition, the website has “a chronological tour

      of the works of Cole Porter” on it.

Presley, Elvis. “Elvis Presley’s Will Put On Sale.” TopNews. Web. 10 January


      This image of Elvis Presley was sure to make many teenage girls of the

      1970’s swoon. Elvis Presley was censored on the Ed Sullivan Show for his

      ‘lewd’ dancing (his famous pelvis gyration), and was only shot on camera

      from the waist up.

State of Louisiana. “State of Louisiana.” Web. 24 February 2011.

      < >.

      This image depicts a “State of Louisiana” emblem with an eagle on it.

Sullivan, Ed. “The Ed Sullivan Show.” WQED Pittsburgh. Web. 20 February

      2011. < >.

      This image of famous variety show host Ed Sullivan is well known. The Ed

      Sullivan show was on Saturday nights on WQED (as mentioned in the


Snyder, Dee. “The Avon Gremlin.” 17 August 2007. The John Larroquette

      Project. Web. 7 January 2011.

      This is an image of Dee Snyder from the heavy metal band, Twisted

      Sister. Mr. Snyder participated in several music censorship hearings in

      1985 (along with Frank Zappa and John Denver.)

The Beatles. “The Beatles.” GuitarMasterClass.Net. Web. 10 January 2011.

      This website is a site that teaches guitar lessons online. However, I found

      that the Beatles page on this website was able to provide an image that I

      used in my website. The black and white image depicts the four Beatles

      (John Lennon, George Harrison, Paul McCartney, and Ringo Starr), in

      suits, walking on a street (the cover for Abbey Road). This site claims that

      the Beatles were “the most famous and influential band there has ever

      been.” In addition, the website provides a mini-biography for each band

      member of the Fab Four.

The Dixie Chicks. “Rudy Guilani and Three Other Prominent Repubs Audition For

      Dixie Chicks In Paris!” Squatlo Rant. Web. 7 January 2011

      This image is a picture of the Dixie Chicks, an issue that came up in

      music censorship. One member of the group said that she was

      embarrassed that President George Bush came from her home state of

      Texas, which led to many radio bands against the Dixie Chicks. This

      image depicts three of the group members with words like “boycott,”

      “traitors,” and “free speech” printed on their bodies.

The PMRC (Parents Music Resource Center). “Money Talks: AC/DC and Wal-

       Mart Collaborate For Profit’s Sake.” Amoeblog. Web. 29 January, 2011.


      This image of the PMRC includes four women that helped found the

      PMRC, Tipper Gore being the most well known.

Tipper Gore. “Welcome.” Tipper Gore’s Guide to Dating Dos and Don’ts. Web. 11

      January 2011.

      This is a website that was made by Tipper Gore along with the President,

      Vice President, and First Lady in 2000 for young people to learn how to

      date (or improve their dating skills). However, I only used this website for

      the picture of Tipper Gore. The large image on the “Welcome” page

      depicts a smiling Mrs. Gore.


Morganfield, McKinley (Muddy Waters). “(I’m Your) Hoochie Coochie Man.”

      Hoochie Coochie Man: The Complete Chess Masters, Vol. 2, 1952-1958.

      Chess Records, 1954.

Morganstein, Bobby. “The Ed Sullivan Show.” The Complete TV Themes Party

      CD #33, Vol. 3. Bobby Morganstein Productions.

      This MP3 file from iTunes is the Ed Sullivan theme song.

Newton-John, Olivia. “Physical.” Physical. MCA Records, 1981.

      I converted this MP4 file from iTunes into an MP3 file to upload it onto

      Weebly. This is Olivia Newton-John’s hit song, Physical.

The Doors. “Light My Fire.” The Doors. Elektra Records,1967.

The Doors. “Unknown Soldier.” The Very Best of the Doors (Bonus Track

      Version). Elektra Records,1968.

Twisted Sister. “We’re Not Gonna Take It.” Stay Hungry (25th Anniversary Deluxe

      Edition). Atlantic Records, 1984.


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