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					Enterprise Surveys
http://www.enterprisesurveys.org

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Literature - Last Updated January 4, 2012



This excel sheet lists research using Enterprise Survey data, and other
firm level survey data collected by the World Bank. Efforts have been
made to include as many papers as possible.
        updated     Paper Type                          Authors
S.No.   Date        Book/Working
                    Paper/Article
                                    Last name First name            other authors
    1   5/11/2010   Journal         Amin         Mohammad           -
    2   5/11/2010   Journal         Amin         Mohammad           -
    3   5/11/2010   Journal         Amin         Mohammad           -
    4   5/11/2010   Journal         Amin         Mohammad           -
    5   5/11/2010   Journal         Safavian     Mehnaz             Siddharth Sharma
    6   5/11/2010   Mimeograph      Amin         Mohammad           -
    7   5/11/2010   Mimeograph      Amin         Mohammad           -
    8   5/11/2010   Mimeograph      Amin         Mohammad           -
    9   5/11/2010   Working Paper   Amin         Mohammad           -
   10   5/11/2010   Working Paper   Amin         Mohammad           -
   11   5/11/2010   Working Paper   Amin         Mohammad           -
   12   5/11/2010   Working Paper   Francisco    Manuela            Nicola Pontara
   13   5/11/2010   Working Paper   Gonzalez     Alvaro             J. Ernesto Lopez-Cordova and Elio E.Valladare
   14   5/11/2010   Working Paper   Safavian     Mehnaz             Joshua Wimpey
   15   5/11/2010   Working Paper   Seker        Murat              -
   16   5/11/2010   Working Paper   Sharma       Siddharth          -
   17   5/17/2010   Journal         Almeida      Rita               Pedro Carneiro
   18   5/17/2010   Journal         Kaplan       David S.           -
   19   5/17/2010   Working Paper   Aghion       Philippe           Wendy Carlin and Mark E. Schaffer
   20   5/17/2010   Working Paper   Datta        Saugato            -
   21   5/19/2010   Journal         Aidis        Ruta               Yuko Adachi
   22   5/20/2010   Working Paper   Gatti        Roberta            Maddalena Honorati
   23   6/17/2010   Journal         Angelini     Paolo              Andrea Generale
   24   6/17/2010   Working Paper   Andvig       Jens Christopher   -
   25   6/21/2010   Journal         Gelb         Alan               Vijaya Ramachandran, Ginger Turner
   26   6/21/2010   Journal         Brown        David              John S Earle, Scott Gehlbach
   27   6/21/2010   Journal         Treisman     Daniel             -
   28   6/21/2010   Journal         Yasar        Mahmut             Catherine J. Morrison Paul
   29   6/21/2010   Article         Seker        Murat              -
   30   6/21/2010   Journal         Arnold       Jens Matthais      Aaditya Mattoo, Gaia Narciso
   31   6/21/2010   Journal         Demirguc-KuntAsli               Inessa Love, Vojislav Maksimovic
   32   6/21/2010   Journal         Bhaumik      Sumon Kumar        Saul Estrin
   33   6/21/2010   Journal         Bwalya       Samuel Mulenga     -
   34   6/21/2010   Journal         Dabla-Norris Era                Mark Gradstein, Gabriela Inchauste
   35   6/21/2010   Journal         Dong          Xiao-Yuan         Liqin Zhang
   36   6/21/2010   Journal         Fisman       Raymond            Jakob Svensson
   37   6/21/2010   Journal         Straub       Stephane           -
   38   6/21/2010   Journal         Edwards      Lawrence           Neil Rankin, Volker Schöer
   39   6/21/2010   Journal         Kenny        Charles            -
   40   6/21/2010   Journal         Ramachandran Vijaya             Manju Kedia Shah
   41   6/21/2010   Journal         Brown        Martin             Julio Tappelli, Marco Pagano
   42   6/21/2010   Journal         Fafchamps Marcel                Måns Söderbom
   43   6/21/2010   Journal         Beck         Thorsten           Asli Demirguc-Kunt, Luc Laeven, Vojislav Mak
   44   6/21/2010   Journal         Beck         Thorsten           Asli Demirguc-Kunt, Vojislav Maksimovic
   45   6/21/2010   Journal         Bitzenis     Aristidis          Ersanja Nito
   46   6/21/2010   Journal         Svensson     Jakob              -
   47   6/21/2010   Journal         Zhang        Liqin              Xiao-Yuan Dong
   48   6/21/2010   Journal         Bigsten      Arne               Måns Söderbom
   49   6/21/2010   Working Paper   Seker        Murat              -
   50   6/28/2010   Journal         Bartha       James R.           Chen Lin; Ping Lin; Frank M. Song
   51   6/28/2010   Journal         Beck         Thorsten           Asli Demirguc-Kunt, and Vojislav Maksimovic
 52   6/28/2010   Journal         Cull        Robert            Lixin Colin Xu
 53   6/28/2010   Working Paper   Dollar      David             Shang-Jin Wei
 54   6/28/2010   Working Paper   Cai         Hongbin           Hanming Fang, Lixin Colin Xu.
 55   6/28/2010   Working Paper   Brambilla   Irene             -
 56   6/28/2010   Working Paper   Fernandes Ana M               Ariel Pakes
 57   6/29/2010   Journal         Almeida     Rita              Ana Margarida Fernandes
 58   6/29/2010   Journal         Dasgupta    Susmita           Hettige, Hemamala; Wheeler, David
 59   6/29/2010   Journal         Gauthier    Bernard           Isidro Soloaga, James Tybout
 60   6/29/2010   Journal         Maksimovic Vojislav           Meghana Ayyagari, Asli Demirguc-Kunt
 61   6/29/2010   Working Paper   Hellman     Joel S.           Geraint Jones, Daniel Kaufman, Mark Schanke
 62   6/29/2010   Working Paper   Kaufmann Daniel               Aart Kraay, Pablo Zoido-Lobaton
 63   6/29/2010   Working Paper   Kaufmann Daniel               Aart Kraay, Massimo Mastruzzi
 64   6/29/2010   Working Paper   Kaufmann Daniel               Aart Kraay, and Massimo Mastruzzi
 65   6/29/2010   Working Paper   Ayyagari    Meghana           Demirguc-Kunt, Asli; Maksimovic, Vojislav
 66   6/29/2010   Working Paper   Correa      Paulo Guilherme   Mariam Dayoub, and Manuela Francisco
 67   6/29/2010   Working Paper   Kenny       Charles           -
 68   6/29/2010   Working Paper   Gonzalez    Alvaro            Francesca Lamanna
 69   6/29/2010   Working Paper   Kaufmann Daniel               Aart Kraay, Massimo Mastruzzi
 70   6/29/2010   Working Paper   Subramanian Uma               William P. Anderson, Kihoon Lee
 71   6/29/2010   Working Paper   Brunetti    Aymo              Kisunko, Gregory; Weder, Beatrice
 72   6/29/2010   Working Paper   Clarke      George R.G.       -
 73   6/29/2010   Working Paper   Djankov     Simeon            -
 74   6/29/2010   Working Paper   Dollar      David             -
 75   6/29/2010   Working Paper   Dollar      David             -
 76   6/29/2010   Working Paper   Elbadawi    Ibrahim           Mengistae, Taye; Zeufack, Albert
 77   6/29/2010   Working Paper   Estache     Antonio           Iimi, Atsushi
 78   6/29/2010   Working Paper   Foster      Vivien            Steinbuks, Jevgenijs
 79   6/29/2010   Working Paper   Fox         Louise            Ana Maria Oviedo
 80   6/29/2010   Working Paper               Mary
                                  Hallward-Driemeier            -
 81   6/29/2010   Working Paper               Mary
                                  Hallward-Driemeier            -
 82   6/29/2010   Journal         Deininger   Klaus             Paul Mpuga
 83   7/13/2010   Journal         Dong        Xiao-Yuan         Lixin Colin Xu
 84   7/13/2010   Journal         Feng        Tianli            Runtian Jing, Gaoliang Zhang
 85   7/13/2010   Journal         Svensson    Jakob             -
 86   7/13/2010   Journal         Biesebroeck Johannes Van      -
 87   7/13/2010   Journal         Chong       Alberto           Mark Gradstein
 88   7/13/2010   Journal         Raiser      Martin            Alan Rousso, Frank Steves, Utku Teksoz
 89   7/13/2010   Journal         Beck        Thorsten          Asli Demirguc-Kunt, and Ross Levine
 90   7/13/2010   Journal         Clarke      George            Lixin Colin Xu
 91   7/13/2010   Journal         Knack       Stephen           -
 92   7/13/2010   Journal         Leeson      Peter T.          William N. Trumbull
 93   7/13/2010   Journal         Apaza       Carmen R.         -
 94   7/13/2010   Journal         Campos      Nauro F.          Francesco Giovannoni
 95   7/13/2010   Journal         Saliolaa    Federica          Antonello Zanfei
 96   7/13/2010   Journal         Asiedu      Elizabeth         J. Freeman
 97   7/13/2010   Journal         Maksimovic Vojislav           Meghana Ayyagari, and Asli Demirguc-Kunt
 98   7/13/2010   Journal         Goedhuys    Micheline         Leo Sleuwaegen
 99   7/13/2010   Journal         White       Simon             -
100   7/13/2010   Mimeograph      Brown       Martin            Maria Clara Rueda Maurer
101   7/13/2010   Journal         Vagliasindi Maria             Izzet Guney, and ChrisTaubman
102   7/13/2010   Working Paper   Page        John              -
103   7/13/2010   Journal         Goedhuys    Micheline         Norbert Janz, and Pierre Mohnen
104   7/13/2010   Journal         Dao         Minh Quang        -
105   7/13/2010   Journal         Beck        Thorsten          Asli Demirguc-Kunt and Vojislav Maksimovic
106   7/13/2010   Journal         Javorcik    Beata S.          Mariana Spatareanu
107   7/13/2010   Journal             Javorcik      Beata S.        -
108   7/13/2010   Journal             Rutkowski     iAlexsander     -
109   7/13/2010   Journal             Wignaraja     Ganeshan        -
110   7/13/2010   Working Paper       Escribano     Alvaro          J. Luis Guasch, Manuel de Orte, Jorge Pena
111   7/13/2010   Journal             Lee           Kyu Sik         Alex Anas, Gi-Taik Oh
112   7/13/2010   Journal             Kenny         Charles         -
113   7/13/2010   Journal             Vagliasindi   Maria           -
114   7/13/2010   Working Paper       Aidis         Ruta            Tomasz Mickiewicz
115   8/5/2010    Journal             Cullen        John B.         Kelly D. Martin, Jean L. Johnson, K. Praveen Pa
116   8/5/2010    Journal             Javorcik      Beata Smarzynska-
117   8/5/2010    Journal             Gehlbach      Scott           -
118   8/5/2010    Journal             Beck          Thorsten        Asli Demiriguc-Kunt
119   8/5/2010    Journal             Fernandes     Anna M.         Pablo Fajnzylber
120   8/6/2010    Journal             Hu            Yifan           C. Simon Fan
121   8/6/2010    Journal             Lee           Seung-Hyun      Kyeungrae Kenny Oh
122   8/6/2010    Journal             Chatterjee    Ishita          Ranjan Ray
123   8/6/2010    Book                Bakanova      M.              L. Freinkman
124   8/6/2010    Book                Batra         Geeta           Daniel Kaufmann, and Andrew H. W. Stone
125   8/11/2010   Book                Clarke        George R.G.     -
126   8/11/2010   Book                Fajnzylber    Pablo           J. Humberto Lopez, and Jose Luis Guasch
127   8/11/2010   Book                Ferrari       A               IS Dhingra
128   8/11/2010   Book                Kumar         Anjali          -
129   8/11/2010   Book                Kumar         Anjali          Manuela Francisco
130   8/11/2010   Book                Litan          Robert E.      Michael Pomerleano, Vasudevan Sundararaja
131   8/11/2010   Book                Mitra         Pradeep         Patrick Lumumba Osewe
132   8/11/2010   Book                Ndulu         Benno J.        Lopamudra Chakraborti; Lebohang Lijane; Vi
133   8/11/2010   Book                Pomfret       Richard W. T.   -
134   8/11/2010   Book                Rutkowski     Jan             J., Stefano Scarpetta, Arup Banerji
135   8/11/2010   Book                Alam          Asad            Paloma Anos Casero, Faruk Khan
136   8/11/2010   Book                Aidis         Ruta            Friederike Welter
137   8/11/2010   Book                Nee           Vicor           Sonja Opper
138   8/11/2010   Book                Mazaheri      Ata             Dipak Mazumdar
139   8/11/2010   Book chapter        Svensson      Jakob           -
140   8/11/2010   Book chapter        Cepiku        Denita          -
141   8/11/2010   Working Paper       Desai         Raj             Anders Olofsgard
142   8/11/2010   Journal             Pietrobelli    Carlo          Federica Saliola
143   8/11/2010   Journal             Huang         Yasheng         -
144   8/11/2010   Journal             Cokgezen      Murat           -
145   8/11/2010   Working Paper       Zhuravskaya   Ekaterina V.    Irina Slinko, Evgeny Yakovlev
146   8/11/2010   Working Paper       Carlin        Wendy            Mark E. Schaffer, Paul Seabright
147   8/11/2010   Journal             Iwasaki       Ichiro          Taku Suzuki
148   8/24/2010   Working Paper       Dollar        David           Shuilin Wang, Lixin Colin Xu
149   8/24/2010   Working Paper       Dollar        David           Shuilin Wang, Lixin Colin Xu
150   8/24/2010   Journal             Spechler      Martin C.       -
151   8/24/2010   Journal             Kenyon        Thomas          Megumi Naoi
152   8/24/2010   Trade Publication   Love          Inessa          Nataliya Mylenko
153   8/24/2010   Journal             Frazer        Garth           -
154   8/24/2010   Journal             biesebroeck   johannes van    -
155   8/24/2010   Journal             Clarke        George R.G.     Scott J. Wallsten
156   8/24/2010   Journal             Hericourt     Jerome          Sandra Poncet
157   8/30/2010   Journal             Gehlbach      Scott           -
158   8/30/2010   Journal             Desbordes     Rodolphe        Julien Vauday
159   8/30/2010   Journal             Soderbom      Mans            Francis Teal, Anthony Wambugu
160   8/30/2010   Journal             Amin          Mohammad        -
161   8/30/2010   Journal             Pierre        Gaëlle          Stefano Scarpetta
162   8/30/2010   Journal         Bignebat     Céline        Fabian Gouret
163   8/30/2010   Journal                      Mary
                                  Hallward-Driemeier         Scott Wallsten, Lixin Colin Xu
164   8/30/2010   Journal         Dong         Xiao-Yuan     Lixin Colin Xu
165   8/30/2010   Journal         Dong         Xiao-Yuan     Lixin Colin Xu, Scott Wallsten
166   8/30/2010   Journal         Desai        Raj M.        Anders Olofsgard
167   8/30/2010   Journal         Gatti        Roberta       Inessa Love
168   8/30/2010   Journal         Katz         Barbara G.    Joel Owen
169   8/30/2010   Journal         Hellman      Joel          Mark Schankerman
170   8/30/2010   Journal         Rutkowski Aleksander       -
171   8/30/2010   Journal         Clarke       George R.G.   -
172   8/30/2010   Article         Amin         Mohammad      -
173   8/30/2010   Article         Kaplan       David         -
174   8/30/2010   Article         Leino        Jessica       -
175   8/30/2010   Article         Amin         Mohammad      -
176   8/30/2010   Article         Ramalho      Rita          Jorge Rodríguez-Meza, Judy Yang
177   8/30/2010   Article         Hellman      Joel          Daniel Kaufmann
178   8/30/2010   Journal         Ivan         Samson        -
179   8/30/2010   Journal         Kaditi       Eleni Ath.    -
180   8/30/2010   Journal         Phillips     Lauren M.     -
181   8/30/2010   Journal         Dabla-Norris Era           Gabriela Inchauste
182   8/30/2010   Working Paper   Dabla-Norris Era           Junko Koeda
183   8/30/2010   Journal         Amin         Mohammad      -
184   8/30/2010   Journal         Amin         Mohammad      -
185   8/30/2010   Journal         Huang        Yasheng       -
186   8/30/2010   Journal         Goedhuys     Micheline     -
187   8/30/2010   Working Paper   Falkingham Jane            -
188   8/30/2010   Journal         Hanson      Philip         -
189   8/30/2010   Book chapter    Fisman      Ray            Roberta Gatti
190   8/30/2010   Journal         Ho          James K.       -
191   8/30/2010   Working Paper   Schaffer    Mark E.        Pradeep Mitra, Alexander Muravyev
192   8/30/2010   Working Paper   Almeida     Rita           Pedro Carneiro
193   8/30/2010   Journal         Gauthier    Bernard        Ritva Reinikka
194   8/30/2010   Journal         Deninger    Klaus          Songqing Jin
195   8/31/2010   Journal         Wignaraja Ganeshan         -
196   8/31/2010   Journal         Cull        Robert         Lance E. Davis, Naomi R. Lamoreaux, Jean-Lau
197   8/31/2010   Journal         Biggs       Tyler          Manju Kedia Shah
198   8/31/2010   Journal         Firth       Michael        Chen Lin, Ping Liu, Sonia M.L. Wong
199   8/31/2010   Journal         Venard      Bertrand       Mohamed Hanafi
200   8/31/2010   Journal         Muravyev    Alexander      Oleksandr Talavera, Dorothea Schafer
201   8/31/2010   Journal         Clarke      George R.G.    Robert Cull, Maria Soledad Martinez Peria
202   8/31/2010   Journal         Krkoska     Libor          Katrin Robeck
203   8/31/2010   Journal         Hellman     Joel S.        Geraint Jones, Daniel Kaufmann
204   8/31/2010   Working Paper   Honohan     Patrick        -
205   8/31/2010   Working Paper   Honorati    Maddalena      Taye Mengistae
206   8/31/2010   Working Paper   Rahman      Aminur         Quan Li, Nathan M. Jensen
207   8/31/2010   Working Paper   Kaufmann Daniel            Aart Kraay
208   8/31/2010   Working Paper   Kaufmann Daniel            Aart Kraay
209   8/31/2010   Working Paper   Kaufmann Daniel            Aart Kraay, Massimo Mastruzzi
210   8/31/2010   Working Paper   Kaufmann Daniel            Aart Kraay, Massimo Mastruzzi
211   8/31/2010   Working Paper   Kaufmann Daniel            Aart Kraay, Massimo Mastruzzi
212   8/31/2010   Working Paper               Marie-Ange
                                  Veganzones-Varoudakis      Tidiane Kinda, Patrick Plane
213   8/31/2010   Working Paper   Lall        Somik V.       Taye Mengistae
214   8/31/2010   Working Paper   Lall        Somik V.       Taye Mengistae
215   8/31/2010   Working Paper   Subramanian Uma            Matthias Matthijs
216   8/31/2010   Working Paper   Mengistae Taye             -
217   8/31/2010    Working Paper       Straub       Stephane         -
218   8/31/2010    Working Paper       Straub       Stephane         Charles Vellutini, Michael Warlters
219   8/31/2010    Working Paper       Tan          Hong             Yevgeniya Savchenko
220   8/31/2010    Working Paper       Kenny        Charles          Tina Soreide
221   8/31/2010    Journal             Dollar       David            Mary Hallward-Driemeier and Taye Mengista
222   8/31/2010    Journal             Jurajda      Stepan           Katherine Terrell
223   8/31/2010    Journal             Fernandes Ana M               -
224   8/31/2010    Journal             Kenyon       Thomas           -
225   8/31/2010    Journal             Ramachandran Vijaya           Benn Eifert, Alan Gelb
226   8/31/2010    Journal             Deininger    Klaus            Songqing Jin, Mona Sur
227   11/10/2010   Journal             Gaviria      Alejandro        -
228   11/15/2010   Journal             Rajabiun     Reza             -
229   11/15/2010   Journal             Rajabiun     Reza             -
230   12/8/2010    Journal             Chong        Alberto          Mark Gradstein
231   2/2/2011     Journal             Dollar       David            Mary Hallward-Driemeier, and Taye Mengista
232   2/2/2011     Working Paper       Ferro        Esteban          John S. Wilson
233   2/25/2011    Working Paper                    Mary
                                       Hallward-Driemeier            Lant Pritchett
234   2/28/2011    Trade Publication                -                -
                                       Poverty Reduction and Economic Management Sector Unit, East Asia and Pac
235   2/28/2011    Working Paper       Lindenberg Nannette           Frank Westermann
236   2/28/2011    Trade Publication   Investment Climate Advisory Services, World Bank Group
237   2/28/2011    Working Paper       Goedhuys     Micheline        Martin Srholec
238   2/28/2011    Working Paper       Chen         Feng
239   10/23/2011   Working Paper       Amin         Mohammad         -
240   11/14/2011   Working Paper       Gennaioli    Nicola           Rafael La Porta, Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes, a
241   11/30/2011   Article             Amin         Mohammad         -
242   11/30/2011   Article             Amin         Mohammad         -
243   11/30/2011   Article             Amin         Mohammad         -
244   11/30/2011   Article             Amin         Mohammad         -
245   11/30/2011   Article             Amin         Mohammad         -
246   11/30/2011   Article             Amin         Mohammad         -
247   11/30/2011   Article             Amin         Mohammad         -
248   11/30/2011   Article             Amin         Mohammad         -
249   11/30/2011   Article             Amin         Mohammad         Simeon Djankov
250   11/30/2011   Article             Seker        Murat            -
251   11/30/2011   Article             Seker        Murat            -
252   11/30/2011   Article             Correa       Paulo            Mariana Iootty
253   11/30/2011   Article             Correa       Paulo            Mariana Iootty
254   11/30/2011   Article             Love         Inessa           Larry Chavis, Leora Klapper
255   11/30/2011   Article             Klapper      Leora            Douglas Randall
256   11/30/2011   Article             Sharma       Siddharth        -
257   11/30/2011   Article                          Jorge
                                       Rodríguez-Meza                Judy Yang, Mariana Iootty, Paulo Correa, Rita
258   11/30/2011   Article             Yang         Judy             -
259   11/30/2011   Working Paper       Charles      Kenny            Michael Klein, Monika Sztajerowska
260   12/19/2011   Journal             Djankov      Simon            Tim Ganser, Caralee McLiesh, Rita Ramalho, A
261   12/19/2011   Journal             Beck         Thorsten         Asli Demirguc-Kunt, Maria Soledad Martinez P
262   12/19/2011   Journal             Chavis       Larry            Leora F. Klapper, Inessa Love
263   12/19/2011   Working Paper       Seker        Murat            -
264   12/19/2011   Working Paper       Seker        Murat            Paulo Guilherme Correa
265   12/19/2011   Working Paper       Seker        Murat            -
266   12/19/2011   Working Paper       Beck         Thorsten         Asli Demirguc-Kunt, Dorothe Singer
267   1/4/2012     Journal             Amin         Mohammad         -
268   1/4/2012     Journal             Kaplan       David S.         Vikram Pathania
269   1/4/2012     Journal             Fleisher     Belton M.        Yifan Hu, Haizheng Li, Seonghoon Kim
270   1/4/2012     Journal             Ayyagari     Meghana          Demirguc-Kunt, Asli; Maksimovic, Vojislav;
271   1/4/2012     Journal             Aterido      Reyes            Mary Hallward-Driemeier, Carmen Pages
272   1/4/2012   Journal         Dethier   Jean-Jacques   Hirn, Maximilian; Straub, Stephane
273   1/4/2012   Working Paper   Gelb                     VijayaShah, Manju KediaTurner, Ginger
                                           Alan Ramachandran
Title


Gender and Firm-Size: Evidence from Africa
What Firms Know
Helpful Governments
Labor Regulation and Employment in India's Retail Stores
When Do Creditor Rights Work?
Home-based Informal Businesses and the Gender Dimension
Crime Against Informal Businesses in Africa: Natives vs. Immigrants
Who Suffers More from Crime?
Competition and Labor Productivity in India's Retail Stores
Obstacles to Registering: Necessity vs. Opportunity Firms
Labor Productivity in the Informal Sector: Necessity vs. Opportunity Firms
Does corruption impact on firms' ability to conduct business in Mauritania ? Evidence from investment climate survey data
The Incidence of Graft on Developing-country Firms
When do enterprises prefer informal credit?
Importing, Exporting and Innovation in Developing Countries
Financial development and innovation in small firms
Enforcement of labor regulation and firm size
Job creation and labor reform in Latin America
Competition, Innovation and Growth in Transition: Exploring the Interactions between Policies
The impact of improved highways on Indian firms
Russia: Firm entry and survival barriers
Informality Among Formal Firms: Firm-Level, Cross-Country Evidence on Tax Compliance and Access to Credit
On the Evolution of Firm Size Distributions
A house of straw, sticks or bricks? Some notes on corruption empirics
Stimulating Growth and Investment in Africa: From Macro to Micro Reforms
Helping Hand or Grabbing Hand? State Bureaucracy and Privatization Effectiveness
What have we learned about the causes of corruption from ten years of crossnational empirical research?
Firm Performance and Foreign Direct Investment: Evidence from Transition Economies
Foreign Exposure and Job Creation
Services Inputs and Firm Productivity in Sub-Saharan Africa: Evidence from Firm-Level Data
Business Environment and the Incorporation Decision.
How transition paths differ: Enterprise performance in Russia and China
Foreign direct investment and technology spillovers: Evidence from panel data analysis of manufacturing firms in Zambia
What causes firms to hide output? The determinants of informality
Economic transition and gender differentials in wages and productivity: Evidence from Chinese manufacturing enterprises
Are corruption and taxation really harmful to growth? Firm level evidence
Informal sector: the credit market channel
South African exporting firms: What do we know and what should we know?
Measuring Corruption in Infrastructure: Evidence from Transition and Developing Countries
Minority Entrepreneurs and Firm Performance in Sub-Saharan Africa
Information Sharing and credit: firm-level evidence from transition countries
Wages and Labor Management in African Manufacturing
The Determinants of Financing Obstacles
Bank Competition and Access to Finance: International Evidence
Obstacles to entrepreneurship in a transition business environment: the case of Albania
Who Must Pay Bribes and How Much? Evidence from A Cross Section of Firms
Male–female wage discrimination in Chinese industry Investigation using firm-level data
What Have We Learned from a Decade of Manufacturing Enterprise Surveys in Africa?
A Structural Model of Establishment and Industry Evolution: Evidence from Chile
Corruption in bank lending to firms: Cross-country micro evidence on the beneficial role of competition and information sharing
Financing Patterns around the World: Are Small Firms Different?
Institutions, ownership, and finance: the determinants of profit reinvestment among Chinese firms
Das (Wasted) Kapital: Firm Ownership and Investment Efficiency in China
Eat, Drink, Firms, Government: An Investigation of Corruption from Entertainment and Travel Costs of Chinese Firms
Multinationals, Technology, and the Introduction of varieties of goods
Factor Utilization in Indian Manufacturing: A Look at the World Bank Investment Climate Surveys Data
Openness and technological innovations in developing countries : evidence from firm-level surveys
What improves environmental performance? evidence from Mexican industry
A Firm's-Eye View of Commercial Policy and Fiscal Reforms in Cameroon
How Important Are Financing Constraints? The Role of Finance in the Business Environment
Measuring Governance, Corruption, and State Capture: How Firms and Bureaucrats Shape the Business Environment in Transition Ec
Governance Matters II: Updated Indicators for 2000-01
Governance matters III: Governance indicators for 1996-2002
Governance Matters V: Aggregate and Individual Governance Indicators for 1996-2005
Firm Innovation in Emerging Markets: The Roles of Governance and Finance.
Identifying Supply-Side Constraints to Export Performance in Ecuador: An Exercise With Investment Climate Survey Data
Construction, Corruption, and Developing Countries
Who Fears Competition from Informal Firms? Evidence from Latin America
Governance matters IV: Governance indicators for 1996-2004
Measuring the impact of the investment climate on total factor productivity : the cases of China and Brazil
Institutional obstacles to doing business : region-by-region results from a worldwide survey of the private sector
Bridging the digital divide - how enterprise ownership and foreign competition affect Internet access in Eastern Europe and Central A
Restructuring of insider-dominated firms
Poverty, inequality, and social disparities during China's economic reform
Lessons from China for Africa
Market access, supplier access, and Africa's manufactured exports : an analysis of the role of geography and institutions
Procurement efficiency for infrastructure development and financial needs reassessed
Paying the price for unreliable power supplies : in-house generation of electricity by firms in Africa
Are skills rewarded in Sub-Saharan Africa ? determinants of wages and productivity in the manufacturing sector
Who survives ? the impact of corruption, competition and property rights across firms
Firm-level survey provides data on Asia's corporate crisis and recovery
Does Greater Accountability Improve the Quality of Public Service Delivery? Evidence from Uganda
Labor restructuring in China: Toward a functioning labor market
News on Corruption in the Wall Street Journal and the Corruption Perception Index (CPI)
Eight Questions about Corruption
Exporting raises productivity in sub-Saharan African manufacturing firms
Is the World Flat? Country- and Firm-Level Determinants of Law Compliance
Trust in Transition: Cross-Country and Firm Evidence
Bank Supervision and Corruption in Lending
Privatization, competition, and corruption: how characteristics of bribe takers and payers affect bribes to utilities
Measuring Corruption: A Critique of Indicators in Eastern Europe and Central Asia
Comparing Apples: Normalcy, Russia, and the Remaining Post-Socialist World
Measuring Governance and Corruption through the Worldwide Governance Indicators: Critiques, Responses, and Ongoing Scholarly
Lobbying, corruption and political influence
Multinational firms, global value chains and the organization of knowledge transfer
The Effect of Corruption on Investment Growth: Evidence from Firms in Latin America, Sub-Saharan Africa and Transition Countries
How Well Do Institutional Theories Explain Firms’ Perceptions of Property Rights?
High-growth entrepreneurial firms in Africa: a quantile regression approach
Emerging issues and debates in the reform of the business environment for small enterprise development
Bank Ownership, Bank Competition, and Credit Access: Firm-Level Evidence from Transition Countries
Fixed and Mobile Competition in Transition Economies
Africa’s Growth Turnaround: From Fewer Mistakes to Sustained Growth
What drives productivity in Tanzanian manufacturing firms: technology or business environment?
The Impact of Investment Climate Indicators on Gross Capital Formation in Developing Countries
Financial and Legal Constraints to Firm Growth: Does Size Matter?
Liquidity Constraints and Firms’ Linkages with Multinationals
Can Survey Evidence Shed Light on Spillovers from Foreign Direct Investment?
Inward FDI, concentration, and profitability in the CEECs: Were the domestic firms crowded out or strengthened?
Ownership, Technology and Buyers: Explaining Exporting in China and Sri Lanka
Investment Climate Assessment Based on Demean Olley and Pakes Decompositions: Methodology and Application to Turkey’s Invest
Costs of Infrastructure Deficiencies for Manufacturing in Nigerian, Indonesian and Thai Cities
Is there an anticorruption agenda in utilities?
The role of investment and regulatory reforms in the development of infrastructure across transition economies
Which Entrepreneurs Expect to Expand their Businesses? Evidence from Survey Data in Lithuania
Deciding to Bribe: A Cross-Level Analysis of Firm and Home Country Influences on Bribery Activity
Does Foreign Direct Investment Increase the Productivity of Domestic Firms? In Search of Spillovers through Backward Linkages
The Consequences of Collective Action: An Incomplete-Contracts Approach
Law and Firms' Access to Finance
International Economic Activities and the Demand for Skilled Labor: evidence from Brazil and China
Imports of capital goods and enterprise performance: a firm-level analysis in China
Corruption in Asia: Pervasiveness and arbitrariness
Does the Evidence on Corruption Depend on How it is Measured? Results from a Cross Country Study on Micro Data Sets
Economic Growth in Belarus (1996-2004): Main Drivers and Risks of the Current Strategy
Investment climate around the world
An Assessment of the Investment Climate in South Africa
Does the Investment Climate Matter?
India's Investment Climate: Voices of Indian Business
Access to Financial Services in Brazil
Enterprise Size, Financing Patterns, and Credit Constraints in Brazil: Analysis of Data from the Investment Climate Assessment Surve
Financial Sector Governance
Innovation, Inclusion and Integration
Challenges of African growth : opportunities, constraints, and strategic directions
The Central Asian Economies Since Independence
Enhancing Job Opportunities
Unleashing Prosperity: Productivity Growth in Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union
Innovation and Entrepreneurship
On Politicized Capitalism
The African Manufacturing Firm An Analysis Based on Firm Studies in Sub-Saharan Africa
The cost of Doing Business: Firms' Experience with Corruption
Coping With Corruption in Albanian Public Administration and Business
Do Politically Connected Firms Undermine Their Own Competitiveness? Evidence from Developing Countries
Power Relationships along the Value Chain: Multinational Firms, Global Buyers, and Local Suppliers’ Performance
Do Financing Biases Matter for the Chinese Economy?
Corruption in Kyrgyzstan: the facts, causes and consequences
Institutional Subversion: Evidence from Russian Regions
Where are the Real Bottlenecks? A Lagrangian Approach to Identifying Constraints on Growth from Subjective Survey Data
Transition strategy, corporate exploitation, and state capture: An empirical analysis of the former Soviet states
China’s Investment Climate
City and firm competitiveness of Liaoning Province
The Economies of Central Asia: A Survey
Policy Uncertainty in Hybrid Regimes - Evidence from Firm Level Surveys
Credit Reporting and Financing Constraints.
Which Firms Die? A Look at Manufacturing Firm Exit in Ghana
Firm Size Matters: Growth and Productivity Growth in African Manufacturing
Has the Internet Increased Trade?: Evidence from Industrial and Developing Countries
FDI and credit constraints: Firm-level evidence from China
Revenue Traps
The Political Influence of Foreign Firms in Developing Countries
Unobserved heterogeneity and the relation between earnings and firm size: evidence from two developing countries
Are Labor Regulations Driving Computer Usage in India's Retail Stores?
Employment protection: Do firms' perceptions match with legislation?
Determinants and consequences of soft budget constraints An empirical analysis using enterprise-level data in transition countries
Ownership, investment climate and firm performance Evidence from Chinese firms
The Impact of China’s Millennium Labor Restructuring Program on Firm Performance and Employee Earnings
The Investment Climate and the Firm: Firm-Level Evidence from China
Constitutionalism and Credibility in Reforming Economies
Does Access to Credit Improve Productivity? Evidence from Bulgarian Firms.
Are Property Rights Enough? Re-Evaluating a Big-Bang Claim
Intervention, Corruption and Capture: The Nexus between Enterprises and the State
Inward FDI and Financial Constraints in Central and East European Countries
Beyond Tariffs and Quotas: Why Do African Manufacturers Not Export More?
Crime, Security, and Firms in Latin America
The Effects of Rigid Labor Regulations in Latin America
Formal and Informal Microenterprises
Consumer Behavior and Competition in Indian Retailing
How are Firms in Eastern and Central Europe Reacting to the Financial Crisis?
Confronting the Challenge of State Capture in Transition Economies
The Search of a Development Path: Challenges for Georgia
Foreign Direct Investments and Productivity Growth in the Agri-Food Sector of Eastern Europe and Central Asia: An Empirical Analy
Growth and the Investment Climate: Progress and Challenges for Asian Economies
Informality and Regulations: What Drives the Growth of Firms?
Informality and Bank Credit: Evidence from Firm-Level Data
Retailing in India: Assessing the Investment Climate
Consumer Behavior and Competition in Indian Retailing
Assessing financing constraints for domestic private firms in china and india: evidence from the WBES survey
Learning, product innovation, and firm heterogeneity in developing countries, evidence from Tanzania
Inequality and Poverty in the CIS-7, 1989-2002
The Russian Economic Puzzle: Going Forwards, Backwards or Sideways?
Bargaining for Bribes: the Role of Institutions
Maximum resolution dichotomy for investment climate indicators
Convergence in Institutions and Market Outcomes: Cross-Country and Time-Series Evidence from the BEEPS Surveys in Transition E
Does Labor Flexibility Affect Firm Performance? Evidence from Brazil
Shifting Tax Burdens through Exemptions and Evasion: an Empirical Investigation of Uganda
Key Constraints for Rural Non-Farm Activity in Tanzania: Combining Investment Climate and Household Surveys
Foreign ownership, technological capabilities and clothing exports in Sri Lanka
Historical financing of small- and medium-size enterprises
African SMES, networks, and manufacturing performance
Inside the black box: Bank credit allocation in China’s private sector 

Organizational Isomorphism and Corruption in Financial Institutions: Empirical Research in Emerging Countries
Entrepreneurs’ Gender and Financial Constraints: Evidence from International Data
Foreign Bank Participation and Access to Credit across Firms in Developing Countries
Business environment and enterprise behaviour in East Germany compared to West Germany and Central Europe
Seize the State, Seize the Day: State Capture, Corruption and Influence in Transition
Measuring Microfinance Access: Building on Existing Cross-Country Data
Corruption, the business environment, and small business growth in India
Heard melodies are sweet, but those unheard are sweeter : understanding corruption using cross-national firm-level surveys
Governance indicators : where are we, where should we be going ?
The worldwide governance indicators project : answering the critics
Governance matters VIII : aggregate and individual governance indicators 1996-2008
Governance matters VI : aggregate and individual governance indicators 1996-2007
Governance matters VII : aggregate and individual governance indicators 1996-2007
Firms' productive performance and the investment climate in developing economies : an application to MENA manufacturing
The impact of business environment and economic geography on plant-level productivity : an analysis of Indian industry
Business environment, clustering, and industry location : evidence from Indian cities
Can Sub-Saharan Africa leap into global network trade ?
Indigenous ethnicity and entrepreneurial success in Africa : some evidence from Ethiopia
Infrastructure and growth in developing countries : recent advances and research challenges
Infrastructure and economic growth in East Asia
Skills shortages and training in Russian enterprises
Grand corruption in utilities
Investment climate and international integration
Job Reallocation in Two Cases of Massive Adjustment in Eastern Europe
Firm productivity in Bangladesh manufacturing industries
Tax Evasion, Disclosure, and Participation in Financial Markets: Evidence from Brazilian Firms
The Cost of Doing Business in Africa: Evidence from Enterprise Survey Data
Sri Lanka’s Rural Non-Farm Economy: Removing Constraints to Pro-Poor Growth 

Assessing the effects of corruption and crime on firm performance: evidence from Latin America
Competition Law and the Economy in the Russian Federation, 1990-2006
Competition Law as Development Policy: Evidence from Poland
Volatility and Firm Growth
Investment Climate and Firm Performance in Developing Economies
Foreign Aid and Business Bottlenecks: A Study of Aid Effectiveness
How Business is Done and the ‘Doing Business’ Indicators: The Investment Climate when Firms have Climate Control
Vietnam Development Report 2010 Modern Institutions
How Strong is the Case for Dollarization in Central America? An Empirical Analysis of Business Cycles, Credit Market Imperfections a
Investing Acoss Borders 2010
Understanding multilevel interactions in economic development
Financial Reporting Quality and Investment Efficiency of Private Firms in Emerging Markets
Competition and Demographics in Large Indian Cities
Human Capital and Regional Development
Comparing informal firms in Buenos Aires and Chaco
Education and the structure of informal firms in Latin America
Gender and informality in Latin America
Labor productivity, firm-size and gender: The case of informal firms in Argentina and Peru
Challenges of retailing in India
Crime and security in the Eastern Europe and Central Asia region
How do manufacturing and service firms differ within the informal sector?
Necessity vs. opportunity entrepreneurs in the informal sector
Determinants of Doing Business reforms
Difficulties in job creation and exporting
Trade performance in Eastern Europe and Central Asia
Research and development decisions during the crisis: Firm-level evidence for selected eastern countries
The impact of the global economic crisis on the corporate sector in Europe and Central Asia
International differences in entrepreneurial finance
The impact of the financial crisis on supply-chain financing
Entry regulation, labor laws, and informality
How firms in Eastern and Central Europe fared through the global financial crisis: Evidence from 2008–2010
Business Environment Perceptions in Afghanistan and Pakistan
A Trio of Perspectives on Corruption - Bias, Speed Money, and "Grand Theft Infrastructure"
The effect of corporate taxes on investment and entrepreneurship
Bank Financing for SMEs: Evidence Across Countries and Bank Owner Types
The Impact of the Business Environment on Young Firm Financing
Trade policies, investment climate and exporters
Obstacles to growth for small and medium enterprises in Turkey
Rigidities in employment protection and exporting
Is Small Beautiful? Financial Structure and Access to Finance
Computer Usage and Labor Regulation in India's Retail Sector
What Influences Firms' Perceptions?
Economic transition, higher education and worker productivity in China
Formal versus informal finance : evidence from China
Big constraints to small firms' growth ? business environment and employment growth across firms
Explaining enterprise performance in developing countries with business climate survey data
What Matters to African Firms? The Relevance of Perceptions Data
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Economics Bulletin                             30(1): 663-668                        2010
Economics Letters                              107(2): 273-275                       2010
Economics Letters                              105(1): 130-133                       2009
Journal of Comparative Economics               37(1): 47-61                          2009
Journal of Comparative Economics               35(3): 484-508                        2007
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Mimeograph                                     -                                     2010
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World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 46568                                   2007
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Journal of Comparative Economics               37(1): 28-46                          2009
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William Davidson Institute Working Paper       Working Paper No. 501                 2002
World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 45263                                   2008
Economic Systems                               31(4): 391-411                        2007
CEPR                                           CEPR Discussion Paper No. DP6597 2007
American Economic Review                       March 2008, v. 98, iss. 1, pp. 426-38 2008
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Norwegian Institute of International Affairs (NUPI), Oslo                            2005
African Development Review                     Volume 19 Issue 1, Pages 26 - 51      2007
American Political Science Review              103:264-283                           2009
Annual Review of Political Science             Volume 10: 211-244                    2007
Economics Bulletin                             Vol. 15, No. 21 pp. 1-11              2007
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Enterprise Notes, Enterprise Analysis The World Bank Group                           2009
Journal of African Economies                   Vol. 17, No. 4, pp. 578-599           2008
Journal of Banking and Finance                 30(11):2967-2993                      2006
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Journal of Development Economics                                                     2007
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Journal of Development Economics               78 (2): 299-321                       2005
Journal of Development Perspectives            Volume 1, No. 4 (2008): pp. 67-92     2008
Journal of Development Studies                                                       2009
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Journal of Development Studies                 Volume 36, iss. 2, pp. 71-87          1999
Journal of Financial Intermediation                                                  2009
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Journal of Human Resources                     XLI(2):356-379 (2006)                 2006
Journal of International Money and Finance 25(6): 932-952                            2006
Journal of Money Credit and Banking            36(3): 627-648                        2004
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Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development 12 Issue: 4 Page: 564 - 578 2005
Quarterly Journal of Economics                 Vol. 118, No. 1, Pages 207-230        2003
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Journal of Comparative Economics                                                  2009
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Journal of Comparative International Management                                   2006
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Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization online                                2009
Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization online                                2007
Journal of Monetary Economics                                                     2006
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Journal of Public Economics                                                       2004
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Journal of Public Policy                    27:255-291                            2007
Post-Soviet Affairs                                                               2006
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PS: Political Science & Politics            42:139-143                            2009
Public Choice                               131:1–21                              2007
Research Policy                                                                   2009
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Review of Development Economics                                                   2009
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Review of Financial Studies                 21(4): 1833-1871.                     2008
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Small Enterprise Development                                                      2005
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Swiss Bank Mimeo                                                                  2005
Telecommunications Policy                                                         2006
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The Commission on Growth and Development Working Paper                            2009
The European Journal of Development Research                                      2008
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The Journal of Developing Areas             Volume 42, Number 1, Fall 2008        2008
The Journal of Finance                                                            2005
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The World Bank Economic Review              Volume 23, No. 2, pp. 323–346         2009
The World Bank Research Observer                Volume 23, Number 2, p. 139-159         2008
Transnational Corporations                      Volume 15, No 3, 2006                   2006
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American Economic Review                        Volume 94, No. 3, 605-627               2004
American Journal of Political Science           Vol. 50, No. 3 (Jul., 2006), pp. 802-8232006
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Enterprise Notes, Enterprise Analysis The World Bank Group                           2009
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Enterprise Notes, Enterprise Analysis The World Bank Group                           2009
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Enterprise Notes, Enterprise Analysis The World Bank Group                           2009
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Enterprise Notes, Enterprise Analysis The World Bank Group                           2009
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Enterprise Notes, Enterprise Analysis The World Bank Group                           2009
Finance and Development                      2001 Sep;:31-5.                         2001
Georgian Economic Trends                     2005 No.4                               2005
Global Economy Journal                       Volume 6, Issue 3                       2006
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Indian Journal of Economics & Business       Special Issue China & India (2006)      2006
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Journal of African Economies                 2009 18(2):319-361                    2009
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World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 4338                                  2007
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World Development                            Vol 34, No. 9 pp 1498-1516            2006
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Emerging Markets Review                                                            2002
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Global Jurist                                vol. 9, Issue 2, Article 9            2009
The Law and Development Review               vol. 2, No. 1                         2009
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Investing Across Borders 2010                                                      2010
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United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and social Research and training centre on Innovation and Technology Working Pa
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Enterprise Notes, Enterprise Analysis The World Bank Group                         2010
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Enterprise Notes, Enterprise Analysis The World Bank Group                         2010
                                             Note 13
Enterprise Notes, Enterprise Analysis The World Bank Group                         2010
                                             Note 1
Enterprise Notes, Enterprise Analysis The World Bank Group                         2009
                                             Note 20
Enterprise Notes, Enterprise Analysis The World Bank Group                         2009
                                             Note 27
Enterprise Notes, Enterprise Analysis The World Bank Group                         2011
World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 5889                                  2011
American Economic Journal: Macroecnomics 2 (July 2010): 31–64                      2010
Journal of Financial Services Research       39:35-54                              2011
The World Bank Review                        25(3) 486-507                         2011
Working Paper                                                                      2011
Working Paper                                                                      2010
Working Paper                                                                      2011
World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 5806                                      2011
Journal of Development Studies               Volume 46, Issue 9, pages 1572-1592 2010
Journal of Comparative Economics                                                   2010
                                             Volume 38, Issue 4, December 2010, Pages 419-431
Journal of Development Economics                                                   2011
                                             Volume 94, Issue 1, January 2011, Pages 86-94
Review of Financial Studies                  23 (8): 3048-3097                     2010
Economic Development and Cultural Change Volume 59, No. 3, pp. 609-647             2011
The World Bank Research Observer           26: 258–309   2010
World Bank Policy Research Working Paper   4446          2007
Abstract                                                     Topic


                                                             Gender
A number of studies show that relative to male owned businesses, female owned businesses are smaller in size. However, these studi
                                                             Legal Origin
The present paper contributes to the literature on legal origins by showing that the ease with which information on rules and regulat
                                                             Legal for doing business, we find strong evidence for the theory of legal or
Using data on firm perceptions of how helpful the government is Origin
                                                             Labor Regulations
A new dataset of 1948 retail stores in India shows that 27% of the stores find labor regulations as a problem for their business. Using
                                                             Finance
Creditor-friendly laws are generally associated with more credit to the private sector and deeper financial markets. But laws mean li
                                                             Informality
Anecdotal evidence suggests that working from home makes it easier to balance work and family life. This is particularly attractive to
                                                             Informality
The literature on crime seeks to identify groups of agents based on their socio-economic-demographic characteristics that are more l
                                                             Crime
Existing studies aimed at identifying individuals or economic agents that suffer more from crime than others are based on the inciden
                                                             Competition
The paper analyzes the effect of product market competition on the average productivity of labor in India’s retail sector. The authors
                                                             Informality
Using a new dataset on informal or unregistered firms in Ivory Coast, Madagascar and Mauritius, this paper identifies the type of firm
                                                             Informality
Differences between opportunity and necessity firms within the informal sector have long been debated. This paper revisits this deba
                                                              deem corruption as an obstacle to operate and grow, to identify the profi
This paper seeks to understand whether Mauritanian firmsCorruption
                                                             Corruption
This paper measures the extent to which firms in developing countries are the target of bribes. Using new firm-level survey data from
                                                             formal
This paper tests the hypothesis that enterprises may forgo Financefinance in lieu of informal credit by choice. They do so to avoid the
                                                             Trade
Recent studies have shown that not only exporters but also importers perform better than firms that do not trade. Using a detailed fi
                                                             Finance
This paper uses firm level data from a cross-section of 57 countries to study how financial development affects innovation in small fi
                                                             Labor Regulations
This paper investigates how the enforcement of labor regulation affects firm size and other firm characteristics in Brazil. We explore
                                                             Labor Regulations
This paper studies the effects of labor-regulation reform using data for 10,396 firms from 14 Latin American countries. Firms are ask
                                                             Innovation
Transition has entailed the introduction of policies to stimulate product market competition, to establish effective corporate governa
                                                             Infrastructure
India's Golden Quadrilateral Program is aimed at improving the quality and width of existing highways connecting the four largest ci
                                                             Firm entry and survival
Why are there so few new firms in Russia? This paper provides further insights into the specific Russian business landscape and how
                                                             Informality
We use firm-level, cross-county data from Investment Climate surveys in 49 developing countries to investigate an important channe
                                                             Finance
We study the impact of financial constraints on firm size distribution (FSD). We find that financially constrained firms, identified usin
                                                             Corruption d
Corruption has become a fashionable subject the last decade or so. The
ecades before it was neglected, and the phenomenon itself ha
How do we stimulate investment and growth in Africa? This paper focuses on low-income countries that are 'good performers' and n
                                                             Governance
Why have economic reforms aimed at reducing the role of the state been successful in some cases but not others? Are reform failures
                                                             Corruption
Review recent efforts by political scientists and economists to explain cross-national variation in corruption using subjective ratings,
                                                             Finance
We evaluate the performance of foreign-owned versus domestic firms, and the spillover effects of industry foreign share for five tran
                                                             Trade
In our highly globalized world, it is crucial for governments to monitor the flow of goods and services across their borders and to attr
                                                             Productivity
The authors investigate the relationship between the productivity of African manufacturing firms and their access to services inputs.
                                                             Finance
Using firm-level data from 52 countries we investigate how a country’s institutions and business environment affect firm’s organizat
                                                             Business Climate
We use enterprise survey data to analyse and contrast the determinants of enterprise performance in China and Russia. We find that
                                                             Productivity
The most pronounced reason for providing fiscal incentives to attract foreign direct investment (FDI) is that FDI is an effective condu
                                                             Governance
In many developing countries, a significant part of economic activity takes place in the informal sector. Earlier work has examined th
                                                             Gender
We use firm-level data to analyze male–female wage differences in Chinese industry in the late 1990s. Our estimates indicate that em
                                                             estimated bribe payments of Ugandan firms, we study the relationship bet
Exploiting a unique data set containing information on the Corruption
                                                             Finance
We build a model of firms' choice between formality and informality. Complying with costly registration procedures allows the firms
                                                             Finance
Policies to stimulate export growth and diversify the composition of exports in South Africa are now high on the government’s agend
                                                              impact of corruption in infrastructure using existing evidence. There is ev
This paper examines what we can say about the extent andGovernance
                                                             Business in sub-Saharan Africa. Using data from the Regional Program on
This study focuses on the role of entrepreneurs in the private sector Climate
                                                             Finance
Using Beeps they showed that information sharing by banks is associated with improved availability and lower cost credit.
Using matched employer-employee data from ten African countries, we examine the relationship between wages, worker supervision
                                                             Labor Regulations
                                                             80 countries to assess (i) how successful a priori classifications are in dist
We use survey data on a sample of over 10,000 firms from Finance
                                                             Finance
Theory makes ambiguous predictions about the effects of bank market structure on access to external finance. Using a unique databa
                                                             Investment Climate
 The purpose of the research is to critically evaluate the obstacles and problems encountered by entrepreneurs while doing business
                                                              quantitative
This paper uses a unique data set on corruption containingGovernance information on bribe payments of Ugandan firms. The data h
                                                             Gender
We use firm-level data to analyze male–female wage discrimination in China's industry. We find that there is a significant negative as
                                                             General on Enterprise Development (RPED) in several African countries, a
In the early 1990s the World Bank launched the Regional Program Policy
                                                             Growth
Many recent models have been developed to fit the basic facts on establishment and industry evolution. While these models yield a si
                                                             Goverance/Corruption/Institutional Setting
Building on the important study by Beck, Demirguc-Kunt and Levine (2006), we examine the effects of the both borrower and lender
                                                             Finance
Using a firm-level survey database covering 48 countries, we investigate how financial and institutional development affects financin
                                                               in 2002,
This paper reexamines those issues in the context of China Finance when the transition had moved far. We also find that secure prop
                                                               Firm Investment Strategies
Based on a survey that we designed and that covers a stratified random sample of 12,400 firms in 120 cities in China with firm-level
                                                               Goverance/Corruption/Institutional Setting
Entertainment and Travel Costs (ETC) is a standard expenditure item for Chinese firms with an annual amount equal to about 20 per
                                                                during
Using firm-level data for the Chinese manufacturing sector Trade 1998-2000, I compare the performance of foreign and domestic fir
                                                               Labor Regulations
Why is the performance of the Indian manufacturing sector, relative both to the service sector and to the manufacturing sectors in ot
                                                               Innovation
This paper examines international technology transfers using firm-level data across 43 developing countries. Its findings show that e
                                                                of regulation, plant-level management policies, and other factors on the e
This paper uses new survey evidence to analyze the effectsInvestment Climate
                                                               Country Study
After decades of high trade restrictions, fiscal distortions, and currency overvaluation, Cameroon implemented important commercia
                                                               Finance
What role does the business environment play in promoting and restraining firm growth? In this paper, we use firm level survey data
Unbundles the measurement of governance and corruption.        Goverance/Corruption/Institutional Setting
                                                               Goverance/Corruption/Institutional Setting
Kaufmann, Kraay, and Zoido-Lobaton construct aggregate governance indicators for six dimensions of governance, covering 175 cou
                                                               Goverance/Corruption/Institutional Setting
Kaufmann, Kraay, and Mastruzzi present estimates of six dimensions of governance covering 199 countries and territories for four ti
                                                               Goverance/Corruption/Institutional Setting
The authors report on the latest version of the worldwide governance indicators, covering 213 countries and territories and measuri
                                                               Innovation
The authors investigate the determinants of firm innovation in over 19,000 firms across 47 developing economies. They define the in
                                                               Investment Climate Survey (ICS) to investigate supply-side constraints to
The authors apply a Heckman selection model to the 2003 Trade, Infrastructure
                                                               Goverance/Corruption/Institutional have major roles as clients, regulato
The construction industry accounts for about one-third of gross capital formation. GovernmentsSetting
                                                               Firm Investment Strategies
This paper investigates who is most affected by informal competition and how regulation and enforcement affect the extent and natu
                                                               Goverance/Corruption/Institutional Setting
Kaufmann, Kraay and Mastruzzi present the newly updated estimates of six dimensions of governance covering 209 countries and te
                                                               Investment Climate, Productivity
This study measures the impact of investment climate factors on total factor productivity (TFP) of firms in Brazil and China. The anal
                                                               Investment Climate
Case studies and anecdotal evidence have suggested that uncertainty about policies, laws, and regulations has hampered developmen
                                                               Investment Climate
Many observers attributed the rapid productivity growth observed in the United States in the mid- to late 1990s, to the growing use o
                                                               Governance/Corruption/Institutional of privatizing to insiders affect ente
Using enterprise survey data for 1995-97, the author studies and compares how different modes Setting
                                                               Investment Climate
China has been the most rapidly growing economy in the world over the past 25 years. This growth has fueled a remarkable increase
                                                               Investment era of globalization. Since initiating economic reform after 197
China has been the most successful developing country in this modern Climate
                                                               Investment Climate
In a large cross-country sample of manufacturing establishments drawn from 188 cities, average exports per establishment are smal
                                                               Infrastructure
Infrastructure is the engine for economic growth. The international donor community has spent about 70-100 billion U.S. dollars on i
                                                               Infrastructure
This paper documents the prevalence of in-house generation of electric power by firms in Sub-Saharan Africa and attempts to identif
                                                               Labor Regulations
Using recent matched employer-employee data from the manufacturing sector in 20 Sub-Saharan African countries, the authors anal
                                                               Investment Climate        s
Size, age, sector, and productivity are commonly cited as factors determining a firm’ survival. However, there are several dimensions
                                                               Finance
Researchers have decried the limited supply of objective, comparable firm-level data from developing countries. The author describe
                                                               Goverance/Corruption/Institutional Setting
While the importance of corruption as a possible impediment to foreign investment in an international context is now well realized, i
                                                               Labor Regulations
This paper examines the patterns and determinants of the labor restructuring process in China using two large firm-level datasets fo
                                                               Goverance/Corruption/Institutional Setting
Based on cross-time-section series data collected from Wall Street Journal (WSJ), this article suggests that the Corruption Perception
                                                               Goverance/Corruption/Institutional Setting
This paper will discuss eight frequently asked questions about public corruption: (1) What is corruption? (2) Which countries are the
                                                               Productivity
Proponents of trade liberalization argue that exporting helps firms to achieve higher productivity levels. This hypothesis is examined
                                                               Goverance/Corruption/Institutional Setting
This research revisits the effects of a country's institutional framework on individual firms' behavior, focusing, in particular, on firms
                                                               Goverance/Corruption/Institutional Setting
Using data from a large survey of firms across 26 transition economies, this article assesses the extent of trust in business relationshi
                                                               Goverance/Corruption/Institutional Setting
Which commercial bank supervisory policies ease—or intensify—the degree to which bank corruption is an obstacle to firms raising
                                                               transition economies in eastern Europe and central Asia, we examine how
Using enterprise-level data on bribes paid to utilities in 21 Corruption
                                                               Corruption
This paper systematically examines indicators, starting with the definitional distinction between measures of administrative corrupt
                                                               Country Study
Shleifer and Treisman (2005) argue that Russia is a “normal country.” Their benchmark for normalcy, however, refers primarily to m
                                                               Goverance/Corruption/Institutional developing six governance indicators
Since 1996 the World Bank Institute and the Research Department of the World Bank have beenSetting
                                                               Goverance/Corruption/Institutional Setting
Conventional wisdom is that lobbying is the preferred mean for exerting political influence in rich countries and corruption the prefe
                                                               Innovation
This paper combines insights from different streams of literature to develop a more comprehensive framework for the analysis of kn
                                                               Goverance/Corruption/Institutional Setting
Many of the empirical studies that analyze the impact of corruption on investment have three common features: they employ aggrega
                                                               Finance
How well do institutional and firm-level factors explain firms’ perceptions of property rights protection
                                                                of entrepreneurial firms in
This article analyses the growth performance of a large setFirm Investment Strategies ten manufacturing sectors of 11 Sub-Saharan A
                                                               Investment means
There is a growing interest in reforming the business environment as aClimate to stimulating economic growth. Unlike other interven
                                                                affect the
We examine how foreign bank entry and bank competitionFinance credit access of small, medium and large firms in transition cou
                                                               Firm Investment fixed line
The main aim of this paper is to explore the competition between traditionalStrategies and mobile services across Eastern Europe and
                                                               regional study
After stagnating for much of its postcolonial history, economic performance in Sub-Saharan Africa has markedly improved. Since 199
                                                               Productivity
Using cross-sectional firm-level data, this paper examines the determinants of productivity among manufacturing firms in Tanzania.
                                                               Investment Climate
This paper examines the impact of investment climate indicators on gross capital formation in developing countries. Based on data fr
                                                               Finance
This paper investigates the effect of financial, legal, and corruption problems on firms' growth rates. Whether these factors constrain
                                                               Finance
Using a unique data set on the Czech Republic for 1994–2003, this article examines the relationship between a firm’s liquidity constr
                                                                Trade
Although some economists remain skeptical of the existence of positive externalities associated with foreign direct investment (FDI)
                                                                Firm Investment Strategies
This article examines the impact of foreign direct investment (FDI) on domestic market concentration and profitability in 13 Central
                                                                Trade
This paper examines several characteristics besides foreign ownership that influence the decision of clothing firms in China and Sri L
                                                                Firm Investment Strategies
Evaluate and measure the total factor productivity (TFP) impacts of having; low quality physical infrastructures (electricity, telecomm
                                                                Infrastructure
This paper is a sequel to an earlier paper on Nigeria published in this journal. Using the fresh results obtained from the sample surve
                                                                Goverance/Corruption/Institutional Setting
In a networked utility setting (few, predominantly monopoly providers), it is very hard to measure the extent of grand corruption us
                                                                 in infrastructure and broader
The main aim of this paper is to assess whether investmentFirm Investment Strategies institutional infrastructure reforms have be
                                                                Firm Investment Strategies
In Lithuania, why some busines intend to expand their firms, while others do not
                                                                Goverance/Corruption/Institutional through
Local firms in their home countries often engage in behavior that constitutes corruption,at least Setting some cultural lenses. One su
                                                                Productivity
Many countries strive to attract foreign direct investment (FDI) hoping that knowl- edge brought by multinationals will spill over to d
                                                                Goverance/Corruption/Institutional Setting
Public policy may be determined as much by what cannot be agreed to by politicians and organized interests as by what can. Focusin
                                                                Finance
This article examines how a country’s legal origin influences the operation of its financial system by using firm-level survey data acro
                                                                 greater specialization accordingto comparative advantage, but also to the
Increases in international economic integration can lead toProductivity
                                                                trade,firm performance
Much recent research on openness and productivity has shifted attention away from regions and countries to firms. Most of those stu
                                                                Goverance/Corruption/Institutional Asian
Abstract How does one understand the differences and similarities of corruption among variousSettingcountries? We use a recent fra
                                                                Corruption                             C
This study compares the evidence on corruption between alternative data sets. These include the
orruption Perceptions Indices (CPI
-                                                               Infrastructure
-                                                               Investment Climate
-                                                               Investment Climate
-                                                               Investment Climate
-                                                               Investment Climate
-                                                               Finance
-                                                               Finance
-                                                               Finance
-                                                               Innovation
-                                                               Economic Growth
-                                                               Country Study
-                                                               Labor Regulations
-                                                               Goverance/Corruption/Institutional Setting
-                                                               Innovation
-                                                               Goverance/Corruption/Institutional Setting
-                                                               regional study, industrial organization
-                                                               Goverance/Corruption/Institutional Setting
-                                                               Goverance/Corruption/Institutional Setting
                                                                Goverance/Corruption/Institutional Setting
This paper is about cronyism, or the arrangements by which influential firms receive economic favors. This phenomenon has been do
                                                                Productivity
There is a growing literature exploring the role of international trade channels oneconomic growth, looking at the mechanisms throu
no abstract                                                     finance
no abstract                                                     Goverance/Corruption/Institutional Setting
                                                                Goverance/Corruption/Institutional Setting
What are the effects of institutional subversion on small business development, fiscal policies, economic growth, and firm performan
                                                                investment climate
We use firm-level survey data from over 20,000 firms in about 60 countries to identify constraints on the growth of firms. We develo
                                                                 corruption and thereform processes in the
It is difficult to find, at a glance, a clear connection betweenGoverance/Corruption/Institutional Settingstates of the former Soviet Uni
                                                                Country Study
                                                                Firm Investment Strategies
                                                                Country Study        w
The ex-Soviet republics of Central Asia have instituted some economic reforms
 ithin their authoritarian political systems, including
                                                                Goverance/Corruption/Institutional constraint on investment in developi
Abstract: Cross-national surveys suggest that regulatory and policy uncertainty is an important Setting
We combine firm-level data from the World Bank BusinessFinance   Environment Survey (WBES) with data on private and public credit regist
                                                                Competition
Which firms are driven out of business the African context? Given that many markets do not function efficiently in Africa, the determ
                                                                Productivity
The recent availability of firm- and plant-level panel data sets has greatlyimproved our understanding of the life cycle of firms. Severa
                                                                Trade
If the Internet made it easier for firms to enter new markets by reducing communication and search costs then it may also have made
                                                                Finance, Goverance/Corruption/Institutional Setting
In this paper, we analyze whether incoming foreign investment in China plays an important role in alleviating domestic firms’ credit c
                                                                Goverance/Corruption/Institutional Setting
When state officials care about tax revenue and factors of production are mobile across economic sectors, political economies organi
                                                                Goverance/Corruption/Institutional Setting
Foreign firms are likely to attempt to shape host government policies in their favour, as the profitability of MNE foreign affiliates larg
                                                                Firm performance
Large firms in Ghana and Kenya pay much higher wages than small ones. We use panel data to show this is not the result of employin
                                                                 the World Bank’s
 E
A recent survey of 1,948 retail stores in India conducted byLabor Regulations nterprise Surveys shows that 19 percent of the stores u
                                                                Labor compare employers' responses with actual labor legislation. Emplo
Drawing from harmonized surveys of firms around the world, weRegulations
                                                                Finance                            A
This paper presents empirical work grounded in the soft budget constraint (SBC) literature.
 loan is soft when a bank cannot commit
                                                                Investment Climate
The importance of a country’s ‘investment climate’ for economic growth has
        recently received much attention. In this paper we use a n
                                                                 the largest labour               p
Around the turn of the century, China experienced perhapsLabor Regulations restructuring
rogram in the world. This paper uses a n
                                                                Productivity
The importance of a country’s “investment climate” for economic growth has recently received much attention. A contribution of this
                                                                constitutional transformations on the economic transition in post-commu
There has been relatively little investigation of the effect of Goverance/Corruption/Institutional Setting
                                                                Finance, Productivity
Although it is widely accepted that financial development is associated with higher growth, the evidence on the channels through wh
                                                                Goverance/Corruption/Institutional property
We investigate the claim made by proponents of the big-bang strategy that the establishment of Setting rights in an economy in tra
                                                                Goverance/Corruption/Institutional Setting
We study the nexus between enterprises and the state in transition countries, using new enterprise survey data. We examine the qua
                                                                Central
This study examines whether domestically owned firms in Finance and Eastern European countries (CEECs) confronted higher financ
                                                                Trade                o
Africa’s export performance has been extremely poor in recent years. Its share
f world exports has declined and most countries are h
                                                                Crime
Existing studies show that crime is more rampant in the larger cities and that wealthier individuals are more often targeted. Using En
                                                                Job Creation
Rigid regulations may prevent labor markets from being efficient. We quantify, for 14 Latin American countries, the extent to which r
                                                                Informality
This note uses unique data from enterprise surveys in three African countries to examine the characteristics of informal and formal m
                                                                Competition
This note argues that consumer behavior may be as important as firm behavior for the level of competition in consumer industries su
                                                                Financial Crisis
Since late 2008, countries around the world have been affected by the global economic slowdown. The Financial Crisis Survey measu
                                                                Goverance/Corruption/Institutional Setting
When we think about corruption, an image quickly comes to mind of a bureaucrat extorting bribes from powerless individuals and d
                                                                country study
2003 after the Revolution of the Roses, Georgia transition process was re-launched withstrong impulse. Combining the burden of a lo
                                                                Firm Asian (ECA) countries
Since the beginning of transition, Eastern European and Central Investment Strategies compete against one another in attracting fore
                                                                investment climate
                                                                Finance                role
This paper relies on rich firm-level data on transition economies to examine the
 of informality as an important channel through w
                                                                Informality, finance
The paper relies on a firm-level data on transition economies to examine the relationship between informality and bank credit. We fi
                                                                Investment Climate for Retailing in India
                                                                Competition and Demographics
                                                                finance
Using a unique dataset from the World Business Environment Survey (WBES), this study finds preliminary evidence that India's finan
                                                                 of firm learning, investment and linkages, and their importance for produ
Using firm data, this study investigates the various sourcesProductivity
                                                            Economic standards of people

This paper examines the impact of a decade of transition on the livingGrowth                  living in seven of the poorest Republics of t
                                                            Economic Growth
The question addressed in this article is whether the recent strong growth of the Russian economy is sustainable. The main difficulty
                                                            Goverance/Corruption/Institutional Setting this setup, we find that time
We develop a bargaining model of corruption where firms pay bribes to avoid
     regulation. Consistent with
                                                            data
The Investment Climate Surveys conducted by the World Bank measure specific constraints facing firms in over 50 countries, and rel
                                                            Goverance/Corruption/Institutional Setting
This paper uses the BEEPS firm-level data to study the process of convergence of transitioncountries with developed market econom
                                                            Labor Regulations           u
This paper studies whether access to informality affects manufacturing performance
sing a cross section of firms in Brazil. We use (e
                                                            Goverance/Corruption/Institutional the prevalence of tax evasion and exe
This paper investigates the impacts of tax reforms implemented in Uganda in the mid-1990s on Setting
                                                            investment climate
We use a survey of small rural enterprises from Tanzania to identify subjective as well as objective obstacles to expansion and produ
                                                            Trade
Drawing on recent developments in applied international trade and innovation and learning in developing countries, this paper exam
                                                            finance
We focus on the economies of the North Atlantic Core during the 19th and early 20th centuries and find that an impressive variety of
                                                            investment climate
This paper examines the role of private support institutions in determining small and medium enterprise (SMES) growth and perform
                                                            finance
This study examines how the Chinese state-owned banks allocate loans to private firms. We find that the banks extend loans to finan
                                                            Goverance/Corruption/Institutional integration in the world. It is clear, h
The globalizations of capital markets in the last 20 years has led to a historic degree of financial Setting
                                                            Gender
This paper examines whether financial institutions discriminate against entrepreneurs onthe basis of gender. Using the cross-country
                                                            Finance
Combining responses from a survey of firms operating in 35 developing and transition economies with data on the degree of foreign b
                                                              and West Germany and four Central European
This paper examines institutional differences between EastGoverance/Corruption/Institutional Setting transition countries (Czech
                                                            Goverance/Corruption/Institutional Setting
Data from the 1999 Business Environment and Enterprise Performance Survey is used to examine state capture and influence in tran
                                                            data
Given the acknowledged need for a new effort to expand the set of available data ondirect access to financial services, including a focu
                                                            investment of small-scale manufacturers. The results suggest that excessi
This paper estimates a dynamic business growth equation on a sampleclimate
                                                             undertaken to understand the causes and consequences of corruption. Ma
Since the early 1990s, a large number of studies have been Goverance/Corruption/Institutional Setting
                                                            Goverance/Corruption/Institutional Setting
Scholars, policymakers, aid donors, and aid recipients acknowledge the importance of good governance for development. This under
                                                            Goverance/Corruption/Institutional over 200
The Worldwide Governance Indicators, reporting estimates of six dimensions of governance for Setting countries between 1996 an
                                                            Goverance/Corruption/Institutional Setting
This paper reports on the 2009 update of the Worldwide Governance Indicators (WGI) research project, covering 212 countries and
                                                            Goverance/Corruption/Institutional Setting
This paper reports on the latest update of the Worldwide Governance Indicators (WGI) research project covering 212 countries and
                                                            Goverance/Corruption/Institutional Setting
This paper reports on the latest update of the Worldwide Governance Indicators (WGI) research project, covering 212 countries and
                                                            investment climate
Drawing on the World Bank Investment Climate Assessment surveys, this paper investigates the relationship between firm-level tech
                                                            investment climate
The authors' analysis of manufacturing plants sampled from India's major industrial centers shows large productivity gaps across cit
                                                            investment climate
How do differences in the local business environment influence location of industry within countries? How do the benefits of a good b
                                                            trade
This paper examines opportunities for Sub-Saharan African countries to effectively participate in globalization, particularly given the
                                                            human capital
Researchers have recently been asking why Asian and European minorities in Africa seem to be more successful in business than are
                                                             Infrastructure
This paper presents a survey of recent research on the economics of infrastructure in developing countries. Energy, transport, teleco
                                                             Infrastructure
This paper examines whether infrastructure investment has contributed to East Asia's economic growth using both a growth accoun
                                                             Country Study, productivity
In the transition to a market economy, the Russian workforce underwent a wrenching period of change, with excess supply of some i
                                                             Goverance/Corruption/Institutional Setting
This paper discusses mechanisms of grand corruption in private sector utility provision in developing countries. By the term "grand
                                                             Investment Climate
Drawing on recently completed firm-level surveys in Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Honduras,India, Nicaragua, Pakistan, and Peru, this pa
                                                             Labor job creation
This paper uses worker-level data to characterize economy-wide Regulations and jobdestruction during periods of massive structura
                                                             Productivity
This paper studies the correlates of firm total factor productivity (TFP) in Bangladesh using data from a recent survey of large manuf
                                                             Finance
This paper draws on survey data and qualitative evidence from Brazilian manufacturing
     firms to examine the scale and consequences
                                                             Firm costs (related to
infrastructure and services) account for a relatively
Data from the World Bank Enterprise Surveys show that indirectInvestment Strategies, Labor Regulation
                                                             Informality
We use a survey of rural enterprises from Sri Lanka to explore characteristics of the
informal non-farm sector and identify obstacles to
                                                             Corruption, Crime
This paper uses a survey of private firms to assess the effects of corruption on the economic prospects of firms. The paper studies wh
                                                              prohibiting anticompetitive agreements
Most developing and transition countries adopted statutes Competition, Governance/ Regulation and abusive practices during the
                                                             Competition, Governance/ Regulation
The relationship between the design of competition laws and economic outcomes remains the subject of considerable controversy in
                                                             Firm investment
A growing body of macroeconomic evidence suggests that volatility is detrimentalfor economic growth. The channel through which t
                                                             Productivity       e
The developing world contains both the fastest-growing and slowest-growing
conomies on earth. If one ranks countries by 1990 per
                                                             Obstacles
This paper proposes a new framework to analyze aid effectiveness. Using World Bank firm survey data and OECD aid flow data, the a
                                                             Investment Climate
“Doing Business” (DB) provides measures of the time and costs associated with fully complying with an array of business regulations

                                                             Finance
In this paper, we contrast two di erent views in the debate on o cial dollarization. The Mundell (1961) framework of optimal currency
Study of factors driving international investment.           Investment Climate
                                                             Productivity
National framework conditions mediate the effect of technological capabilities of
  firms on their productivity. Although this has been r
                                                             Finance
Prior research shows that financial reporting quality (FRQ) is positively related to investment efficiency for large U.S. publicly traded
                                                             structure of
Mainstream economics views demographic changes in the Competitionhouseholds as of little relevance for the behavior of firms or th
We investigate the determinants of regional development using a newly constructed database of 1569 sub-national regions from 110
                                                             Informality                       B
This note highlights differences between informal businesses in two regions of Argentina—
uenos Aires and Chaco. Labor productiv
                                                             Education                      7
A recent survey of unregistered or informal firms in Argentina and Peru shows that about
4 percent of the owners have a secondary
                                                             Gender
Recently collected data on informal or unregistered firms in Argentina and Peru showsignificant differences between male- and fema
                                                             Gender
A commonly held view is that female-owned businesses suffer from many disadvantages
       compared to male-owned businesses. These
                                                             Retailers
Using Enterprise Surveys data on 1,948 retail stores in India, this note highlights the keyproblems and challenges faced by retailers in
                                                             Crime A
Crime and security in the Eastern Europe and Central Asia region 
bout 20 percent of firms in the Eastern Europe and Central Asia re
                                                             Informality                      C
A comparison of service and manufacturing firms in the informal or unregistered sector in
ôte d’Ivoire, Madagascar and Mauritius sh
                                                             Informality
Some informal or unregistered businesses are established to take advantage of businessopportunities (opportunity firms) while othe
                                                             Reforms
This note identifies the quality of democracy and the amount of natural resources as importantdeterminants of Doing Business reform
                                                             Trade
Evidence from aggregate and micro-level data shows that globally engaged firms are better than
     firms serving only domestic markets
                                                             Trade
In the Eastern Europe and Central Asia (ECA) region, countries show great variations in theirlevels of openness and how intensively t
                                                             R&D                             tend
Recent empirical work finds that R&D expenditures, particularly from the business sector,
 to move in parallel with gross domesti
                                                             Financial Crisis           o
Data from the World Bank’s Financial Crisis Survey show that despite the magnitude
f the credit crunch, the majority of firms consid
                                                              to systematically
This note uses the standardized Enterprise Survey datasetsAccess to Finance study the use ofdifferent financing sources for young fir
                                                             Access to Finance
Trade credit is an important source of financing for firms in emerging markets. In this note, weidentify the firm and market character
                                                             Regulations
Does the regulation of entry cause informality in themanufacturing sector of developingcountries? This note presents evidence fromI
                                                             Financial Crisis
The latest data of the Financial Crisis Survey show continued negative sales performance,on average, but the general rate of decline s
                                                             Investment Climate
This note compares business environment perceptions using a unique panel data set of Afghani and Pakistani firms interviewed betw
                                                             Corruption
A number of recent survey articles express hope that new data from enterprise surveys would shed new light on corruption complem
We present new data on effective corporate income tax rates in 85 countries in 2004. The data come from a survey, conducted jointly
                                                              finds that foreign,
Using data for 91 large banks from 45 countries, this paperBank Financing domestic private, and government-owned banks use dif
                                                             Business Environment
Access to external finance and the ability to undertake profitable investment opportunities is an important ingredient for success of a
                                                             Investment Climate/Trade
There is a large body of research that explores international trade as a source of the dispersion in income levels and growth performa
                                                             Firm Growth
Many studies have shown that firm growth decreases monotonically with size and age. In this study, the authors investigate employm
                                                             Trade/Regulation
There have been significant improvements in traditional trade policies in the past few decades. However, these improvements can on
C                                                            Access to between

ombining two unique data sets, this paper explores the relationshipFinance the relative importance of different financial institutio
                                                              the World Bank’s
A recent survey of 1,948 retail stores in India conducted byLabor Regulations Enterprise surveys shows that 19 percent of all stores u
                                                             Measurement of the business
Perceptions-based indicators are sometimes used to measure the quality of Institutions environment. For instance, firms are asked a
                                                             Productivity
Investigate the role of education on worker productivity and firms' total factor productivity using a panel of firm-level data from Chin
                                                             Finance
China is often mentioned as a counterexample to the findings in the finance and growth literature since, despite the weaknesses in its
                                                             Business Climate
Using data on more than 56,000 enterprises in 90 countries, this paper finds that objective conditions in the business environment va
                                                            Data
This paper surveys the recent literature which examines the impact of business climate variables on productivity and growth in deve
                                                   firms’ views on constraints differ across countries in
ub-Saharan Africa.
In this paper, the authors provide a picture of how
        Investment Climate                           S
            ES data used                                                           JEL 1     JEL 2    JEL 3     Keyword 1


                                                                                  J16      L26       L25       Informality
           Informality surveys for Burkina Faso, Cameroons, Cape Verde, Cote d'Ivoire, Madagascar and Mauritius (2009)
           World Business Environment Survey (WBES, 1999)                         H1       K4        P11       Legal Origin
           World Business Environment Survey (WBES, 1999)                         H1       K00       N20       Legal Origin
           Retail sector in India (2005)                                          J080     K31       L81       Labor regulation
                                                                                  D23
           Business Environment and Enterprise Performance Survey (BEEPS, 2002, 2005) G21            G32       Law and Finance
                                                                                  J17      L26       (2009) Informality
           Informality surveys for Burkina Faso, Cameroons, Cote d'Ivoire, Madagascar and Mauritius L21
           Informality surveys for Burkina Faso, Cameroons and Cape Verde (2009)  K42      J61       O55       Informality
           Latin America (2007)                                                   K40      K42       O54       Crime
           Retail sector in India (2005)                                          D24      L11       L81       Competition
           Informality surveys for Cote d'Ivoire, Madagascar and Mauritius (2009)O17       L26       L21       Informality
           Informality surveys for Cote d'Ivoire, Madagascar and Mauritius (2009)J17       L26       L21       Informality
           Data for Mauritania (2006)                                                                          Mauritania
           Data on 33 countries in Africa and Latin America                       D21      D73       H11       Corruption
           Data on 29 countries (2005)                                                                         Finance
           Enterprise Surveys data for 43 countries                                                            Exports
           Data on 57 countries                                                   G21      O16       O30       Financial development
           Data on Brazil (2003)                                                  H00      H10       J50       Enforcement of labor regulation
           Latin America (2007)                                                   J080     J63       K31       Labor-market reforms
           Business Environment and Enterprise Performance Survey (BEEPS, 2002)   G32      L10       O31       Transition
           Data on Indian firms (2002, 2006)                                                                   Infrastructure
                                                                                  P30
           Business Environment and Enterprise Performance Survey (BEEPS, 2002, 2005) P4             M13       Russia
           Data for 49 countries (1999 to 2005)                                   G32      H26                 Informality
           WBES 1999-2000
           WBES BEEPS
income countries that are 'good performers' and not especially endowed with natural resources. Many of these countries have undertaken a set o
           BEEPS
           BEEPS
           ICS 2003-Kyrgyz Republic,Moldova, Poland, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan F10        F14       D21, L60 transition economies

                                                                                    Africa, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia
            ES 2002-5, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Mali, Mauritius, Senegal, SouthL8         F2       D24
            WBES 1999                                                              G18        G38                 Institutions
            ES China, Russia                                                       D23        L22      O12; P31 Enterprise performance
            RPED                                                                   F2         O32      D24        Foreign investment
            WBES                                                                                                  Informal sector
            ICS China 2001                                                         I30        J16                 Gender R20
                                                                                                       J21; J64; J71; O10;wage discrimination
            ES Uganda 2000                                                         D92        H25      O14        Corruption
            WBES 1999-2000                                                         O17        D2       G2         Formal and informal sectors
            ES Africa
            BEEPS
            ES Africa
            BEEPS                                                                  D82        G21                  P34
                                                                                                       G28; O16;Information sharing
            RPED 8 countries
            WBES 1999-2000 80 countries                                            E22        G30      O16        Financing constraints
            WBES 1999-2000 80 countries                                            G30        G10      O16        Financial development
            BEEPS Albania                                                                                         Albania
            ES Uganda 1998
            ICS China 2001
            WBES Africa

            WBES                                                                   G21      L11       O16      Competition
            WBES 1999                                                              G30      G10       O16; K40 Financial development
ICS China 200/2003                                                   D23   G31   P2; L2   China
ES China 2002-2005
ICS China 2001/2003
ICS China 2001
ES Bangladesh 2004-2005
ICS 2002-5, 43 developing countries
ES Mexico
RPED Cameroon
WBES 2000                                                            D21   G30   O12
BEEPs 20 transition countries
WBES, BEEPS
WBES, BEEPS
WBES, BEEPS
ICS 47 countries
ICS Ecuador 2003
BEEPs 1999 & 2000
ES 2006 Latin American, 14 countries in South and Central America.   D21   D40             Informality
                                                                                 L51, L60, N66, O17
WBES, BEEPS
ICS
ES
WBES
ES Georgia, Moldova, 1995-1997                                       G32   G34            Former Soviet Union
ES China
ES China, ES Africa
ES Africa                                                            F10   F12   O10, O11 Economic geography
ES                                                                   D44   H54   H57, C21 Public procurement
ES Africa 2002-2006
ES SSA 2003-7                                                        J21   J24             Sub-Saharan Africa
                                                                                 J31, O15, O49
ES                                                                   L1    L2    D4, O1 Firm exit
ES Asia, 1996-1998
ICS Uganda                                                                                  governance
ICS China 2001/2003                                                  H3    J2                O5; P5
                                                                                 J6; L2; L3;Public-sector downsizing
WBES
BEEPS 1999, 2002
RPED 1992-1996                                                       F14   O12   O33       Productivity
WBES                                                                 D21   K42   O17, O57
BEEPs 2002, 26 countries                                             D23   D92   P26, P31, Z13
WBES 2000
WBES 1999                                                                                 Corruption
BEEPs 2000, 2002, and 2005
BEEPS Russia
BEEPS
BEEPS 2000
PICS Thailand 2001-3
WBES
WBES 1999-2000
ICS 2006
ICS BEEPS
BEEPs 26 transition countries in 2002
BEEPS 2002
ICS
ICS Tanzania 2003
ICS                                                                  O12   O16   O50      Gross Capital Formation
WBES 1999
ES Czech                                                             F21   F23   F36
ES 2003 and 2004 in the Czech Republic and in 2003 in Latvia           F21    F23   O24, O33
BEEPs II 2001-2002                                                                             foreign direct investment (FDI)
ICS 2003 China, and 2004 Sri Lanka
ICS Turkey 2005                                                        D61    L60   O57, C01 Total factor productivity
Nigeria 1988, Indonesia Thailand 1992
BEEPs 2000                                                                                     Networked utilities
BEEPS 2002                                                                                     Infrastructure
WBES and EBRD                                                                                  SME
WBES 2000
                                                                       F2
ES Lithuania Manufacturing Firms - Lithuania Statistical Office (1996-2000)   O1    O3
BEEPS 2000
WBES 1999                                                              K4     G3    H11
ICS Brazil China                                                       F02    F16   J23
ES China 1998-2000
WBES
WBES                                                                   C13    D03   D73
BEEPs 2002
WBES
ICS South Africa
ES & BEEPS
ICS India
ES Brazil 2000
ICS Brazil
BEEPs
BEEPs 1999, 2002, 2005
ICS ES Africa
BEEPs 1999 & 2002
BEEPS 2002, 2005
BEEPs 2002 & 2005
ES 2002-2005
ICS China 2003
RPED Africa
ES Uganda
BEEPS
ES                                                                                             cronyism
ICS Thai 2001-2003                                                     F23    O14   O33        Global value chains
WBES
BEEPS
BEEP Russia 1999 & 2002                                                D71    D72   P26        Institutional subversion
BEEPS, PICS                                                            H41    O12   O16        Public Goods
BEEPS                                                                  O17    O57   P37        the Former Soviet Union
?
?
BEEPS 2005                                                             F13    P31   P36        Central Asia
BEEPs 27 post-communist countries and five OECD countries                                      policy uncertainty
WBES 1999
RPED Africa                                                            D21    L25   L60        manufacturing
RPED 1992-1996
ICS 2001-2002                                                                                  Rural Communications
ICS China 2003                                                         E22    E44   G31        Financial constraint
BEEPS
ES 48 countries
RPED Africa                                                            J3     L25              Earnings
ES India 2006                                                          J080   K31   L81        Labor regulations
ICS                                                                    J23    K31              Employment protection legislat
(BEEPS 2002) in 26 transition economies   C34   D84   O12   Soft budget constraint
ES China                                  D2    G2    L1    Investment Climate
ICS Panel China 1998-2002                 J2    J3    J4    Downsizing
ICS China 2002
BEEPS                                     D72   D73   P20   Political economy
ES Bulgari 2004                           G32   D24   G21   Access to credit
BEEPs II 2002                             K42   P26   P37   Property Rights
BEEPs 2000
BEEPs II                                                    Business Environment and Ent
WBES                                                        Africa
ES 14 Latin American Countries
ES 14 Latin American Countries
ES 3 African Countries
ES India retail stores
ES Financial Crisis Survey
BEEPs 1999 & 2000
BEEPS 2005
BEEPS 2002-2003                                             foreign direct investments
ICS
BEEPs 2005                                L25   O17   O43
BEEPS                                     L25   O17   O43   Bank credit
Retail data, India 2005-2006
Retail data, India 2005-2006
WBES
ICS Tanzania in 2003
BEEPS 2005
BEEPS
BEEPS
ICS                                                         data mining
BEEPS 2002-2005                           G32   L11   O12   transition
ICS Brazilian 2002                        J3    O6    O17   Informal Sector
ES Uganda
ICS Tanzania
ES Sri Lanka 2004                         F14   O31   L67   Foreign Investment
ICS 2002-2003                             G2    N2          SMEs
RPED                                      L14   L25         SMEs
BEEPS China 2003                          G20   G21   G30   Bank Loans
BEEPS                                                       Corruption
BEEPS                                     G21   J16   L26   Entrepreneurship
WBES 1999                                 G21   G32         Foreign bank participation
BEEPS 2004-2005                           D21   O43   P31   Institutions
BEEPs 1999 & 2000                         H41   K2    K4
WBES, PICS
FACS India 2002, 2005
ES 2000-2005                              C81   D21   D73   Corruption
ICS
BEEPS
BPS
WBES, BEEPS
WBES, BEEPS
ICS                                       D24   O14   O57   Manufacturing Firms
ICS India 2003                            D24   L5    L6    Productivity
ICS India 2003
ES 2002
AAIES Ethiopia 1993 1995
            ES
            ICS
            Russia ICS, 2005
            BEEPs 2000
            ES Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Honduras, India, Pakistan, Nicaragua, and Peru                          globalization
            BEEPS 2000                                                                                            job creation
            ES Bangladesh 2004-2005                                                                               total factor productivity
            ICS Brazil                                                                                            tax evasion
                                                                                                                  productivity
            ES 17 countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America: Eritrea (2002), Ethiopia (2002), Kenya (2003), Nigeria (2000), Senegal (2003), Ta
            ICS Sri Lanka
            LAC 29 countries 1999                                                                                 Private firms
            Russia WBES, PICS 2002-2003                                                                           competition law
            Poland WBES, PICS 2002-2003                                                                            Law and Development
            WBES 1999-2000 80 countries                                              E60      H11       O11       Firm growth
            ICS Bangladesh, China, India, and Pakistan.

            Global Comprehensive after 2005

            ES Central America                                                      E32      E52       F36, O54 dollarization
            Enterprise Surveys
                                                                                   C39       D24                 O31, O43
                                                                                                       O12, O14, Productivity
            WBES 2002-2005                                                         M41       F30                 M10
                                                                                                       G30, G31, Investment Efficiency
            Retail sector in India (2005)                                          D25       L11       L81       Competition
d database of 1569 sub-national regions from 110 countries covering 74 percent of the world’s surface and 96 percent of its GDP. We combine the
            ES Argentina
            ES Argentina and Peru
            ES Argentina and Peru
            ES Argentina and Peru
            ES India
            BEEPS 2009
            ES Africa Informal
            ES Africa Informal
            Doing Business
            BEEPs 2002 & 2005
            BEEPS 2009
            ES Financial Crisis Survey
            ES Financial Crisis Survey
            WBES
            ES Financial Crisis Survey
            India Survey of Unorganized Manufacturing
            ES Financial Crisis Survey
            ES Afghanistan and Pakistan panel data
            WBES                                                                                                 Corruption
            WBES                                                                   E22       F23       G31       Investment
            WBES: References our data in general for firm size definitions         G21       G30                 Bank Financing
            WBES Global                                                            G2        G21       O16       Business Climate
            WBES                                                                   F13       F14       F15       Export performance
            ES Turkey 2009                                                                                       Obstacles to Growth
            BEEPS 2002, 2005, 2008                                                 F12       F14       F16       Exporting
            WBES: Global (from 2002, using counries in 2006 & 2010)                G10       G30       O16       Financial Development
            Retail sector in India (2005)                                          J080      K31       L81       Labor regulation
            Data on 38 countries (various years)                                   L51       O43       E02       Measurement of institutions
            China PICS 1998-2000                                                   O15       J31       J24; D24 Productivity
            ICS China                                                              G21       G30       O16, O17
            ES 90 Countries
ES          L5   O4   O12   Investment Climate
ES Africa
            Keyword 2        Keyword 3        Comments


            Gender             India
            Information        India
            Institutions       Firm size
            Employment         Retailing
                               Firm growth
            Financial Intermediation
            Gender             Productivity   Another version available here.
            Crime              Africa
            Latin America Migration
            Productivity       Firms
            Registration       Firms          Also available here.
            Entrepreneurship   Firms
            Corruption
            Regulation
            Informal credit Russia; China
            Imports
            Innovation
            Labor demand Regulation
            Worker flows
            Innovation         Regulation     -
            Roads
            Firm entry         India
            Access to credit Marginal product; Firm; China; Transition
                               Firm size
                               Regulations
ies have undertaken a set of economic reforms, and have recorded growth rates in per capita GDP of around 5 percent over the past 10 years. But

                            Bank lending; Corruption
            Eastern Europe and Central Asia

                             Employment
            Business environment
            Ownership changes
            Technology spillovers
            Legal system     small and medium enterprises
                             Entrepreneurialism
            Economic transition
            Taxation         Incorporation; Organizational form; Access to finance
            Credit markets Banking; Investment
                             ; Transition countries
                             Productivity; Manufacturing firms
                             China
            Credit access    foreign direct investment

            investment models Institutions
                              Enterpise development
            financial obstacles
            Economic growth
                              Capital structure; Security issuance; Small and medium-size enterprises



                            Business climateAnother version available here.
            Information sharing
                            Finance
            Financing patterns              Another version available here.
Property rights




                  Regulations, Latin America, Manufacturing
Competition       false response, political freedom




insider privatization


Institutions      International trade; Economic development; Manufacturing; Africa.
auction theory    infrastructure development; governance

              wage determination, unions, productivity, human capital
employer-employee data
productivity  corruption, competition, property rights

corruption        public service provision, poverty reduction, Uganda
Restructuring     Timing and sequencing; China


Export            sub-Saharan Africa; Causation



Bribes            Ownership; Competition; Privatization




                Developing Countries
Investment Climate Indicators
                Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs), profitability, concentration, spillovers, crowding-out, Business En
transition economies

                firm
investment climate level determinats of allocative efficiency, robust productivity impacts, cross country comparisons of demean TF

Corruption      Monopoly providers; Anticorruption agenda; Governance
Investment      Regulation
Employment      Human Capital, Taxes, Corruption




competitiveness developing countries
                 Governance
Multinational corporation


capture          Russia
                 finance
Constraints on growth
                 Corporate Exploitation
State Intervention


economic reformenergy
political risk transition economies

exit            Africa

                  & Research
Economic TheorySystems & Infrastructure
                Foreign Direct Investment
Corporate finance


Firm size       Unobserved heterogeneity
Technology      India
Enterprise surveys
Eastern Europe.
Finance         China
restructuring   ownership

transition       reforms
productivity     Transition
Rule of Law      Transition

                  financial
foreign direct investment constraints
Exports           Manufacturing




productivity     transition economies


informality      business environment




                  exploratory data analysis
data visualisations
convergence       market structure
                  Labor Demand
Labor Market Regulation


Technology       Exports
Banks            Equity Markets
Networks         Private Sector
                 P
Lending Decisions rivate Sector
                 Financial Institutions
Emerging Economies
                 Gender
Financial constraints
Access to credit Small and medium-sized enterprises
                 Enterprise behaviour
Business environment



nonresponse      false response, political freedom




productivity    Investment Climate
                Economic Geography
Business environment
                             Economic
            Foreign Direct Investment Development
            job destruction transition
                             production functions
            simultaneity and skilled labor
            equity markets Brazil
                             manufacturing
            investment climate

            Corruption        Crime; Sales growth; Bureaucratic interferences
                              market
            economic development power
                              rule-of-reason; development economics
            per se prohibitions
            Policy volatility Institutions




                             b
            real exchange rateusiness cycle comovement, serial correlation common feature, boom-bust cycles, credit market imperfections, Cen

             Innovation       technological capability, institutions, multilevel modeling.
                              Financial Reporting Quality, Private Firms, Emerging Markets, Financing Sources, Tax Incentives
             Under- and Over-Investment
             Demographics Bank lending
of its GDP. We combine the cross-regional analysis of geographic, institutional, cultural, and human capital determinants of regional development




            Infrastructure   Investment Climate
            Taxation         Informal

            Financing
            Trade policy     Investment climate
            Firm Size
                             Labor Regulations
            Firm Heterogeneity
                             Access to Finance
            Structure of Fianncial Sector
            Computers        Africa           Another version available here.
            Firm perceptionsInstitutional arrangements
            Returns to education

                             India            Another version available here.
               Economic
Growth and Productivity Development
ver the past 10 years. But some constraints to growth persist. We look at three things — how business environments create 'external costs' for firm
rowding-out, Business Environment and Enterprise Performance Survey (BEEPS)

comparisons of demean TFP.
market imperfections, Central America




s of regional development with an examination of productivity in several thousand establishments located in these regions. To organize the discuss
ments create 'external costs' for firms and inhibit performance, how investors perceive the constraints to doing business, and the role of political
hese regions. To organize the discussion, we present a new model of regional development that introduces into a standard migration framework el
ng business, and the role of political economy factors especially in those countries with lagging indigenous business sectors. Our analysis of invest
a standard migration framework elements of both the Lucas (1978) model of the allocation of talent between entrepreneurship and work, and the
iness sectors. Our analysis of investment climate and other data leads us to several recommendations for governments, donors and the private sec
                                                                                                                          importance of hum
entrepreneurship and work, and the Lucas (1988) model of human capital externalities. The evidence points to the paramount

rnments, donors and the private sector itself, including the following: deepen macro reforms; build a strong, unified business forum; create incent
               importance of human capital in accounting for regional differences in development, but also suggests from model estimation and
o the paramount

nified business forum; create incentives for more responsive governments; and improve risk mitigation and broaden this to domestic investors.
uggests from model estimation and calibration that entrepreneurial inputs and human capital externalities are essential for understanding the dat
roaden this to domestic investors.
essential for understanding the data.

				
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